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Q R. 


From January to Junk, indufivi^ 


*< But yoti who reek to give «nd merit I^amCf 
*< And juftly bear a Critic*s noble name— i 

*' Be niggards of adrice on no pretence^ 

<< For the worft avarice is that of Sen(e. 

«( With mean complacence ne*er betray your troft^ 

** Nor be fo civil as to prove unjulh 

*< Fear not the an^ ot the Wi& to raife ; 

<« Thofe beft can bear reproof, who merit pralfe/* Pope. 


Printed for R. Griffiths: 





TiTLBS, Authors* Names, &c. of the Publi- 
cations reviewed in this Volume. 

N. B. For REMARKABLE PASSAGES, in thc Crlticl/his and 
Extram^ fee the I N D £ X» at the End of the Volume. 

BERCROMBiB's Gardener's 
Kaleodar> 444 

— Kitchen Gardener, 44c 
Garden Vade Mecum, ib. 

Ad a m s's Flowers of modern Tra- 








Latin Ezerdies, 

■ Englilh ParnaiFas, , 
A D D R E ss to his Majefty, 
Addresses and Letters 

to Mr. Pitt, 
— Specimens of. 

Adventures of a Watch, 
Adversity, a Poem, 
Advice to the P. of Wales, 

■ to theatric.Managers,443 
Agvtter's Sermon on Hender* 

fon's Death, 95 

Alembert, M. ^t^Hiftoire des 

Membrit di VAcademie Fran^ 

fn/e, condaded, 569 

Alfred, 274 

■ unmaiked, ib. 

■ Letter to the Author 
of, ib. 

"' Kin^, his Will, 455 

America, Difco very of. See 

Ambric A,UlIoa's Memoirs con- 
cerning, 260 

• " North,— Review of the 

Laws of, 263 

■ Hiflory of, 44 1 » 
- other Publications rela- 
tive to, 165, 260, 263, 387, 

Ambricaxt Book of ,C. Prayer, 

Amicable Qoixote, 60 

Am I not a Man and a Brother f 


AitALECTA Latina, 67 

■■ — Graca E*vaMgelica, 6 8 

Andrbe on Bilious Difeares, 

Andrews*s Advice to the P. of 
Wales, 81 

Anna Matilda's Poetry, 6^ 

Anonymous Sermon, on his 
Maje(|y 's Reiloratioo to Health, 
Answer to the Country Gentle- 
man's Letter, 3^4 

■ to M. de Lolme, 356 
Antagonists of Peter Pindar 

cut into Atoms, 278 

Antichrist, four Marks of,i85 

Appeal to the Citizens, 80 

A 2 Arabian 


Arabtan Lettert, 86 

9tabtlcbe il^entot, 64^1 

Arabs. Sec Schttlteks. 
Archenuolz - Tableau Ji Un- 

gUum it de Vitality 5 90 

Aristotle. See Pye. .' 
Army DUeafes. S^ Hukt«r. 
Arts, &c. Society for; \\kt\x 

Tranfaaiona, Vol. VI. 1 8 
Arundel* aNovely 352 

h^ H on Spa Waters, 23 1 


laftoa's Preface to a oew one» 

Atkikson's Trial, 359 

Attempt to afcertain the K—g's 
fllnefs, 8i 

ATTORNCY^t VadeMecum, '360 
AvTH9it8» Catalogae of, 87 


BA N c R o p T'^FroluJkms P^tt- 
uf, ^ 293 

Banquet of Thalia, 182 

Barpoot 9t%d larg«8» Meflrs. 
. Fa& in. I;«ie|^ioB between 
them and t)^ Bifhop 9f Win- 
<Jicller, 340 

BhYi^EHEt Ma^^mt d4 LiUrif J^ 

Baylet's IVeaUic 00 Billi of 
• ExcUogc, 4^6 

B s a t so M 'f SeraiOB on the Slave- 
trade, . ' 5h66 
Bee, aScIc£Hion^&c> 181 
Bbgvst Br-kt to Begum Bow, 


Bell's (B.}Si^ery,VoI. VI. 15 

■■ ■ * (J.) daffical Arrangement 

of fi^adve Poetry, 341 

Bbwgal, Narrasivf of Traauc- 

, *tmia in, 701 

B|RLiN^— Memoirs of the Ro^al 

Academy of, for 178^, 6co 

■■■■ fccret MenKttfs of tie 

Court of,, 690 

filELIOTHBCA Ci^fieMp 4Jf2 

BinLAicB's Sermon on die Slave- 
tradt, N 284 

Bilious DiAtfea» SeeAnDRBa* 

Bills of Exchange. $ee Lore« 
lass, Bayl^y, Blagrave. 

BinchawN Thankfgiving Ser- 
mon, 564 

B L a c KSTON e's Reports, 360, 549 

Blagrave on Bilk^f Exchange, 

Blond i N'sFrench Grammar,55 1 

Boo u e's Sermon, 371 , 

Book of Nature, 185 

Booker's Sermon at Swinfbrd, 

Booth's Add. to the Public, 279 
Booth on Chrift's Ringdom, z8i 
Bosch, M. dc, his Prize Difler* 

tatk>D, 636 

Boss A Ahadee, Memoirs of, 319 
BoswoRT H , QattJe o(, 1 24 

Botanic Garden, 337 

BoT A N Y Bay Expedition, Tench's 

Narrative of, 362 

I authentic Journal 

6f, ' ,^. 
:: Narra- 

ttveqf, »^. 

Bow den's Thankfgiving Ser- 
mon, 468 
Bow-lb8*8 Sonnetsi " 465^ 
Baj^NG, Art. of, 551 
Bf^YD's Juftice, 266 
B R A D B Ejt, R Y's Letter t^ Je^eriesy 

V '^ 3f7 

Br I %c's Art of Cookery, 4^a 
B«o<?k£, Miyor, Planoftlieftatk 

Schools, 2iSc 

BnpuGH on tW Trade with 

Ru^a, 541 

Brown, Dr^ on Scepttcite, ^99 

■ •» Reports, 24^ 
's (John) Letters on Poe- 
try and Mttlics 4*^. 

Br.u en's Book of Pfrlflis, 74 
Brutbllb^ Barqb dt^^— CiTsnr/,. 


■ Sfrhm Awilkumf 640 
Buchan, Earl of,— Acpnunt of 

Napier, %^% 

BVKQBSB—Imtia Ibtg^ic^ 357 
Buxnabt's Thankfginng Scr«- 

mop, 564 

BuTTNiR— JIfaMrnn A JSsfiim 

pbFovqub', 258 


CAL»«coTT*t Reportoy 245 
C A HAL Narig^k>fi froth 
Cambridge to the Rivtr St^rt, 
— i^view 0f ^he ArgiraientB 
lor aod again ft, 67 

Cantabrigxbnses Grm^uati^ 


Cahton's Tranflation of Telc- 

fliachusv 594 

Carter's Account of Syftenn of 

Me^cioe» 548 

Casaux, Marquis d%9—i^ai^^riMr/ 

M ixmrnimr^ &re. 254 

Cat A LOO u e of 500 Authors, 87 
Catlane, Mifs, Life of, 442 
Catlow*s Addrefs to the Dif- 

ienters, 562 

■ ThanlcfgiWftgSerin. 556 

Causes ht obferving, &c. A 

Thaukrgiving Sermon, 565 
Qharle^worth's Sermoa a- 

gainft Lying, 567 

Charter of the Baitk, 5^49 

C H E N I B r's State of Morocco, 32 1 
Chester, Bifliop of» his two 

Sermons, 457 

Child, of Nature, 75 

China. See Grosier. 
Choice oT a Hufband, 183 

Cl A R R £ on the Difeafes of Lying* 

ia-Women^ 462 

Clarkson's Eflayon the com- 

parative Efficiency, &c. 560 
Claviere's and De Wanrtlle's 

Confiderations rel. to France 

and America, 77 

Cole's Key to the Pfajms, 369 
— — , Mrs. her Lady's Complete 

Guicf€, • 551 

Cole Brooke's (Mifs) Thoughts 

of RoQfIeao> 45 1 

Commercial Reafons for the 

Non-abolition of the Slave 

Trade,' 450 

Common Prayer Book, See 

Compasses. See M'Culloch. 
Cos greve's Works, 364 

CoNsipi»ATiONs on the Situa- 


tieiis ^ tnxktit and Amerfct, 

CoNsiBBRATiONs ott the Btnt 

Stock, 549 

' ■ - on the Abolition m 

Slavery, 561 
Co p V of a DecftfHition, ^c. 177 
of the Speech to be fpokeo 

by the Prince of Wale«, 178 
CoRNVs, botanical Effay on that 

Genus> 639 

COHRBSPON DC KCE, 96. tpl . 296. 

373- 47 >• 568- 702 
Cost I gait's Sketches of Society 

in Portugal, 8 

Country Curate's Addrefs, a 

Thankfgiving Sermon, 468 

COUR, M. DB LA, li M. DB 

M E E R M A iH'^Di/cours fri/entis 

a f Academe de Chdhms-Jur^ 

Marmi^ 608 

Courts Martial, on the Power 

of, i6d 

Cowper's Reports of Cafes in 

K. B. 245 

Coxb's Edition of Peere WiU 

.liams's Reports, 250 

Cr avbh. Lady, her Journey, 20a 
Craufurd^ Captains, their 

Tranll. of Tlelke'^ Account of 

the War,«cc.Vol.IL 29 

•*———— George, his Enquiry 

into Eaft India Affairs, 549 
Crawford on Animal Heat, a6 
Cronstedt's Mineralogy, 31 
Crowe's Oration at Crewe's ]«. 

ilitution, 1^0 

Crystals, coloured. SeeDnEw. 
Cumberland's Arundel, a No- 

'vel, 332 

% Impoftors, a Comedy, 364 

Obftrver, Vol. IV. 410 

Cunningham's Supplement to 

Bacon, 456 

Cur X o N i — Mertde de Mou}, 6j^r 



alrymple. Sir John, his 
Memoirs, Vol. II. 307 
■ his Queries, 544 

A 3 Dal- 


Dalrtmple (Dr.) hUtUStory of 
Chrift, 563 

Darwin's Botanic Garden, a 
Poem, 337 

David's, St. Biihop of, his Ser- 
mon for the Hamane Soc. 567 

Davi£s's Facunalia^ 80 

Davis's Important Narrative of 
Fafts, 274 

DaWes on the Proceedings of tne 
Lords and Commons, 178 

■ on Arrefts, 457 
Death, &c. of Mrs. Regency, 

Debate on the Regency, 80 
Deborah. See Weston. 
Declaratjon. See Cofy. 
Dell A Crusca — Diverfity, a 

Poem, 529 

Db Lolmb on the national £m- 

barrafTment, 27$ 

— anfwCTcd, 356 

Des Carrieres on Virgil's 

Ploogh, 494 

Deserter, a Poem, 181 

Detached Hints on the Quef- 

tion, 79 

DETEctiON ; or a Scourge, &c.. 

Dialogue on the Regency, 78 
Dior's Sermon on faife Teach- 
ers, 191 
Dickson's (Adam) Hofhandry 

of the Ancients, 193 

»•— (William) Letters on 

Ncgroe Slavery, 351 

Discourse, 'by a Youth, 372 

■ on the Refurrc&ion 
Bodies, 458 

Diseases of Cattle. See Top- 

Dissertation of the MefTage 
from St. John, 91 

Diversity^ a Poem, 529 

Divine Goodnefs, Thoughts on, 

Dixon's Voyage round the 
World, 502 

Doctor and the Apothecary, 76 

Dogerty's Crown Circuit A(' 
fillant, 266 

Domesday Book illullrated, 360 

Dore's Sermon-— on the Slave 
Trade, 96 

Dow M M A n*8 Infancy, aPoem,390 
Drew on coloured Cryftals, 71 
Durnford's and East's Re- 
ports, 246 
DuTcy, Summary View of their 
Genius^ 127 


EAST India Affairs, Enquiry 
into, 549 

East Indies, other Publica- 
tions relative to, 273, 547 
Edinburgh Royal Society's 
Tranfa^ons, rtf«r/tfdVi/, 516 
Education, Eflays on, 45^ 
Edwards's Hiflory of Redemp« 
tion, 370 

Eenige Bericht^H omtrent Groot 
Britannien en hrland^ 584 

Elections, Law of, 360 

Electricity. Sec Vak 

Troostwyk, &c* 
Elegant £xtra£ls in Ver/e, 463 
Elegy on the Author's revifit- 
ing his former Residence, 73 
El^onora, a Novel, 55a 

Elliot's Dipping not baptizing, 

«... '*-59 

■ ' Examination of, * 460 

Emilia de St. Aubigne, 364 

England and Italy, View of, 590 

English ParnafTus, 363 

Essay on the Transfiguration of 

Chrift 459 

Ethics, Compendium of, 701 
Examination of Elliot's Dip* 

ping not Baptizing, 460 

Exchange, Bills of. See Bay* 

XEY, Blagrave, Lovelass. 


FALL of the Rohillas, 72 
of Faftion, 27 5 

Falconer's Diflertation on the 

PafSons, 8; 

Familiar Poetry* 365 

Farm Uoufe, 554 





FiNKiL'f Scatemenc of Fafb, 

Finch's Cbaocery Precedeocs, 


■ (Dr.) Confidera:ioos on 
Oaths, 282 

pLORiPSft — Pieces of Familiar 

Poetry, 365 

Foreign Literature, 151. 


FouQVE , Baron DE. Sec Butt- 


Four Marks of Antichrift, 185 

Pleafant Epiftlcs, 270 

Fourteen Sonnets, 465 

Fragmens di Lettres de Madame 

de Ba'viere, 1 5 1 

Free Thoughts on his Majefly's 

Recovery, 351 

Fr E n d's Addrefs to the Members 

of the Church, 91 

Frost, a Poem, 74 

F u i- L E R 's Two Reports, 45 o 

■ ^ew Aa of Ai&mbfy, 

■ AMiNGLaws. See John- 

r SON. 

Garland, Englilh. See Br u- 


■ aCollefUon of Poems, 

Gent r^'/uriaDecotn/erU de VA- 

meriqme, 1 65 

Gibbon's Hiftory, Obfervatioos 

on, 84 

Gibe rt — Oh/er<uations fur Vol- 
taire^ 280 
Gi L B E R T on the Power of Courts 

Martial, 168 

GiLLARD on the future Happi- 

nefs of Infants, 92 

Gladwin's Hift. of Hindoftan, 

— Memoirs of Khojeh 

Abdulkurreem, 609 

■■ — Narrative of the 

TranfaAions in Bengal, 701 

■ Pundnameb, or 
Compendium of Ethics, ib* 

Glassb's Sermon for the Mag« 

dalen, 567 

GoMERSAL, Mrs. her Eleonora^ 

a Novel, 552 

GoonwYN on the Connexion of 

Life with Refpiration, 303 
Gordon's Hift. of America, 441 
Grange* M. de la — Mttaniqne 

analjiique^ 163 

Great Britain, and Ireland, 

fome Account of, 5S4 

■ - and Italy. See 

GRBECE^Savary's Letters on, 

Grenville's Speech, 179 

Gribsbach — SjmhoUe Critica^ 


GROsiEa'sDefcription of China, 


Gustavus Vaffa's Narrative, 

Gynomachia, 463 



amiltok's Sermon before 

the Sons of the Clergy, 283 

(Dr.) new Edition of 

Smellie's Anatomical Tables, 

Hammards-»^//>?, $cc. 596 

Ha RO rave's Colledion of 
Traas, Vol. I. 484 

Harrington's Letter to Priell- 
Jey, &c'. ' • 30S 

Hawke, Lady, her Julia de Gra« 
mont, a Novel, 498 

HAWRfeR's'Serhion on the Slave 
Trade^ 284 

Hawkins's • Expoftulatory Ad- 
drefs, 91 

. (A.) Tranflation of 

Mignot*s Hiftory of the Otto- 
man Empire,- 212 

Hayes's Verfes on his Majcfty's 
Recoi^ery, 368 

■ Thank/giving Srr- 

mon, 469 

Heat, Animal. See Craw- 
B 4 Hebrew 



Hs9itKW Bi&ionary. Sec Levi. 

IP.. Poetry, Herder on the 

Spint of« 642 

Helena, a Novel, 169 

Henry and Iftbella^ 4^ 

HsNRiETTii of Gerfteofdoy 
Vol. n. 168 

HgRDBR— /^ Geifi dtrEirai' 
fchen Poefiif 642 

Hbritiee. SeeBftUTELLE. 

|Ib R R I N G FiA^eriet. See M*C V L- 


Hewgill'« Tranfl. of TieHte*s 

Field Etigineer, 408 

HiGHAioRE's Review of the Hif- 

tory of l^fortmaiBy 2^ 

• Hind £*^ Chancery Pra&ice, 265 

Hi NDO8T AN— Gladwin's Hifto. 

ryoU ^ .697 

Hints to the new Aflbciation, 

186. 562 

■ for City Amufement, 273 

HisTOiRB fecntt de la C9ur 4f 

BirltMy , 690 

■ ■ de la SptiftS R&jfoli de 

Midecinty 693 



. ■ iwd Policy, — Dr. 

Frieftley's I^dores on, i 

of three Brothers, 4c 3 

jtf y> and Proceedings of the 

J^ l^ords and Corambns, on the 

Regency, 466 

* of the Members of ihc 

f repch Academy, by M. d'A- 

lembert, Koruluded, . 569 

HopcEs's Seltd Views in India, 

HoDsoM*s Sermon for the Aiy- 

lum, 568 

Holcombe's Sermon, J72 

Holder's Eilay on I^egroe 

Slavery, 350 

Holmes's Four Trails, 537 
HoRSLET,Biihop. See David's. 
Hughes's An fiver to Harris, 68 
Hume's Sermon at Londonderry, 

Hunter on the Army Difeaies, 


Husbandry. SeePicKSON. 

HuTTON on the Battle of Bof- 

worth Field, 124 

Hymeneal Party, a Comedy, 

• 365 

I and J. . 
Fames Wallace, f Novel, 



Jerninghau's Enthufiafm, 259 
Jews, Diflertation on, by This- 
RY, , 66^ 

Illusions of Set^iment, i6a 
Impartial Review of the Q^e^ 
don, 7^ 

■' — Reports of the Re- 
gency Proceedings, 5^8 
Imperfect Hints. See Shake* 


Impey's Office of Sheriff, 266 
Important Fa6b relative to the 

King, 17a 

Impostors, a Cofnedy, 364 
Imprisonment for Debt, &c. 

Thoughts on, 167, 168 

fNCHBALD'sCl^id of Nature, 75 ^ 
Ingram's Charity Sermon, 470 
Insurance. See Park. See 

Johanna, liknd of. Account of« 

Johnson's Abridgment of the 
Gaming Laws, 266 

Jones's (Philip) Effay on Crook- 

ednefs, i8q 

■ '■' (R.) Revolation Sermon, 


■ (William) on the<figur«. 

tive Language of Scripture, 


JosEPBus, Volborth on the Si* 
lence of that Author with re- 
fped to the Slaughter of the 
Bethlehem Children, 614 

IjiELAND, Publications relative 
to, 62. 177. 2i6. 

Irish Drefs. See Walker. 

Isaiah* SeeK^RAUTRR, 

Italy, View of, 590 

JvDAisM, Hiilory of^ 106. 

Julia de Graipont, j^9 


C Q N T B N T $• 


^^ bate's Cafes of the Hydro* 
JV «k, i89 

%MT to the Lock, ^6 

KxLHAM— Domelday .Book d- 
loftrated, 360 

KsMSLfi'sFarm Hopie^a Come- 
dy* 5 54 
KsKTisw's Advictto Qomy Fer- 
fons, 547 
KfiajBH AbdnlkarreeiDy Me- 
znoin of« 699 
KiNc'sMorielsof Criticifai, no 
JLiNCSBURY's Thankigiving 
SenDOii» 468 
KiFPis's Life of LardDer, 47 

Ordination Charge, 93 

Kite's Eflay on the Hecpvery of 

the apparently dead, 305 

Knox's Obfervatioos 00 the Li- 

KsAUTEa't Eflay on Ifaiah, 458 
Kbayehhoff/ Sec Van 

T ANDAFF/Biihopof, bia Ad- 
1 y drefs CO young Perfona, 461 
Labdner's Works aod Lift, 47 
La Trobe's Anecdoces of Fre- 
deric IL 85 
Lavatbr's Aphorifflis on Man* 


LAw.^Reeve's UiAorjr of tb^ 

Englifh, ' 4^4 

Trads, two, 457 

— -* other Publications sal. to, 
69. 167. 245. 263. 265. 344. 
359. 4fO. 456- 484- 
Lay ard s Conieciauon Sermon, 

Lee*s Elegiac Poen, 181 

Legal Confideratioa 09 tha Re- 
gency, 274 
Lbupribrb's EMufbeca Cl^f" 
^M* 45* 

UNGLET.— *<04/I fw MOKTES- 

lisasoNs of moral aad idlgioaa 
loftrodioo, jc6t 

Letch WORT It's twelve Diu 
opudof, 226 

Letter to Mr. Pitt on the Re- 
firidionsj 78 

■ ■ ■ ' - 10 the ^^, of London, 


* ■ to Mr, Hoj^ne Tooke, 

— ^•^- from a Coontry Gea- 

tlamao, 17$ 

« from the Pr. of Wales 

to Mr. Pitt, 17$ 

* ■ Stridlures on, 177 
*' fiora an Jriih Gentle* 

man, ib. 

fecond ditto, ib. 

•«— — - to the Orthodox Mini- 

^^xi^ 18$ 

■ to the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, 186 

■»■ - to the Author Q^Thougbts 
on ibi Mamt$rs tf tbe Qnmt^ 

- ■ - from a Gentleman oa 

board an Indiaman, 273 

— — tothe Author of Alfred, 



alive I 
■ anfwered, 

- Obiervations 00, 

to Mr. Fox, 

— to the People, 


-*— .— to the Bilhopf, 

■ ■ . to Mr. JefFerles, 357 

**•*-—-. to the Farmers, 460 

-. to Col. Lenox, 558 

- to the Lords Spiritual, 


Lbtt^bs to a yoong Gentleman, 

^ to Sir W. Fordyce, 1 38 

— to a Prince, from a Man 

of Kent, 178 

•p- from a Coanty Gen tie- 
man, 179 

— feven, by a Wb^, ib. 

Letthe de M. Van Marum a 
M. Lanoriani, 602 

Littres Je Tbiotimi, i6t 



Levies Lingua Sacra, 289 

Liberal Striflures on Freedom 
and Slayery, 557 

Li DD el's Seaman's Vide Me- 
cum, ■ 449 

Life of Mifs Catlane» 442 

Lilly's Accidence enlarged, 184 

Lincoln, Bifliop of, his Ser- 
mon, Jan. 30, 283 

Liturgy, Obfervations on, 383 

— — • See Common Prayer. 

Lloyd's The/aurus Ecclefiafticus, 
• 460 

Lofft's Three Letters on the 
Regency, 78 

London, Bifhopof, his Eifayon 
the. Transfiguration, 459 

— bis Thankfgiving Ser- 
mon, 564 

Londonderry, Hume's Ser- 
mon on the Siege of, 285 

Love lass on the Law of Billvof 
Exchange, 267 

Litdger's Italian TranHadon of 
the Sorrows of Werter, 364 

Lvsionam's Letters, * 138 


MACBETH rcconfidered, C53 
M'Causland on Phas- 

nomena of the Barometer, 401 
M'Cul loch's Obfervations on 

the Herring Fiiheries, 448 
— 's Compafles, Report 

of their Utility, i^. 

11*Donald's Vimonda, 74 

Maciver's Cookery, &c. 551 
M'Lban on the Sonlhipof Chrilb, 

Macbl LAN's Edition of Cron- 

ftedt's Mineralogy, 31 

Man ^"^ Zimmerman^ & Geographi- 
cal Hiftory of, 678 
Manual Defence, Art of, 454 
Manuscripts in the King of 

France's Library, Ace. of, 605 
Marishall's (Mrs.) Series of 

Letters, 170 

Marshall's Rural Oeconomy 

ofYorkfliirc, ' • 97 

Martin, John, on the Doty of 
Man, 187 

Martyn, Profcffor, his thirty r 
eight Plates, 447 

Mary, Q;, of Scots, a Tragedy, 

Maty's Sermons, 224 

Maxims and Obfervations, 455 
Mechanics. See Grange, M. 

de la. 
Medicine, Parifian Royal Aca- 
demy of, their Memoirs, 693 
Meerman, M, de, and Af. de 
LA CouR, Df/cours prefentes 
i PAcademie de Chalons fur' 
Mame^ 608 

Melissa and Marcia, 168 

M em 01 RE four le Rbingra've de 
Salm, 624 

■ ■ ■ pour le Feupli FrattfoiSt 

Me 'moires du Due de St, ^Imon, 


— ■ de VAcademie de Ber* 
Urn, pour 1785, 650 

M E MOi r s of the Medical Society, 
Vol.IL 473 

— — — - — of Paris, 693 

■ of Khojeh Abdul- 
kurreem, 699 

Meno^'s Sermon on the Slave 
Trade, 469 

Midas, Songs in, 182 

Mionut's Hiftory of the Otto- 
man Empire, 212 

Millar's Elements of the Law 
oflnfarance, 420 

Milner's Thankfgiving Ser- 
mon, ^64 

Minshull's Ode to Lord Bel- 
grave, 466 

MiNTo, Dr. Sec Buchan, 
Earl of. 

Mirabeau, Count, his (Ap- 
pofed) Secret Hiftory of the 
Court of Berlin, 690 

MiTFORo'sTreatifeon Chancery 
Suits, 266 

Monro's Appendix to his Che- 
miftry, 46X 

MoNstY, Dr. Life of, 271 

Montes(^ieu, Obf. on, 106 
10 Moore'i 



Moore's Z«l«cOt 5 1 1 

MoR ALE M Moij}f 642 

Morfitt's Woodmen of Ardeo, 

Morgan's Attoroey'f Vade Me- 

cuni> 360 

's Effiys, iS. 

's (Caefar) Thankfgiy- 

ing Sermon, 468 

Morocco, prefeni State of, 321 
Moses coniidered as a Legiflator, 

Moss man's Obfervations on the 

BroDonian Praflice, 547 

MoTTE,< Cvmttjft de la, Addrels 

to the. Public, 268 

■ her Memoirs, 269 

■ DeteAion, 361 
Ml' R a AY on Imprifonment for 

JDebt, 168 


NAPiiR of McrchifloB, Ac 
count of, 232 

Narrative of Gufla^ns Vafla, 

■ of Trsnfa^pns in 

Bengal, 701 

Naval Atalantis, 34 

Necker's Speech, 85 

4V la Morali Naturelle, 


I Report, 172 

■ on religious Opinions, 

Ncedham's Sermon on Forgive- 
Dcfs, 566 

Negro B Slavery, Reflexions on, 
by Schwartz, 661 

New Teftamcnt, Gricfbach's cri- 
tical Collations of the, 634 

NiCHOLSON'sLcttcrto Priefllcy, 


No Abolition, 559 

Noble's Memoirs of tbe Houle 

of Cromwell, Review of, 361 

Noctambulation, Cafe of, 


No^Ris's Memoirs of Bofla 

Ahadeej 319 

Not I CBS /r Exttaiu d$t M$S. da 
Roi di France, 605 

NouvCAUX Memoirts de PJeade^ 
mie di Berlin, pour 1 785, 650 

Nova Scotia, prefent State oU 



bsbrvations on the excef. 
five Ufe of fpiritooos Li- 
quors, 62 % 
— — on Gibbon's Hi&)ry, 

on * a Letter to the 

mod infolent Man,' ice. zyS 
on the Brunonian 

Pradice, 547 

Observer, Vol. IV. 410 

Ode to Hope, 554 

Odes, Four, by a Gentleman, 72 
Olla Podrida, 135 

Onslow*8 Inilitute of the Law 

of Nifi Prius, 457 

Osborne's Sermon on Parke's 

Death, 469 

Oswald Caftle, 169 

Ottoman Empire, Mignot's 

Hiftory of, 212 

Ourry's French Scholar, &c. 


Owen's Sermon on Sunday 

Schools, 470 

P ANN el, an Entertainment, 
Parian Chronicle, ' 38 

Park on Marine Infurances, 344 
Parkinson's Sermon at Cam- 
bridge, 191 
Parsons's E/Tays on Education, 

Passions. See Falconer. 
Pastoret, Mei/e conjidere^ &c. 

Paterson's Speculations on the 
Law, &c. 251 

PATTENsoN'sThankfgivbg Ser- 
mon, 565 



Paijw* Af.J>m, RiehtncbtsPidh' 

Jopbiquest yc— A Letter to 

the keviewen concerniiig that 

Work, z6\ 

Pe E *E WiMiams's Reports, Coaie's 

Edition, ^ 250 

PEGGc'sRevo] Jtion Sermon, 187 

Penitent Prollitutc, 87 

Peter the Great, Anec. of, 130 

PcTiTFi EitRB't TkongfatssB the 

Divine Goocbeft, $3 

Phoebe, a Novel, 169 

Philosophical Tr*»AiAion«, 

Part II. for 1788, 141. 296. 

Ph I LOT ox I ArdeiuBy a Poem , 329 

Pickering's (Miia) Sorrows of 

Wertcr, 464 

Picket's Public Improvement, 

Pindar, Peter, his Talc of Sir 
J. Banks and the £mperor of 
Morocco, 57 

•r his £pi(Ue to a falling 

Miniiler, i8a 

■ his Anugonifts, icz. 

^ his Subjeds for Paints 

*«> 555 

—— — other Puhlications pel. 

to, 278. 553 

PlNDAROMASTIX» PctCr's Pcfli- 

tcnce, . 553 

Retort Smart, ib. 

Playfair's Eflay on the Na- 
tional Debt, 414 
Pleader's Afliftant, 359 
Poetical Flights of Chriftophcr 
Whirligig, 71 

— h^'^ttii to the Faihion- 

able Ladies, 73 

■ Declaration, 272 

■ Epiltie kotCL Gabrielle 
d'Eflrees, 466 

Poet's Reflridtons^ 279 

Political Adoration, 278 

Polwhele's Sermon at Truro, 

Portlock's and Dixon's Voy- 
ages. See Di^coN. 
Portugal. See Costican* 
Powell's Treatifc on Mort- 
gages, £9 

Powell's Eflay on the Cfeatfaii 

of Powers, ih. 

*■ ' ^" ■*■ — — Loarning of De- 

▼ifes, ib. 

PowsRS of a Regont coftfidered, 

Pratt's Ode on h» Majcfty** 

RecmHeny, 5^5 

Prayer Book, American, 387 
Present National £«ibftrral^- 

nrfbnt, 175 

Pribstley'sLc£1, on Hiftory, 1 
Prolusion £6 Fveiic^t, 295 

Prussia, la«e Kifng of, his 

Works, 429, 62 c. 

Psalms, Key to, 309 

Pundna'^meh, 701 

Pye's Tranflanon of Ariftotle's 

Poetic, 148 

Quadrupeds, Zimmerman's 
Geographical Htflory of, 
Qu E R i B s , by Sir John Dalrymple, 

Question folved, 177 

Quixote, the amicable, 60 

Radcliffb's ConiecratioQ 
Sermon, 190 

Rapport faif a la Societe de 
Laufemntt 637 

Reader's Ifrael's Salvation, 369 
Rees's Ordination Quedions, 93 
Reeve's (Mifb) Exiles, 88 

Reeves's Mift. of the Law, 424 
Reflections on a Regency, 79 

' on 'his Majeily's 

Recovery, 275 

Reflector, 556 

Regency, and the Uie and 

Abafeofthe Great Seal, &c. 79 

■ a Poem, 278 

- Hift. and Proceedings 

of the Lords aad Commons on 

the, 466 



RfiGENCY, Other Tra^a rek to, 

74. 78. 81. 1727-179- 180. 

l$a. 27a. 274— 278k 35 «-^ 

356. 366. 466. 558 

Remarks on Shakefpeare. See 

RiP.SRTOftiuM y«rfV#fir«r, 266 

Report from the Committee 
appointed to exMnine the P^ 
ficMos, &z» 86 

Reports from the Coaopiij^eeE 
appointed to examine the Phy- 
iicians^ 1 80 

Retort Smart,,on Peter.Pindar, 

RaTRosprcTiVB View of the 
late Political £rocrgeoC9r, 355 

Review of the Argottieot^ rel. 
to the Stort Natrigatitw, 67 

■ Political, 77 

■ of the Laws of Norih 
America* 263 

Rft<roLUTioN,Tra^ inComoie- 
SkonitionQf»94»95. 187 — 190. 

«^ 559 

Rich A RDs*s Review of Noble's 
Memoirs* 361 

Rigbt's Reports of the Norwich 
Provifioa Coflnnittee, 453 

RiOHT of Proteftant Diffenters, 
*c. 56' 

Rittson's Tranflation of Ho- 
mer's Hymn to Venus, 466 

Robarts*s (Mifa) fieaatifs of 
Roufleao, 86 

Roaikrtson's Parian Chronicle, 

RoB4NSQii's Diibofirie on Sacra* 
mental Tefts, 368 

Rc^iNSOii's (PoU.) Tour to tho 
We of Love, 87 

Robson's Look bteforo you Leap, 

RoHit^LAS, Fallot 72 

Roskillt's Thankfgiving Ser- 

^Siovi on the Commatation 

kovasEAV, Beantiea of, 

•I Thoughts of, 

RowxET on theSore Throat, 263 
; ■ ■ onFemaleDiford^»46i 





RovAb Dialogue, 81 

^' Interview, 355 

■■■ ' ■■ A'ftronomer, 366 

■ » Refiedions, 467 

Error, xA. 

Russel's Sonnets, 351 

R.vtherford on Hlftery^ 34 

SA^CRBS Extra^s, 184 

r St. John's Mary Queen of 
S€ot»> a Tragedy 532 

Saint Sim$», Due iff , Me moires 
dm, 166 

Salm, Rhingravcof, Memoir in 
his JuiHfication, . i 624 
Savary^s Letterv on Greece, 

ScHTJLTENS — Oratto de Ingenip 
Arabum^ 598 

^CHWhKTZ-ReflexUns far Pt^* 
elavage dt$ NegrtSf 66 1 

Scott, Major, bis ObfJsxvaiioftt 
on Sheridan's Pamphlet, 179 

Charge againil Bnrke, ib^ 

■ Seven. Letters to the 
People, iB. 

■ Letter to Mr. Fox, 550 
Scott's (James) Tliaakfgtving 

Sermon 468 

Scripturi the Friend of Pree^ 

dom, 561 

Seaman's Vade Mecnnit 449 . 
Sermon on the Prayer ibr tli» 

King, 373 

Sermons, nngle, 94—96. 187. 

—191. 283—28^. 37«"-373* 

458. 468—470. 564—568* 

■ colleded 93, 94^ 
— — by Matv, 12^ 
by Letckwofth, 220 

■ by Stebbing, 241 

■ by the Bp. of Cheller, 

Sharbsprare, RenancB on* 
Sec Wheatly. 

■ I ' Hants for a neie Edi- 

tion of. Part U. 362 

Sharpens RcvoL Oration, 559- 

StiAW'a tiift. of Jndaifin, 106 




SHOP-Tar, Thooghts on its Re- 
peal. 77 
SHORT-hand, by Taylor, 70 
Sicc Laureat, 366 
SiL£5iA. See Travels. 
Simeon's IVeatife on the Law of 
Eledion. ' 360 
Sketch of Dr, Monfey's Life. 

Skinner on the Death of Chrift, 


Slavery. African. Trads 00. 

68. 69. 96. 237. 284. 319. 

350. 351.450.469. 557:559. 

560. 561. 566. 661 

Smellie's Anatomical Tables. 

Smith on the Variety in the 

Haman Species. 184 


Sophia, a Novel. 88 

Spa Waters. Sec Ash. 
Spectre, a Novel, 552 

Speculations on Law and 

Lawyers. 25 1 

Speeches of Mr. Wilberforce, 

&c. on the Slave Trade, 559 
Spencer's (Mrs.) Memoirs of 

Mifs HoIm(bys» 169 

Spirituous LSquors, Obfcrva- 

tions on. 62 

St/bhlin's Anecdotes of the 

Czar Peter. 130 

Stebbhtg^s Sermons. 241 

St bnnet/s Revolution Sermon. 

Sterne's Original Letters, 271 
Stevenson's Revolacion Ser- 
mon. • 190 
Stewart's (Mrs.) Cafe. 83 
'■ ■ Fodfcript to, 172 
Stock's 'Sermon for the Severn 

Society, 470 

Stone's Political Reformation, 

Stonm6usb*s Sick Man's Friend. 

. 369 

Striqture-s on the Prince of 

Wales's Letter. 177 

- i' " on the Removal of two 

aobIe,Per(bnage5> • 355 

Subjects for Painters. byPet«» 
Pindar, SSS 

Sunday Schools. Pamphlets and 
Sermons relative to. 265. 470. 

Surgery. See Bell. 
Swainson's Account of Cures 
by Velno's Syr op, 548 

Sweden. Travels through. 615 
Swi pt's Female Parliament. 5 54 
Sydney's Defence of Poetry. 454 

Taylor's (Sam.) Short- 
Hand/ 70 

Taylor (Henry) on Creeds. 89 
Taylor's (D.) Thankfgiving 
Sermon 9 469 

Tears of Loyalty. 74. 

Telbmachus, Adventures of, 
in blank Verfe. 394. 

Temple of Health. 465 

Tench's Narr. of Botany Bay. 

THANKSGiviNG-Day, a Poem, 


■ Sermons. 373. 468. 

469. 564 — ^66 
Theatrical Managers, Ad- 

tice to. 445 

Thesaurus EccUfiafticus^ 460 
T H I E R Y 's Prize Diiler tation on 

the Jews. 662 

Thoughts on the Repeal of the 

Shop-Tax, 77 

■ ■ on the Proceedings of 

the Houfe of Commons. 79 

■ on Imprifonment for 
Debt. 167 

■ by Murray. i68 

^— on the diftinA Pro- 
vinces of Revelation and Pfai- 
lofophy, C57 



TiELKE. See Craufurd. 

's Field Engineer, tranf- 

lated. 408 

ToDERiNi*^/^ la hitttrature des 
Turcs, 669 


Tomlin's Index to the Reports, 


ToPHAU on Difeafes of Cattle, 

Toulmin's Sermon at Howe's 

Ordination. 93 
— Sermon on Sunday 

Schools, 568 

Tour to the Ifle of Love, 87 
Tour, Af. di la^ Apptl au Bon 

Sens^ 267 

TousTAiN, Fi/c. de. Morale di 

MotM^ , ^42 

Tractatus Far it Latins 9 363 
Trade, new and old Principles 

of, 417 

Transactions bf the Society 

of Arts, &c. Vol. VI. 18 

Travels, modern. Flowers of, 83 

■ — through Silefia, by 
Hammard, '59^ 

Treatise on Fevers, 547 

Trial between Dodwell and 

Dad ley, 70 

■ of Atkinfbnj for Adultery, 


Turks, M. Toderini on their 

Literature, 665 

Turner's Eflays, 557 

Twin Sifters, 88 

U and V 

VAN M arum's Letter to Lan- 
driani, 602 

Van Troostwyk // Krayen- 
HOFF — de V Application dt /'£- 
Uaricitt^ 6^8 

Velno's Syrop. SeeSwAiNSON* 
Views in India. See Hod6es., his Trans- 
lation of Ulloa's Memoirs con- 
cerning America, 260 
V I If ON D A , a Tragedy, 74 
Virgil's Plough. See Des 

Vision, a Poem, 5J4 

Ulloa, Memoins Pbildfipbiques, 


VotioRTH— C«^, cur Jofi* 

phut Cadcm Fitir9rum B$thUm* 

C-O N '^E NTS. xr 

Narratam Siltntio pneterierit^ 


Vp L T A I R E , Oh/er'uations fur Ui 

ecrits de^ z^o 

Voyage round the World. Sec 

Voyage en Stude^ 615 * 

Voyages Intereffans^ Sec, 260 
Uri — LXX. Hehdomadum^ ijfc. 



Wakefield's Remarks oa 
Horflcy, : 565 

Wales, Pr. of. Advice to, 81 

■ his Letter to Mr. Pitt, 


■ ' Stri^ures on ditto, 1 77 

Addfefs to, 176 

Walker on the Iriih Drefs, 216 
Wallis's (Mrs.) Female's Me- 
ditations, 272 

Walter's Vifitation Sermon, 


Wanostr,ocht— P///// Eucyclo^ 

pedie, 551 

Warburton'I Letter to the 

Chancellor of the Exchequer, 


Warvillb. See Claviere. 

Watering Meadows, Account 

^^» 335 

Watson's (Biihop) Charge, 280 
Weather, Diary of, 462 

— — - Obfervations on, 465 
Wertbr. SeeLuDGER. 
Weston's Attempt to tranflate 

the Song of Deborah, 220 

Weston's (Jofeph) Tranflatioa 

of Morfiti's Woodmen of Ar- 

den, 329 

Wheatlt's Remarks on Shakc- 

fpeare, 552 

Whxg and no Whig, 80 

Whi'rlioig's Poet. Flights, 71 
Whi teley's Prize EiTay, 186 . 
Wilberforcb, Burke, Zee 

Speeches of, on the Slare 

Trade, 559 

Williams's (Mifs) Poem on th^ 

Slave Trade, 237 




WiLtiArt«V Cy. W.) Digeftof 
the Statute Laws, 267 

Willis's Sermon at OIcmcefier» 


Wilson's (Thomaf) Sermoo at 
Lancafler Affixes, 373 

- (Edward) Sennon at 

Gloucedef, iB. 

WinchesYbk on umrcrfel Re- 
ftoration, 94 

— Century Sermon, 95 

■ Sermon on Redemp- 

tion, &c. 567 

Wi>iCHEsrBR, Bp. of, Fa£k in 
litigation between him and 

. Meflrs. Barfoot, Bargus, ScC. 

WiNTEE PiKtmhXj^ 367 

Wi N a£ r's Anecdotes of Fred. Ir. 

WiTHERs's Hifioiy of the Royal 
Malady, 273 

WiTHiRs's Alfred^ 

WoLLASTOv's Preface „ 

Aih-onomkal Catalogue, 358 
Toon's two Revolution Scr- 


to lU9 


Wraog's Dialogue, 
Wright's Account of watering^ 

Meadows^ 335 


^oRitsHiRE^ rural Oecono- 
my of, 97 

tj^ ELuco, a Novel, , 511 

Zimmerman, Gic^afii/cht G^ 
ibUbti dtt Min/cben^ 678 

:f Hft 


' OF THE . 



S O C I E T y, 








Ti the PUS'LICK/ • ' 

Tin Cvtsr Os jseTt •f tkc meatiMi •£ the S »^ t b t r. So the tprlicttioa ef tlicSr 
Rbva&os» are all f«di ofeAil io^nticfiSy ^ifooVericfy or improTemeacs (thoogk aoi 
iBBodoaal ia cbe Book «f Premiums)^ ms appear to baVe a tcA^ency to promote the arta* 
■nimfaftiwetp <M conmerce, of t Lis kingdom $ and, in purroaace of thit plao, the Socictj' 
htm Alt^*^ ^c^ eoabledy hj the Toluntary fubTcriptioDS of its raembert, aod by bene^« 
fi«s af ctic lability aadgeotry^ to expeod tor fadr a^fol porpd^cs a fani aintoaatuii to &^ 

WiMCvcr acteotifcly coofidert the benefict whieh have ariAm to the Publick fince the 
iaftic«tu»a «(. chit Society, by the sntrodiidioii of new mtnofaAores, and the improrenenta 
•f thoie formerly cftablifted, wiJl readily allow, no mosey wu ever more ufefolly expended ^ 
wm haa aay aatioo received more real advam^e ^om any Rublick body whatever, thaa 
Ilia beea derived to thit oouotry from the rewards bellowed by thii Society; ao^ tbit obr 
lervatioa will he coiitirmed by infpcdiag a general account of tbe effect of the rewards be- 
Aowed by the Sotiety, aoneaed to a woilc in folio, printed in 1778, inciioled, " A Regifter 
«* of cheTMBtittma cvd Btountica giire« by the ^iety, iq^thnted at L«mA^. for tb^ £ncoo- 
* rage«MM of Artt» Mauufadores. and Comaebce, (roni thejOrigioat lalfitotion m >754» 
^ ta f(n^ todolivc a^' ^^ch worK it fint to tfvtery Member 00 his elt^on, and may b« 
icea hy aoy perron, Mf^\y{ng to tbe Secretary, or other officers of tbe Sockty, at theic 
iMMlie m the Mtlpti. 

\h ociicr ftiH fofthcr to promote the IsndaMe views of tips iafitotioi^ ipdftd enable «b0^ 
jiboetf to profecttte to greaitr effcd the worh ft focceftfully begun, it miy not be 'vat* 
aroper ^ inform tlye PaUick, bv what mode, aod on what teuas> Mei^bbiy are cl^ed.— > 
Pbers of the reaJ«a« or Lords of Parliamefit|^ are, on their being pcopofc^'atitny -mooting of 
the Society, imaicdiatcly ballotted forj and tbe name, with the addition aod place of 
ajbodc^ of every <Hh^r p^oo propgfing to bfcome a Mffmbor, is to be dipliy^d to the Secre* 
tcry, who it to read tbe fame, and properly inl'ert the name ia a lift of candidates, to be 
hone ap in the Society's room Atil the next mcdting, St^vbich fucb perfoos ihall be bai* 
lotodJbri aod if two-^rdso^ tbe Members then voting ihall ballot iti his fstoo^ be Iball 
be deemed a Perpetual Member, upon payment of twenty guiweat at one payoient, or a Sob* 
luribiag Member, upon payment of any fum, ooif lefs than tvogume^t, annually. 

Svery Meaiher iae^oally entitled to vote, and be concerned in all the tranfaAioos of die 

Th^aicctioft of thk Society >are held every ff^n^tf^ at fix o*cloct {n 'tH eventng, 
inm 'the foutth lf*dmUay^ i^i Oaoba^ to tbe firft H^tdn^j m Jutn. And the feyeral Com- 
Vfttacs, to whoOe corffid^iatioh the viriooi objeda of the Society's atceution are feferred^ 
AMet on the other eveningly in €usff week during the feflioo. 

Af caadidatcf are to take notice, that no ^Uim for a premium wiU be ttteaded tD| oolcfo 
the coaditioas of the advert ifemeots are foll^ complied with. 

SSkut Several candidatt^i and elatmants, to whom the Sxie^ fhali adjodge premiums jr 
bootttlee, are to attend at the Sotiety V office to tbe Adtlpbi, on the kit Tui^day in May, 
17^, aC' twelve o'clock at noon, to recede the faoui, that day b^ng appointed by" the 
Society fdr tbe dftrtbittoO of t^ tewards j before vhich- time no piemtum or |»umy wiU 

^dcii«or<d« ~ ^ * 

The'Seveqth vclunieof the Tnofaai^ns of this Sodety is now In the pveik, and wi2t fpee* 
4i^ be pubMM* wbeo ije *^ be had^ by Memfc%ft oniy^ sc tite Society^s houfe in the Add- 
phi ; 4^ ty all •tb^r ptrjont^ U thf priticipal book ftilers in England apd Wales ; in which 
book imjk found the particitltri of each, premium iof^rted in the following AbflraA, 
aadthe mcfboda.tfltitf^'porfa'ed by tboiie who intend to becoaM caaOadftfes ; together wit k. 
many papers conoiuoicated to the Society, in the feveral branches of Arts« Maoufsduresi 
and CoouBercei which are the immediate obje^s of their attention aod encouragement. 

It U reqttlred, that the matters lor which premiums are offered, be delivered in withoafi 
names, or any iiitinutioi^ to,wbom tli^ bjeloog ;, that each particular thiog be maiJied i^. 
aihit* naanner each cliumaM thinks fit, luch clitmaot lending with it.a^ paf ^I'd. up, 
baviog on the oot£de a co^re^onding mifk, a>od ou the iohde Uie claimant's name and «!• 

^iA(pH ^ tS» I7t9^ ^7 Order, Samvel Momx, SccreCAryw 

t 3 3 


I. A CO*NS« For hairing fet ten i^ 

-^X cresy between O^ober, i7&^4na 
April, 17^9} ;hc g^Id roccU]. 

X. Fpr 6rc acrei; the filver iBcda]. 

fUrtifcatis to be produced on the firft 
Tocfday in No^mher, 1789. 

9. Raising Oaks. Not fewer th^ 
fire ihoufand, from plants, or acomt, iq 
woods that hire been long under timber % 
the gold medal. 

to. For three thoufand % the filrer 

CerUficMiei to be produced 00 the firft 
Tttcfdav in January, 1790. 

15. Observations ON Oiuc. For 
obTcnrations and experiments on the ob* 
Aru6)ions to the growth of oaks, with 
remedies for them, and afcertatning the 
proper time for felling the trees; the 
IQold medaly or twenty guineas. 

Jcc^mmis to be produced on the third 
Tuefday in Decern l>cr. 1789. 

17, Spam IS H CHjrtKUTS. For fet. 
ting fix tcjes between the ift of Oduber, 
1788, and April, 1789, mixed with feeds 
or cuttings of Qthe^ trees s the gold me* 

s8. For four acres; the filter medal. 

drti/Uaiis to be produced on the firft 
Toefday in Kovemher, ^1789. 

tj. English Elm. For eight thou- 
fand, -planted between June, 1788, and 
Jane, 17891 the gold medal. 

a6. For Eve thoufand; the iUrer me- 

27. For four thoufand ; the filver me- 

Certificatis to be delivered on the firfl 
Tuefday in Koverober, 1789. , 

34* Larch. For planting, from June, 
1788, to June, 1789, Eve thoufand, to 
be between t%vo ai^d tour years old ; the 
gold medal, 

35. For three thoufand 1 |he iilver 

CertijUtAu to be delivered bn the laft 
Tutfday in November, ^i 789 

CirtyUates to be produced 00 ^ ht 
Tue^ay in December, 178^. 

46. Ujlakd or Red Wu.low. 
For not lefis than three acrea, planted W^ 
tore the e^d pf April, 1788, twelve biUf 
dred 00 each acre ; the gold aiedad. 

Crr//^rtf//# CO be produced 00 ih€ lal^ 
Tuefday in April, 1790* 

48. Aldxr. For fix acres, plMrte4 
10 the vear 1788, at kaft one thoufaoj 
00 each acre^ the g<>ld medal. 

Orti/Uatii to be produced od the la& 
Tuefday in December, 1789, . 

51. Ash. For fix acres planted ifl( 
t788, intermixed whh fceils or cuttings 
of other plants ; the eold medal. 

52. For not lefs than four icres; the 
Iilver medal. 

drtificatts to be produced on the kft 
Tuefday in December, 1789. 

59. Mixed TiMBix Tabes. Foe 
having enclofed, and planted or fown» 
ten acres with Fotefl trees for timber. 
bet>VecD Oaobcr, 1785, and May, 17871 
the gold meclal. ' 

Ctrttfuatts to be produced on the fit ft 
Tuefday in Novembcir, 1789. 

63. MutBBXXr CVTTIHGS, or 

Tr £ e t . For not fewer than three hua** 
died, planted in 17871 ihegold medals 
or twenty pounds, 

64, For one hundred Mi fifty ; th^ 
filver medal, or ten pounds. 

CirtiJUato to be produced on the firft 
Tuefday in November, 1789. 

69. Mvlbexxy Trees IK Hepc^t 
Rows. For one hundred, planted in 
1788; ten pounds. 

70. For fifty ; fivt pounds, 
CertiJUatis to be produced oa the firft 

Tuefday in 0£bber, 1789. 

tS* Tbi candidatit, for ^fUmitng M 
kUJs rf tfiis art f artit/, thmt tb$ r#» 
fpi^ive flantations art f roper ly fi/n^d 
undjecured, and particular^ tojiate tb0 

of Jt^ning fi/eh ctrttficatis. 

Anj itiformaHon nvbicb the caadidaits ' 

4a Silver F»r. For nut fewer than for ibt J^rfgoing premiums may ebufe ta 

thoufand, planted between June, 
17S9, and June, 1790, in a mixed plan- 
tation of fared trees ; the gold medal, 

41. For one thouiaod^ the filver me* 

CfriificaUs^xiiacfoumts to be delivered 
,00 tfce lad Tuefday in December, X793r 

44. HffMTi^QpoM Willow. For 
Arcc acctf planted in the year (788, at 
kafl one thoufand cuttings on Cju^acre | 
iht gold medal. 

fiommunieate^ rgtaSive id tbimetbpds mMd$ 
ufe of informing $^e plantaticmu or pro* 
moiifig tbigronjutb oftbejeveral trees^ or 
any oibtr ohfervati^ns thai may kaiM «r- 
(urred o» tbifubjed^ mtUl be tbamkfuU^ 

73, Taees Foe Use when expo* 
SEP TO THE Weather. For the 
liell account, to determine which of the 
following treea i» of the greatefl uufity 
for timber, wbeA txpdied 10 the weather, 
in. Latc^ 

Premium in Jgrkuttun. 

Lsrch, Mask poplar, tlh, Spaniih chef- 
nut. will6w, aider, Lombar4y poplar, 
l^cch, nr filvcr fir j the cold medal. 
• ^a be produced on the fecond Tuef- 
day in Detembcr, in%^* 
' '75.' Planting boggy or moras* 
^T Soils. For the beil experiments to 
aTccrtain the advantage! of planci|ie bpg- 
jgy or raoraffy foils ; the gold mpda), or 
twenty guineas. 

drtificaies io be produced on ^he firft 
Tuefday in January, 1792. 

80. Comparative Culture of 
Wheat. For the beft fet of experi- 
ments made on eight acres, to determine 
the comp.rsitive advantages of cultivating 
wheat, by fou«ng broad-caft or drilling} 
the gold nicdal, or filver roeda' and 
twenty ^ujncas. 

The urcQunt to be produced on the firft 
T'ocTJav in February, 1790. 

Sj. Comparative Culture of 
W^EAT. For the beft fet Of expcri- 
ITients made on eight acres, to determine 
the comparative advantage of cultivating 
wheat, by broad caft of dibbjing^j the 
gold medal, or filver me4al and twenty 

The accounts to be produced on the firft 
Tuefday in February, 1790, 

84. Beans and Wheat.. For 
j)lanting or drilling, between December, 
1786, and March, 1787, ten acresj with 
lM;aDS, and for fowiog rlie fame land with 
wheat in the year 1788, twenty guineas. 

ttrtificates to be produced on the firft 
Tuefday in November, 1789. 

86. TuRNEPS. For experiments 

made on fix acres, to determine the com- 

^ parttive advantages of the drill, or broad- 

*caft method in the cultivation of lurncpsj 

t)ie gold medal, or filver medal and ten 


To be delivered on the third Tuefday 
in April, 1790. 

88. Grebn veceta-ble Food. 
For the beft account of vegetable food, 
that will moft incrcafe the milk ji> marcs, 
tow%, and ewes, in March and Apnlj 
the gold medal. 

Cerhficatts to he produced on the fe- 
cond Tuefday in November, 1789. 

90. Comparative Culture of 
Turnep-Rooted#abbace. Forfa- 
tistaitory experiments, on the drill and 
broad-cad cutture of turnep*rooted cab- 
hagc, made 60 four acres of landj the 
filver medal and ten pounds. 

*C€rtificaies to be produced on the firft 
Tucfday*ia October, 1791. 


^Of raifing in* the year 1788 not Icfs than '^ovcmber^ 47S9 

ten acres, and for an aocouDt of the e^ 
' fe^ on cattle or ihecp fed with it ; Um 
gold medal. ^' 

94. For not lefs ^Jian pve acres s the 
the filver medal and ten guineas. 

Certifieaiei to be produced on the \\9l 
Tuefday inOftoher, 1789 

97. Cure of Curled PoTATott. 
For difcoveriqg the caufe, and pointings • 
out the eyre, of the difeafe, vcri^ed by 
experiments 5 the gold medal, or thirty 

Accounts to he produced onMe thjrd 
Tuefday in 14ovember, 1789. 

99- Potatoes for feedingCat- 

\Ti-t AND Sheep. For cultivating, Id 

1788, not lefs than four acrei, for thQ 

folg pui pofe of feeding cattle and ihcep % 

the gold medal, or twenrv guineas. 

Certijicatis to he proHuCfd on the fe- 
cond Tucfcfay in NovcmHe*, 1789, 

102 Cultivating Roots a>jd 
Herbage for feeding Sheep and 
Black Cattll. Fbr experiments 
made on two acres of tand, between Mi- 
chielmas, 1788, and iV^ay, 1789, to af- 
eertain which of the foUowint? pl?nts can 
be fccured for winter fodder ro the great- 
eft advantage, viz. 

Turnep-rootcd cabbage, carrots, ryr^ 
nep cabbage, parfneps, tiirneps, potatoes. 

The accounts to be produced on the 
firft Tuefday in November, 1789 ; thf 
gold medal. 

104. Feeding Horses. For an Ac- 
count of not lefs than four h'orfcs tcpc 
on green vegetable food in the ftall or 
ftable ; the ulver medal and ten guineas. 

The accounts and ceriificatts to be pro- 
duced on the fecond Tuefday in Febru- 
ary, 1790. 

105. Stocks of Bees. For not 
fewer than thirty ftocks of bees, and giv- 
ing an account of the manner of fupport- 
ing them} the gold medal, or twenty 

The accou/fts to be delivered on th« 
firft Tuefday in November, 1789. 

109. Cultivating thb true 
Rkubarb. For raifing, in the ycaj 
i7^9» not lefs than three hundred plant* 
of the true rhubarb ; the gold medal. 

1 10, For two hundred plants 5 ilic fil- 
ver medal. 

Ceriifica/rs to be produced on the fe- 
cond Tuefday in February, 1790. '• 

113. Rhvbarb. For rhubarh of 
Britilh growth, twenty pounds weight t 
the gold medal. * 

Certificates, and fit e pounds weigfu. 
to be produced on thcftrft Tuefday la 


Prnmums in ^grUuUuri and Cbimtfiry. 

M4. Tof tenpounds weight s the iiWer 

117. Ascertaining the cowpq- 
HEMT Parts . of Arabics Lan.d. 
Fortht mod fatisfa^ory ^xpenments, to 
tfcenain the due proportion of rhefeveral 
compoacnc parts of arable land, by an 
locmrate anaiyiis of it; the gold medal. . 

The accsuntt to be produced ooi the laft 
Tuefday in November, 1789. , 

121. Improvikg Land lying 
WASTE. For a method of improving 
ibiU lyioe wafte or uncultivated; the 
goM medal, or fUver medal and twenty 

12 }. For the naj^t ii^ roejEit, the (ilver 

The aecoMHts xq be pn^uced on th^ 
ficond Tuefday in December, 1789. 

iifi. Manures. For the beft ac- 
count on what foil the application of 
marie, chalk, lime, or clay, as manures, 
be moft beneficial ; the gold med|il, or 
filrcr medal and twenty guineas.. 

The acimnt to be delivered on the firft 
Taefday in January, 1790. 

ijo. Manures. For the heft fet of 
experiments to afcertain the comparative 
advantage of foot, coal-a(hes, wood-a(hes, 
Kme, or night- foil; the gold medal, or 
€lvct medal and twenty guineas. 

The account to be produced on the firft 
Tdefday in December, 1789. 
132. Improving waste'' Moors. 

For the improvement of not left than on« 
hundred acres of wade moor land j tlic 
gold medal. 

Ctrtificatei to be produced on the firft 
Tuefday in fcbruary, 1790. 

136. Gaining Land from thb 
Sea. For an account of the beft method 
of gaining from the Tea not lefs than 
twenty acres of land; the gold medal. . 

Ctriificatts to be produced on the firft 
Tuefday in O6lobtr, 1789. 

140. Macuinb to R£ap or atow 
Corn. For a machine to reap or mow 
grain, by which it may be done^ cheaper 
than by any method now pra&iicd; tea 

The machine, with c^rtiJUaiis, to be 
produced on the fecond Tuefday in Dc^ 
pember, 1789. 

142. Improved Hoe. For the molt 
improved horfe ot hand hoe, for ckaoioc; 
the fpaces between corn fown inequidiU 
tant rows, and eanhing up the plants f 
the gold medal, or twenty guineas. 

To be produced, wrth ctrtiJUatis of 
its work, on the firft Tuefday in De« 
member, 17S9. 

144. Destroying the Grub or 
THE CocKcitAFER. For difcovertng « 
ipethod of deftroying the grub of u)e 
cockchafer; the filver modal and ten 

The accounts to be delivered on the firft 
Tijcfdaiy in January, 1789. 


145. Kelp. For four tons of kelp, 
comaining tiiuch more alkaline fait than 
any now madc'for falc; twenty pounds. 

One hundred weight to be produced 
an the firft Tuefday in January, i790» 

146. Barilla. For half a ton of 
nerchantable barilla, made from Spanilh 
kali'raifcd in Great Britain; the gold 

Twenty -eight pounds, with a ctrtifi' 
eate, to be pr^uccd on the nrft Tuelday 
IB January, 1790. 

147. Dissertation oh Alkali. 
For t^ie bcft diiTenation on vegerable and 
mineral alkalies; the gold nledal, or 
fiCt? pounds. 

To be produced on the firft Tuefday 
in March, 1790. 

148. Preserving Seeds of Ve- 
getables. For a method of prtferv- 
iag the feeds of plants fit for vegetation ; 
the rold medal; 

• 'H) be communicated on the firft Ti|e£- 
i%j in December, 1789. 

i49p Destroying Smoke.' For 
jfi& acc^ttst df a mct^l if dcAroying'tUc 

fmoke of fires belonging to iarge works 3 
the gold medal. 

To be produced on the* firft Tuefdif 
in January, 1790. 

151. Candjles. For difcovering t 
method of making candles of rciin, fit 
fpr common ufe; the gold medal, uc 
thirty guineas. ' 

To be delivered on the firft Tu'bfday 
in December, 1789, 

152. Refining Fish Oil. For 
difcloling a method of purifying fi(^ 
oil from glutinous matter} the gold me« 
dal, or fifty guineas. 

The procets to be delivered ion the fe^ 
cOnd Tuefday in February, 1790. 

153. 'Substitute for. or. Pre- 
paration of Yeast. For difcover- 
ing a fubflitute. for, or preparation cf 
yeaO, that maybe preferved two months { 
the gold medal, or twenty pounds. 

Specimens to be produced on the laft 
Tuefday in November, 1 789. 

154. In^reasikg Steam. For a 
oicitMd of incrcAfing the nuantity or thf 


Pnmium in Dyings Mtmrall^ M th PoUie Artsi 

^Sttt ef fteam, in jfteam eneines, with 
Ml tol fhan h «ow empldycS } the gold 
nedaly ^r thirty ji^tiineas. 

Tp 8e eominutetcated on the firft Taet* 
^y in Jaouary, 1790. 

i<6. Preventing tbe dry Rot 
iw Ti M B ER. For difcovering the caufii 
^the dry roriQ timber, and difclofioe t 
nethod of prerentipn ; the gold mtoklf 
ar fiker itredal Jind'ten gulnets* 

The account/ to be produced on the 
ftcoDd Tuefdiy irt December, Vf^. 

i$«. Fine B/rit Inotr. For making 
tfte coni witb coak from coak piprs, in 
Bnghmd or Wales^ equal to Swediih oT 
Ruflito iron ; the gold nedal. 

' Oie binMh-ed weight to be produced on 
die firft Tuefday m January, 179a. 

s6o. White Lead. For difcovenng 

• method of preparing white lead, la 4 
manlier doc prejudicial totbe workmco g 
fifty pounds* 

CerHfic^Utfthnz a ton hat been prepaiw 
cd, and theprocefs, to be produced oa 
the fecond Tuefday hi NoTcmber, 17S9. ' 

16s. Substitute foe Basj& of 
Paint. For the bcft fubftitutc for baiit 
of paint, equally proper as white lead), 
thiity pouods. Fifty pounds weiebt ta 
be proiiuced on the fecond Tueiday m 
November, 1789, 

164. Refining Block Tin. For 
difclonng a method of purifying block 
tin, fo at to ht it for the puf pofcs of 
grain tin; the gold medal, or fift/ 
pounds. The procefs, and one hundredt 
weight of the tin, to be produced on t^ 
firft Tuefday in November, 1790. 


IhiAWiNGS. For the beft drawing by 
Ions or grandfons of peers or pcereflfet 
of Great Britain or Ireland, to he pro- 
tfnced on the firft Tuefday in March, 
17901 the gold medal. 

i66. Forilie fecond In merit] the* fil- 
ter medal. 

167, 16S. The fame premiums will 
He giten to daUghttrs, or grand -daut^h- 
fcrs, of peers or pccrcfTes of Great Bri- 
am or Irclaml. 

DEAWiNOS. For tbe beft drawing of 
any kind,- by 3^oung gentlemen under the 
a^.of twenty-one. 

To be produced on the firft Tuefday 
in M«rch, 1790 s the gold medal. 
' 170. For the next in merits tbe filver 

lyiy 17a. The fame premiums will be 
gWen %f drawings by young ladies* 

^.B. Perfons profefTing any branch of 
th&0lite arts, or the Ions' or daughters 
of fuch perfons, will not be admitted 
candidates in the(e clafles. 

173. Sculpture. For the model 
4f \he buft of hh Royal HighncA the 
Prince of WaUs, as Targe as the life ; a 
filcer medallion, in conformity to the 
will of Jfohn Stock, of Hampftead, Efq. 

To bi produced on the third Tuefday 
in February, 1790. 

174. Portrait, tor a copy in oil 
colours of a portrait of the late John 
Stock, of Hampftead, Eiq. a fifver me* 

To be produced on the third Tuefday 
in February, 1790. 

175. I)rawincs of Outlinej^ 
for »n outline afler a g'roup or caft in 

Slafter of human figures, by perfons utw 
er the aee of fixceen, to be produced on 
the laft Tuefday in February, t790, thr 
greater filver pallet. 

176. For the nest in merit, the leifer 
SlTcr pallet. 

1^7. Drawings or MAC»iNEf« 
For the beft drawing, by ^dbns under 
the a^e of tweety^ooe vears, of a cranf 
by Mr. Bunce, in the Society's Repofi« 
tory, the greater filler pallet; to be pro* 
duced 00 the third Tuefday in Fcbru^ry^ 

178. Drawings OF Landscapes. 
For the beft drawing after Nature, by 
pcrfuns under tweoty-onjt years of age^ 
to be produced on thte third Tuefday \ti 
February, 1790, the greater filver pallet, 

179. ^or (he next in merit, the Ie(^r 
filver pallet. 

x8o. Historical Drawings, For 
the beft original hiftoncal drawing of fit^ 
or more human figures, to be produced 
on the third Tuefday in February, 17901 
the gold pallet. 

181. For the next in merit, the greater 
filver pallet. 

rSa. Engeaving |N tiie Linb 
Manner. For the beft engraved plari; 
in the line manner, twenty incbes^y ClXt 
teen, containing three human figures, thf 
gold pallet and twenty-five guineas. 

To be produced on the firft Tuefday 
in February, 1790. 

184. SuEv^Ys OF Counties, For 
an accurate furvey of any county in fing« 
land or Wastes, the gold medal. 

To be begun after the firft of June^ 
1787, and produced on the laft Tuefday 
in January, 1791. 

186. Natuea;.H|$T9I^T« ^^9^ 


Prmlum fir Mtaaifathirir and Mtclmuch. f 

pidBM 9&0 fliaH pttUUk d)t «K»nl hif* work t» fat prodJoetd on OrMbct ite 
Wjof iny county in Euglaod or W«1c#» laft Tucfdiy in JaiHury, tj9^^ i 

1^ gold oiedy^ or fifty ppupdi. The n < . 


its. Silk. Fpr fire yonnd^ of filk, oo the fecond TmeCiby ia Jmoiyw tffl^ 
yrodueed by ozic perfoo in England, in fifty guineas. . . ' * * 

sfaeycar 1719} the gold medal. 19a. Cloth »BOIii Hof^ffAULH 

Ooc poundf witb certificates, to be de- 
Hvcred to the Society on the fij:ft Tuef« 
diy in Uauary, 1790. 

189* For two pounds; the fiWer medal* 

190. MaC^IN^ for CAKDINO 

$)LK'. For a ipachjqe for carifing wafte 
filk, to be produced On the iiril Tuefday 
10 November, 17S9 ; the gold medal, or 
twenty pounds. 

•91. WiAVivo FisHiifC Nets. 
For the beft fpeciroen of netting, for filh- 
iog nets, twenty yards long, and iix feet 
deep, woven hi a machine, to be produced 

OIL Binds. For not tefs (Kao tuneacy^ 
fivt yardi^ made \a £o^laaii, the goM 
medal, or twenty pounds » ^ be pnb 
duced on the fecond Tuef^f^ is Deetm* 
ber, 1789. 

195. Paper krom R4W VsoeT*« 
BLES. For Bfty reams of utefiy pnp« 
from raw vegetable Aibftances ; twenty 

One reain and eevtifieates to be- pro« 
dneed oR ihe firil Tuefday in NoTcmber^ 
1789. ... 


X96; Transit iNiTRtJMENT. For 
a dieap and portable ioi\rumcnt, for the 
purpofe of finding the latitudes and lon- 

S'tudea of place), the gold medal, or 
hrty gummas ; to be produced on, the 
laft Tuefday in January, 1790. 

r97. Gtm Harpoon. For every 
whale taken by the gun harpoon, ^o the 
pcrlbh who fix^ ilnk^s fuch filh there-! 
withi three guineas. 

CtfiiJUans of the taking fuch whales 
b the year x:^89» to be dehvered on ;be 
lift Tuefday m December, 1789. 

tOOKS. To the pcrfun who ihallpro* 
dttce the beftgun for throwing. harpoons { 
the fiiver medal, or tm guineas* 

To be delivered on the firl^ TutA^ay 
hDtcerobet, 1789. 

A Gun. To the perfon who fliall pro* 
dnce the beft harpoon to be thrown by a 
gun ; the fiiver medal, or ten guineas. 

To be delivered on the firlt Tuefday 
in December, 1789. 

100. Instrument for throw« 
INO Harpoons. To the peribn who 
frail produce the bed indrument for 
throwing harpoons i the fiiver medals or 

1^ be N delivered on the firfl Tuefctay 
ia December, 1789. 

101. Harpoom. For every whale 
Uk«n by a harpoon ikot from any other 
inftrumcot than a gun, to the perfon 
who 6ril finkes fuch fiih therewith} 
ibree guineas. ' 

Cfrtifoaut of the taking fuch whales 

in the year 1789, to be delivered oi^ tfm 
lafl Tuefday in December, 1789. 

aoa. Driving Bolts into Ships. 
For a model of a machine for* drivings 
boltSi particularly copper, into fhtps, fa« 
perior to any in ufe ; twenty guineas*. 

To be produced on the firft Tucfdaj 
in February, r790. - 

ao3!. Improvement oftrbHand 
Ven t 1 LATOR. For a portable veaalaiof 
to be worked ^ hand, better tban MOf 
now in u(ci the gold medal, or twtntjf^ 

T« be produced on tlie laft Ttiei<^ 
Ml February, 1790. ' ' 

204. Cranes for Wharfs. For* 
model ^f a eraoe for wharf )«» fuperbeto 
anj^ in ufe j the gold medal^ or Mventy 

To be produced on the firf^ TmUmf 
in February, 1790. 

^5. Metal Rope or Chain. For 
a metal rope or chain to work over poi* 
lies, and anfwer the purpofe of a hempen 
rope, of at leall two inches diameter « 
fifty pounds. 

Ctrtificdtes of its ufe, and a fample ten 
yards lon^, to be produced on the firft 
"Tiefday in November, 1789. 

206. Horizontal Windmill. 
To tbe perfon who fhall produce a model 
of a horizontal windmill on a fcale not 
lefs than one inch to a foot, fuperior to 
any in ufe; the gold medal, or twenty 
guineas. ^ . 

To be produced on the firfl Tuefday 
in February^ 1790. 

•07. Uanomill, For the befV-«on« 

Ptimkm jiir iU '^ritijh CaUmeSi 

fbndedliiitfalll fbr general imrp6fc$| 
■ the iilver4ned«l9 or ten goincas. 

To be produced on the laft Tuefday 
in December, 1789. . • 

ao8. Machine for raising Or£« 
To the perfon who ihall invent a mi- 
dline and produce a model for rtiiing 
•ret &c. from mines, at a lefs ei)>en(S 
than any in ufe; the gold medal, or 
twenty guineas. 

To be produced on the fecOnd Tuef- 
^y ID February, 1790. 
• 109. Machine FOR rai&ingW A* 
TER. For a machine for railing water 
0Ut of deep wells^ fupertor to any in ufe; ^ 
thirty guineas. 

- Certifitatti and a model to be ptotftice^ 
on the fiirft Tuefday in February; 1790* ' 

a 10. MACnniE FOR ciEARiircr 
Rivers « For the beft modeletama* 
chine, fupenor to any now in ufe, fot 
clearing navigable rivers .frt?m weeds,^ at 
the leail cxpcnce ; ten guineas. 

To be produced on the firfl Tucfda/ 
in February, 1790. 


Fires. For atf eflfeftual method of ck- 
tinguifliing fire& in building^ ; the gold 
medal, or thirty guineas. 

To be produced on the fecoad I'uef* 
day in February, 1790. 


111. Nutmegs. For five pounds 
weieht of nutmegs, the growth of his 
Miijef^y 'a dominions io the Weft Indies \ 
the gold medal, or one hundred pounds. 
"' tertijicates to be produced on the firft 
Tuefday in December, 1789. 

114. Cinnamon^ For twentv pounds 
ttretg^4t, the growth of his MajeAy's 
idands in the Wefl Jndies, imported in 
1790. Samples to be produced 00 the 
£rft Tuefday in January, 1791. 
. ill ^. Bread Fruit Trek. Forcon- 
Tcyiog, io the year 1789, from the idands 
in the South Sea to the iflands in the Well 
Indies, (ix plants of one or both fpeciet 
of the bread fruit tree in a growing fUte; 
the gold medal. . 

' Certificates to be delivered oa the fe«' 
cond Tuefday in Odober, 1790/ 

aiS. Oil from Cotton' Seep. 
For one ton of oil and 6ve hundred 
weieht of cake from the feed 1 the gold 

Ceriificatts to be produce^, . ^t)i twa| 
gallons of oil and two dozen of cakes, 
on the laft Tuefday in November, 1789. 

219. Fbr half a ton of oil and xyio 
dozen of cakes ; the filver medal* 

120. Senna. For two hundred weight 
imported in 1789, the growth, of any «f 
the Britifh iflands in die Wefl Indies ; 
the gold medal. 

Certificatis to be produced on the ^lit 
Tuefclay in February, 1790. 

222. KAti FOR Barilla. For cut** 
tivating Bve acres of land with ^p^ntfh 
kali for making barilla; the gold n^cdah 

223. For three acres, the filver roedab 
Certificates to be produced on the le« 

cond Tuefday in November, 1789. 
" 128. Cashew Gum. Forimponing 
into Londoii, in the year 17S9, half a ton 
of the gums the gold medal, or thln^ 

Twenty pounds to be produced on'thtt 
fecond Tuefday in January, 1790* 



For JANUARY, 1789. 

Art. I. Le^ures en Hiftory and Gtmrai Policy % to which if pre- 
£x€d. An hflay on a Courfe of Liberal Education for Civil and 
Adivc Life. Hy Jofcph Pricllley, LL.D. F. R. S. Uq. &c. 410. 
il. IS. Boards. Johnibn. 1788. 

IT is a fnaxim of ancitnt wifdorriy not the lefs valuable, whether 
we derive its authority from Ariftippus or from coTncnoq 
fcnf^j that young perfons ought to be inftrudfd in fuch things 
as will be ufefal to them when they become men. Had this ob- 
vious rule been followed by our apceftors, they would have 
tranrmitied to iis more perfc^ plans of education ; or Were it at- 
tended tO) at prcfeitt, as it deferves, our modern mftitutions for 
tl)is purpofe would foon undergo matej-jal alterations. Futile 
fpeculations would be wholly diGnified from the fchools ; real 
fcience would ceafe to be profecuied beyond the line of utility^ 
and feverai branches of knowlege, which modern ingenuity and 
rmioAry hare difcovercd or improved, would be admitted into 
our circle of inftrudion. 

In a plan of ufeful edueafi^n^ it cannot be doubted that the 
fludy of hiflory wil be allowed a principal place. It feems de- 
iirable that this ftudy (bould be purfued in dififerent merhods, at 
difFecent periods of inftru6lion. At a very early age, when the 
memory alone can be advantitgeoufly employed, a brief epitomo 
of hiftory may be learned ; and by means of a general chart, 
aod other arcificial helps, a ftrong impreffion of tne great out- 
line of faAs may be fixed on the mind, which will be eafily re* 
tained, and may be applied to many ufeful purpofes. At a later 
period, the ftudent (hould be taught fomething more than mere 
names, dates, and fa<Ss; he (hould be alSfted to exercife his 
judgment on the great tranHK^^ons which are exhibited before 
bim in the field of hiftory. But, as it is impoflible that fo 
large a field can be fuccefsfully explored during the (hort term of 
education, the preceptor can iio little more than ioterefl his pu- 
pil in this branch of ftudy, by reprefenting to him the important 
ufes to which it is capable of being applied, and afFord bim a 
clue for his future lelearches, by pointing out to him th« fources 
VOL. LXXX. B of 


t Pricftlcy*! lu^ufis on Hijlary* 

of btftoiy, the moft eafy and advantageous method of ftudying 
ir, and the feyeral objcds which prrncip'<»11y demand his atten- 

It h for thU latler and more important period of hiftortcalio* 
ftriidion that thefe Le^iores are defigned : aad the in^nioaf 
and indefatigable author has fuUyr, and, as wi)l appear in the fe* 
fiael, very jodictoufly provided .the ftudent with fuch preparatory 
information, fu may ferve to render the ftody of biftory.pleafant,' . 
interefting, and ufeful. 

Dt, Prie(f]ey opens his courfe of hiftorical inftrudion with a 
brief illuftration of the tendency of hiftory to amufe the imagina- 
tion and intereft the paffions, to improve the underftardtn^, and 
to ftrerigthen our fentimcAts of virtue. He then diftin£ily exa^ 
dstnes the' nature and value of the feveral fources of hiftory, both 
dired and tndircd. Out of a great variety of joft and ufeful re- 
itiarks which occur in this part of the work, we (hall feleA the 
lollowing concerning law : 

' As tvtry new law is made to remove fome iacoavenienee the 
tate was fubjed to before the making of it, aod for wbtch no other ' 
method of rcdrefs was effedlual, the law itlelf is a ftandiugy and the 
Koft authentic, evidence we can require of the ftate of things pre- 
vious to it. Indeed, from the time that laws Began to be written 
Id fome regular form, the preamble to each of them is often an hifto- 
rical account of the evil intended to be remedied by it, as is the cafe 
with many of o«r ilatntes. Bat a fagadoes hiftorian has little occa- 
ion for any preamble to laws* They ijpeak fufficiently plain of 
ditn (elves. 

* When we read that a law was made>jr Clothaire King of France^ 
|bat no perfon ihould be condemned without being heard* do we 
need being told that before the time of the enading Uiat law the ad« 
minifbation of juflice was very irregular in that country, and that a 
jnan could have little fecurity for his liberty, property, or lift ? Is it 
»ot a proof that the fpirit of hofpitality begau to decline among the 
Bnrgundians as they grew more civilized, when there was occafion 
JFor a law to ponifli any Borgundian whb ihould fhew a ilranger to 
the houie of a Roman, inftead of entenaining him himfelfi 

* It is but an unfavourable idea that we form of the ftate of oater« 
aal and filial a^Fedion among the Romans, from the tenor off their 
bws, which (hew an extreme anxiety to retrain parents from doing 
injuAice to their own children. Children (fay their laws) are not 
to be difinherited without juft canfe, chiefly that of ingratitude ; the 
caufe mud be fet forth in the teftament; it muft 1^ tried by the 

* jud^, and verified by witneiTes, if denied. Whereas among other 
nations natural affe£Hon, without the aid of law, is a Cufficient mo* 
five with parents to do no injuftice to thttr chil<hren. A knowledge 
of another pan of the political conllitutton of the Romans will pro* 
bably help us to areafon for the uncommon defoft of natural akec* 
tion among- them. The PatrtM ¥oufias was in reality the power of 
a mailer over a ilave» the s%ty knowledge, and idea, ot which, 
though it were not often exerciied, was enough to produce feverity 

!i ptrentsv snd fear and diffi^e^ce jm cbUdren, which muft deftroy 
nutoil confidence and affedion. 

* Cafloms, and general maxims of condu^, being of the nature 
of oDwritcen hws, give us the fame in^gbi into the flate of things 
in a country. The high efteem in whrch hofpitality is held by the 
Arabt» and the reHgfous, and even fuperflitiotts pfaflice of it by them, 
and by other favage nations, (hews the great want there is of that 
wtoe in thofe countries, and that travelling is particoUdy dan* 
gerous in chem. 

* The laws and cuftoms of a country Hiew clearly what was the 
jnaoner of living and the occupation of the original inhabitants of it. 
That where we find that the elded fons fucceed to the whole^ or thd 

freateft part of the edate, w^ may be fure that we fee traces of feu* 
al nations, of a military life, and a monarchical government; ia 
which a prince is better ferved by one powerful va/Tal than by feveral 
Weak ones. • Where the children fucceed equally, it is a mark of a 
ftate having been addi^d to huAmndry, and inclined to a popular 
f qoal gorernment. And where the youneed faeceeds, we may take 
K for granted that- the people formerly lived a padoral and roving 
life, in which it is. natural for the oldeft to be provided for, and diU 
pofed of, the firft, and the younged to take what it left) a nannef 
<»flif^ which requires, and ad mi u of, little or noitgular govern- 

' The change of manners, and way of living, may be traced in the 
changes of the laws. Thus the change from a military to a com*^ 
snercial date may be traced in England by the progrefrof oar law8»' 
particularly thole relating to the alienation of landed property; a 
thing abfolutely inconfident with dridt feudal notions, and for a long 
time impra^icable in this cobntry ; but which took place by degrees^ 
as the intereds of commerce were perceived to require, that every 
thing valuable fhould circulate as n-eely as poflible ia a date. Ic 
mud, however, be confidered, that the change of laws does not keep 
«n equal pace with the change of manners, but follows fometimes 
Ht behind. In almod every cafe, the reafon and n^eflity of the 
thing fird introduces a change in the fra^ia, before the authority of 
Jaw confirms and authorifes it. This too is eafy to be traced in a 
great many of our Englifh laws, and particularly thofe which relate 
to the eafy transferring of property, for the purpofe of trade and 

* Without entering into particular laws, we may obferve of the 
ftate of laws in general, as was obferved with regard to language, 
that copioufnefs and refinement in them, and even intricacy and te- 
dioofneA in the adminidration of them, is an indication of freedom, 
and of improvements in civilized life ; and that few laws, and an 
expeditious adminidration« are marks either of the connexions of 
perfons being very few, andlittle involved (which is a necell^ry con- 
lequence of improvements), that the rights of perfons have not been 
attended to, and that the nation is but little advanced in the know* 
Mdge or tiofleffioa of thofe thinga on which their happinefs and ie- 
cnrtty chs^y depend ; or that too arbitrary a power is lodged in fomd 
hands or other ; it being well obferved by Montefquieu, that the 
tedionfocA and expence of faw-fnits is the price of lit;«rty«' 

B a T« 

'4 Pricftlcy*j LiHuris m Hijlfrj. 

The tenth, eleventh, and twelfth Leduret, which contain m 
accurate explanation, and, in our judgment^ a full vindication 
of the Newtonian Chronology, might, we think^ have been more 
properly introduced in the third part of this courfe, in which the 
author treats of what is necefiary or ufeful to be known previous 
to Che fludy of hiflory. After fome general remarks on the 
manner in which other branches of fcience may be applied to 
hiflory. Dr. P. explains the chief heads of chronology. As an 
article of information very ufeful in reading hiftory, he relates 
the fucceffive changes which have taken place in the value of 
nominal fums of money, and lays down rules for eflimating the 
proportion between money and the neceflaries of life. On the 
lubjed of money, he chiefly follows the accurate Arbuthnor. 
The article might have been materially improved by confulting 
Clarke's Connexion of Roman, Saxon, and Eoglifli Coins— a 
work of claffical corrednefs, and profound erudition. 

In the fourth Part of tbele Ledures, Dr. P. treats of various 
methods for facilitating the fludy of hiftory. Here be pro* 
pofes feveral mechanical modes of affifting the memory, partt- 
crularly chronological tables. Grey's Method of recolleAing Dates 
by technical Lines, and charts of hiftory and biography. The 
author's own charts are here very properly introduced to the ftu* 
dent's attention, as there is no doubt, that they mav be ufed 
with great advantage in reading hiftory. The Btographical 
Chartt particularly, is a very ingenious and ufeful invention. 
We are furprifed that no notice is taken, in this place, of Play- 
fair's Chronology. 

The author next proceeds to point out a method in which the 
principal hiftorxal writers of antiquity may be read, fo as to coU 
led from them a tolerably regular feries of fads ; and adds a 
few ftridures on the charaders of the principal ancient hifto- 
rians, and a chronological feries of original authors, with an 
account of other authentic documents, on the Englifti hiftory. 
Both thefe articles, in which Dr. P. chiefly follows Wheare and 
Nicholfon, are, in bur opinion, carried farther into detail than, 
is defirable in a courfe of academical inftrudion. The ledurer's 
bufinefs is to open the door of hiftory to the ftudent, not to con- 
dud the writer into its recefles. 

If however thd perufal of this part of the work fhould be 
thought tedious, the reader will be amply repaid when he arrives 
at the fifth Part, in which upward of thirty Ledures are fpent 
in pointing out the moft important obje(5)s of attention in hif- 
tory. Here the author treats difiindly of the feveral fources of 
population, fecurity and happinefs, fuch as Government, Law, 
Agriculture^ Manufadurcs, Commerce, Finances^ Manners, and 

. Of 

PricftleyV Lg^ures on Hiflory. 5 

Of the great variety of ufefui information, and iudtcioas ob- 
fenrationa, contained in this pait of the Courfe of Ledurea no«r 
before us, it is iitipoffible, within the limits to which we are 
obliged to confine our ftridurea, tbatwefliould give our readers 
moy adequate idea : we muft therefore content ourfelves with lay- 
ing before them a fingle fp^cimen, in the following obfervations 
on the Advantages and Difadvantages of National Debts : 

* It fecms not \try difficult briefly to point out the principal ad- 
vantages and difadvantages attending tnefe national debts. Th^ 
capital advanUge of them is, that they aflbrd relief in great emer*- 
l^encies, and may thereby give a greater permanency to flates^ which 
JO former cimes^ for want of fuch great occafiona! refources, were 
liable to be overturned without remedy. And if the taxes necef- 
fary to pay the intereft of thefe debts be not immoderate, they are, 
as was obferved before, 'of no diflervice to a nation upon the whole. 

* Some have reprefented the national debt as having the fame 
operation with the addition of fo much capital flock to the nation, 
encouraging the induftry of it, tec. But whatever money is i/Tued in 
the form of paper by the government, it is firft depofued in the form 
of cafhby the individual. The man who pays the tax gives up fo 
much of his property, fo that it ceafes to he produdive to him, and 
ic is generally expended by government in army and navy expences, 
revenue of officers, gratuities, &c. which yield no return. It is like 
a man giving his fon a fum of money which he expends'in eating and 
drinking. The money, no dqubt, is employed, and thereby indufbry 
is encouraged; but it is only that kind of indudry which raifes thq 
price of confumable goods. U any man, or any nation, (hould give 
all their property in this manner, they would certainly be impo- 
veriihedt though thofe to whom their money was transferred would 
be gainers. 

* Some perfons have paradoxically maintained that there can be 
no inconvenience whatever attending any national debt ; that by 
this means the price of every thing is indeed raifed, but that thisaf- 
fe^ing all perfons alike, they will be as well able to pay the ad- 
vanced prices, as they were the lower ones. The fallacy of this 
reafbning may perhaps be moft eaiily expofed by the following flate 
of the cafe. 

* Let us fuppofe a fociety toconfiH of a thoufand labourers, and 
a thoufand perfons juil able to employ them. If (his factety be 
loaded with any debt, and confequently be obliged to pay a tax ; 
iince all the labourers muft ilill fubiid, and their employers can give 
them no more than they do, fome of thefe mu/l become labourers 
therofelves, fo that the price of this additional labour fhall be equal 
to the amount of the tax. Ic is evident, therefore, that the whole 
power of the fociety will be exhaufted when the thoufand, who firft 
employed the labourers, (hall be all brought into the fame Hate with 
them ; and when the price of their labour fhall be limited by the 
market to which it is brought. The tendency of a public debt, 
therefore, is to encreafe the quantity of labour in a country ; and to 
a pertain degree this may be favourable, by promoting induftry, bu^ 
when carried to an cx^reipe^ (he country oiyft be diftr^flcd. 

3^ 3 * Sa 

6t Prtcftley'j LiBwru §n KJhry. 

^ &• long u the la|>oarers can raife the price of their laboar^ ao 
ux can hurt tb^m* Iff for ioftance, each of them he obliged to fzy 
ofie Qulliog a week, and their w^ges have been twelve, they muft de« 
mand thirteen {hillings ; for their wages muft be fafficient to fubfift 
them. But when the w^ges they mult abfolutely havej, in order to 
pay all the demands upon them, cannot be given> the procefs muft 
. * We flial) always deceive oarfelves when we imagine that the cafe 
of a country is, in this refped, at all diferent from that of an indi- 
vidoal, or of a number of individuals, and that though debts may 
ruin the latter, they will not hurt the former. The only difference 
is, chat a ftate cannot be compelled to pay its debts. But when it» 
credit is exhaufied, it will not only be unable to contra^ any more 
debts, but may not have it in itl power even to pay the intered' of 
thofe already con traded ; and in that cafe it mull necefiarily be €X% 
pofed to all (he inconveniences attending the numerous infolvenciea 
which muft be occafioned by its own. And if the infolvency of Ono 

Sreat merchant, or banker, produce great diftrefs in a country, how 
readfttl mall be the confequence attending the infolvency of fuch a 
nation as^ England ! It mull be fo extenfive and complicated as no 
politician can pretend to defcribe a priori. 

* The inconvenience of fuch a debt as the Engltih have now con- 
trailed, and which they rather feem difpofed to increafe than dimi- 
|il(h, is great, aiid iftay be fatal. If foreigners (hould become poflefibra ' 
of the greateH (hare of our funds, we are in fad tributary to them, 
#nd the di£Ference is very little if they be natives. For ftill tho 
people are debtors to another body than themfelves, though they 
may, in fome refpeds, have the fame intereft. But the mod we have 
fO fear from the accumulation of the national debt will begin to bo 
lelt when the intereil of it comes to be fo great, that it cannot b9 
defrayed by the taxes which the country is able to raife, and when, 
eoniequently, the monied people, notwithftandrn'g their intereft in 
keeping up the national credit, will not venture to lend any more, 
l^hen one of thcfe two confequences muft follow, which I ihall in- 
troduce in the words of Mr. Hume. '' When the new created funds 
for the expences of the year are not fubfcribed to, and raife not tho 
money proje£|ed ; at the fame time that the nation is diftrefled by % 
* foreign invaAon, or the like, and the money is lying in the Ex- 
^ chequer to difcharge the intereil of ti|e old debt; the numey rouft 
either brieized for the current fervice, and the debt be cancelled, 
by the violation of all national credit; or, for want of that money, 
the nation be enflaved/' 

< What we have mod to fear from the accumulation of our na- 
tional debt is not perhaps a fudden bankruptcy, but the gradqal'dif 
minution of the*power of the Hate, in confequence of the increafe of 
taxes, which discourage indultry, and make itdi$cult to vend our 
manufactures abroad, The private revenue of the inhabitants of 
Great Qriuin, Dr. Smith fays *, is at prefent as much incumbered 
in time of peace, and their ability to accumulate as much impaired, 
us it would have been in the (ime of the moft expenfive war, had the ' 

— ' » I II I ■ ' * ' a 1 1 1 I ■ " I . . 1 I . I . ^ \ Kt 

Plrfeftlcy V Ltifuni n 'Hiftarf^ f 

pcr&ick>iit fyAeiD of faodiog sever been adopted. Tie prafflbe of 
foDdiBgy lie fays, hfts gradually enfeebled every Ihice tvliicb ham 
adopced it. The Italian repobJics feeni lo have begun It. Genoa 
and Venice, tbe only two remaining which can pretend to an inde* 
Madenc exigence, have both been enfeebled by it. Spain feetoi lo 
have learned the pradice from the Italian republics ; and (its taxes 
beiog probably lefs jadicious than theirs) it hat in pn^rtion to its 
tiataral ftrength been fiill more enfeebled. The debts of Spain aro 
of very old landing. It was deeply in debt before the end of the 
£zteenth century, aboat an bundled years before England owed a 
flulling. France, notwithAanding its natural refoorces, langoifhes 
Dpdcr an oppreflive load of the fame kind. The republic of the 
United Provinces is as much enfeebled by its debts as either Genoa 
or Venice. Is it likely then, he adds, tha^ in Great Britua alone 
ft pradice, which has either brought weaknefsor deiblacion i|itO every 
other country, Oiould prove altogether innocent ? 

' When debts have been contraded, and a fond appointed for 
paying the intereft of chem, it is generally contrived to be fo ample* 
as lo do lojBething more than this, and the furplot is made a fund 
Sorfinkimg^ or paying off, the debt ; and is therefore called afinkiw^ 
fmmd^ And as difcharging the debt difcharges the intereft of the 
dchi at the fame time, it neceiTarily operates in the manner of com- 
pound intereH, and therefore will in time annihilate the debt. Bot 
the temptation to apply this finking fund to other purpofes is fo great« 
that it has been of liule ufe in this country. 

* To faciliute (he payment of thefe debts, it is cuftomary with 
fome nations to borrow upon lives, viz. either to give the lender an 
annuity for his own life, or an annual fum to a number of per/bns to 
expire with the laft life. This laft method is called a tontint. Both 
theie methods have facceeded better in France than with us. 

' Mr. PoiUethwaite pakes an eftimate of what taxes thefe king- 
doms may be fuppofed to bear, in the following mimner. People 
who live in plenty, as in England, may part with a te^th of their 
income ; but fo poor as Scotland and Ireland in general are, a twen- 
tieth to them would be as mnch as a tenth to the Engliih. By which* 
coniidering the number of the people^ ^nd their incomes, computed 
at a medium, he puts the amount of all that can be drawn from the 
three kingdoms annually at eight millions three hundred and feventy- 
Ave thouund pounds. 

' Experience has taught as that we are able to bear a mnch greater 
burden than this, or than any peribn, even the qtoft fanguine amonf 
OS, had imagined we ever conld bear i our national debt at prefent 
being about two hundred and forty millions, the intereft of which is 
twelve millions. However, without naming any particular fum, If 
the national debt ihould be raifed ib high that the taxes will not pay 
the intereft of it, ^nd at the fame time defray the ordinary expencea 
of government, one or other of the confequences above mentioned 
mnft en^ue. And in the mean time oor manufa^u res mud be bur* 
dened, and confequently pur ability to pay taxes muil be diminiihed, 
by ^erv addition to the national debt. 

• Initead of paying off any part of the national debt, fome think 
it would be better, i,} foon as the produce of aoy tax would enable 

B 4 ^9 


S Coftigan^i Siitcbis ^fSoeitty in PmugdU 

the (late to to ic» to take off feme of the other more bartheofo»e 
taxes, efpecially focb as tend to check manufactures, and thereby to 
diminifh the power of acquiring wealth. For if the country grow 
SDore wealthy, the debt, though nominally the fame, becomes ia 
reality lefs, in proportion to the greater ability to oifcharge it. Thos 
a p<rrfon in a good way of trade does not always find it his intereft 
to p y his debts, becaufe he can employ that furplus by which he 
could difcharge them to a better account. For it is podible that 
with an hundred pounds, by which be might have diminilhed his 
debts, he mav acquire a thoufand. 

« It can hardly be expcded, however, that miniflers of ftate 
will have the magnanimity, or the judgment, to ad upon this plan. 
Otherwife, by adding to (omt taxes, as thofe on land and houfes, ac- 
quired by wealth, and diminifhing thofe on manufadurcs, by which 
wealth is acquired, a nation might become fo. wealthy, as that its 
debts would be of little confequence to it. But till mankind are 
cured of the expen^ve folly of going to war, it is not ^ven deliral>le 
that nations fhould have any large furplus of wealth at the difpoial 
of their governors ; as it would be fure to be fquandered in fome 
inifchievous projed. Wife nations therefore, not being fure of a 
fuccefiion of wife governors, will' be content to be jull able to pay 
the interefl of their debts, as the only fecurity for peace, and indeed 
the only guard againfl dellrudion.' 

Though we cannot entirely agree with our author in feveral 
' of the oprnions which he advances, particularly in his ideas of 
religious eftablifliments, we make no fcruple of recommending 
thefe Ledures to our readers, efpecially to young perfons ; who 
will find them of great ufe, not only to affift them in the (ludy 
of hiftory, but to awaken their attention to important objeds^ 
and lead tbem to a habit of reflcdion and inquiry. 

Tbefe Ledures were drawn up many years ago, when the 
author was a Tutor in the Academy at Warrington. The in- 
trodudory Eflfay was firft publiibcd in the year 1764. 

Art. II. Skeubts of Society and Manntrs in Portugal. In a Series of 
Letters from Artbur William Coltigan, filq. late a Captain of the 
]ri(h Brigade in the Service of Spain, to his Brother in London. 
8vo. 2 Vols. I OS. 6d. Boards. Vernor. 1788. 

T'HESE entertaining Letters are given to the world, as the 
genuine correfpondence o^ an officer, who wrote from ob- 
fervation and experience; but they frequently ^breathe fo much 
of the fpirit of romance, and of fiflitious difguife, that a fufpi- 
clous redder will be apt to queftion the authenticity of the whole. 
We have, however, no doobc as to the truth Of the general rc- 
prefencation here given of thecharafler of the Portuguefe nation, 
and of the contrai^fd genius and illiberal maxims of their go« 
vernment. Much pains have evidently been taken to give us a 
moft unfavourable idea both of the politics and morals of our 


Coftigan'j Stitches of Society in Portugah ^ 

Lufitaniao friends ; and it is to be feared that in many particn* 
larsy the author, or authors [^or we fufped a plurality of wrictr^ 
—the oame given in the title having the appearance of a nom* 
pc/iicie^ to conceal the real origin of tbefe volumes], come verj^ 
near the truth : though not a few of them feem rather eutrism 
The charaAers, or pidtures, may have fome refembhnce, though 
certain parts may be over*cbarged, or revengefully caricatured ; 
or, the amiable fide may have been carefully concealed, while 
the deformities are expofed to our derifion and abhorrence. We 
all know how eafy it is to enlarge any feature that is already of 
lemarkable prominence, or to deepen the colouring, where the 
complexion is naturally dark. Had the gentlemen been liberal 
enough to point oiit the proper reinedies to thofe diforders which 
they are fo induftrious to difplay, and which they, poffibly, ill 
fome inftances may have magnified ; it might have helped to 
cover, or excufe, the appearance of prejudice, which ipay be 
deemeci rather too predominant throughout this publication. 
The holding out to public view, private names and charaders, to- 
gether with confidential converfations, is a mod mifchievous 
kind of writing, and worthy of the fcvereft reprehenfion ; efpc- 
daily when an author's prudence and caution induce him t6 
conceal his name. Anonymous reporters of fafls may think 
themfelves at liberty to difguife, conceal, or exaggerate, as they 
pleafe ; but what credit can the Public afford to their reprefenta- 
tions? to whom (ball the doubtful apply for an explanation? 
and, above all, where (hall the injured charader rcfort for re- 
drefs ? The cafe is difFerfsnt with refped to matters of opinion % 
for thofe are eternal fubjefls of concroverfy. In a word, the 
condud here reprehended, is fuch as manifefily tends to ruin 
the liberty of the prefs, and drive the Uttered world back to bar* 
barifm ! 

The writer of this article has fome aAual knowlege of Portu- 
gal, and other parts of Europe ; concerning which he has often 
met with the very queftionable reprefentations of thofe difapr- 
pointed adventurers with which many nations abound. In moft 
countries, indeed, we generally find, among the ftrangers occa- 
fionally refiding, or even thofe that are fettled there, the moft 
difcontented people, — ever ready to give unfavourable accounts 
of the country, and of thofe governments under which thcy^ 
after all, enjoy protedion. But how much eafier is it to do harna 
than good, — to pull down than to build, — to kill than to cure! 

The Letters under confideration muft, however, have juftice 
rendered co tbem. — Notwithftanding the intermixrure of roman- 
tic iiories and love-adventures, which give to a book of travels 
loo much of the air of a novel, they contain a very confiderable 
ponion of ufcful and pleafing information : we here refer, par- 
cicaiarly, to the hiftorical and travelling anecdotes, which may 
13 af&ft 

lO Cottlgin*sSht£hso/SacittyinPirt6g4t0 

9ffift us in formiuig |ufl:. ideat of the couhtrjr nod people d^fcrilH 
^dj^ and thotsgh tbefe deuils may nor be liwayi ftrifily.true^ 
tboHgt^ the (kecch may not afford a very cxaA refemblance $ 
ye( they are better than no drawing at aU.-r-la the ddioeauoii 
given, in tbefe Liters, of civil and eccJefiafitcal tyranny, it was 
impoffible to exaggerate. Tbefe evils, fo deftrudive to bumaa 
happioefs, the b>ne qf every fociety in which tbey prevail, arc 
truly and jufily prelented to our abhorrefloe ; though the re« 
nedy here pointed out, by a c^i tf latusf or by the reJuC" 
iicn $f ibi kingdom of Portugal to a Spanijh promna^ mighe 
prove very inadequate;— -and the latter would be certainly 
worfe than the difeafe. 

The Letters aflfbrd us likewife very. good pidures of Porto^ 
guefe life and manners ; though, in many inftaoces, die por« 
failure feems coofiderabl.y over-charged,— the outline carica* 
lured, — and the colouri/ig too much heightened : the amiablo 
fide of acharafier4s, we apprehend, too frequently forgotten in 
|he defcripcion ; and perhaps the merits of many of their gen- 
tlemen and officers may have been ibmetimes overlooked. Among 
both tbefe clafles, we know that there are not wanting indi«> 
viduals as truly efiimable, in refpe^l of principles and conduA^ 
as any in Europe. 

3ut fome fpecimen.will be expeded, in which the wbrkmsy 
fpeak for itfclf. The foUcwing paflfages are ielcded from tb< 
account of the pieient ftate of Portugal, with reference to mat* 
lers both tcclcfiaftical and political. 

< This little couotry prefcnts a flrikiog inHaoce of how far the hu* 
man mind and chara£ter may be depraved and a>rrupted, by tha 
banefol influence of a domineering and fidtitious mode of worfliip, 
which has entirely banifhed and TopprefTed every fentiment of vir« 
tue, or aimod any attempt towards the gbddnefs of. a mOral a£kiona 
which (to nfe fnch an exprelHon) can with difficoUy be committed 
here without being ccnfured by the adive and dangerous fpies and 
jDinifters of a jealoos and worthless religion. Here the practice and 
exercife of thofe fentimencs of piety, gratitude, generofity, bene* 
Tolence^ and univerfal charity, which 1 am perfuaded would often 
arife naturally in the breads of moil men, if only left to them- 
felves, are diverted, and another and mod pernicious diredion is 
given to their efFe^. The ardour of the pjous^ and devout it di- 
rected to adore at the Ihrine of the Saint in the neighbourhood, 
moft famous for having performed fome wretched miracle, too ridi* 
culoni to detain the attention even of lin old woman or an infant^ 
and it is here alfo where Generofity and Gratitude are taught to 
leave their prefents and make their offerings. The fird and great 
object of charity all over this country and Spain, is the relieving 
of the fouls in Purgatory, by laviihing money on Churches anl 
Convents, for Mades to be (aid on that account; and foch an in* 
iluence has the belief of that ideal place of torment, that it wil) 
faueeze hard caih from between the fingers of many a mifer, when 


Coftigan*i Skttcbti of S9cu^ in Porhtgti. %% 

tuo cAet coafideratioD could have podaced that effed; Aty; i^'de* 
pniv«d mretlie uiidcrftaodin^ of (lie befl iatentioned people, by che 
pemric lefibos of their fpiriioal diredors> that their charitable do- 
Afttoni lot peribns in dilrefty are uftaccorapanied with ihaie liberal 
aad d]fince«efted actives of relieving che neoeffitooB aad comforting 
the afflided^ which are, in my opinion, the beSt ftimolativefl to 
foch a^ont, and are divefted of their .principal merit, by being 
be^wed from fel&fli and perfonal confideraiions : for ia« the tafier- 
ceffioni of others, , efpecially of perfonjs who have once addrc6 
eaough to be looked on by the multitude as of extraordinary ianc* 
tity, are reckoned, of the greateft avail, fo wherever fuch^a pcWba 
or perfoas appear, they are frequented by all the people, rounds 
whole confidences accofe them of any deadly vices or irxegularitieu 
who load fuch devotees with alms and charitable gifts, charging 
them at the lame to intercede earne^y in their favour with the Vir^ 
gin, or with their particular Saint or Angel $ and the prayers <^ 
foch peribns are efteemed by all as of the aftoH falutary effed : evea 
ia ^My forms of private prayers which the. grave direding Fryzn- 
prelcribe for the ufe of their penitents, thefe are taught to represent 
to their Saint, or to the Divinity (if they addrefs him, which /el-* 
dom happens), their own good works, the charities they have done* 
or the ficknefs, disorders and aiHidions they have fufiered, and to 
reqoeft that, in confideration of thefe, fo much may be difcountei 
from the degree of puaifliraent their fins may be found to deCtrve, 
eftabli(hiog, by this means, a ibrt of account current of debtor and 
creditor, between themielves and the Almighty or his agents. And 
fo oaiverfal is this notion among the people, that when they give 
charity to a common beggar in the ftretts^, .they charge that beggar 
to pray for them, that fuch charity may b^ admitted in difcount o£ 
their traoigr^ons, and which you may believe the beggar faithfully 
eogages to do. 

* Thus by the illiberal and noxious principles of the religion 
eiUblifhed in this peoinfula, the divine fptrit of godlike charity 
itfelf is firipped of its bnghtefl ornament ; I mean, the folacing and 
delightful confideration of relieving the diHrefled part of our fellow^ 
creatures, and of embracing all our brethren of mankind in tho 
arms of friendlbtp and affedion, without the fmalleft regard to the 
aiean and degrading notions of feif-intexeiled motives or inten- 

' The* nature of this Government may be fairly pronounced the 
moft defpotic of any kingdom in Europe; and I believe I have 
hinted to you in former epifiles, that the eilabliihed law is generally 
a dead letter, excepting where its decree^ are carried into execnr- 
tion by the fupplementary mandates of the Sovereign, which are 
generally employed in defeating the purposes of fafety and pro* 
trdion, which law is calculated to extend equally over all ^the 

* Confidering the incredible degree of ignorance in which the 
Sovereign Princes of Portugal have been educate^, at lead ever fioce 
the rafi) and unfortunate King Sebaftian, confiderio| the fingular 
degree of imbecility, and want of talents, which have \o remarkably 
diiljiiigQilh^ \h^ r^i^is^ family of Bragao9a, fron^ the &xik King 

li Don 

tl Cofiigan'i Sketches, of Society in Portugetl. 

Don Jobn the Foarth (who would not have dared to accept the 
CrowD his people held out to him, had not his wife, a high-fpirited 
Spaniard, urged him on to that a6l of rebellion againft ner D«tive 
country), to the prefent moment, in which any hopes of bettering 
their fituation, by the favourable profpedl of the future, are fadfy 
precluded, bv the difpofttion of the Heir Apparent) the prefeac 
Prince of the Brafils, not to fay a word of the two Royal Perfonages 
who adnalty fill the throne, and with the utmofl defpotifm reign over, 
afid have three millions of people fubroit to their weak government. 

• I will take upon me roundly to affirm, that no caufe purely of 
this world, could have ever been able to produce fuch a mouftroas 
^flPed, and that it became neceflary to have recourfe to the terrors of 
the next, in order to rivet the chains of defpotifm and abfolute powel*. 

* In fuch a fituation of Prince and people, how happy were it for 
this nation, were there to be found in it a certain rank of citizens, pri- 
vifeffed by their profcflion, and refpedlable to the Defpot hirafelf, 
who filould intercede in behalf of their oppre/Ted fellow.fubjeds, 
who (hould, on the part of Heaven, reprimand his infbfence, and 
fiipulate with him for the injured rights of mankind ? Such a nob)e 
and godlike employment appears to belong particularly to that pro- 
ftflion of men, who here fo infolently give themfelves out as the 
depoiltaries of the divine Oracles, and the difpenfers of the precepts 
cf ajuft and terrible God. How would fuch men be adored by their 
countrymen, h much prejudiced in their favour, even as things now 
ikand, were they bat to ferve them as a Aiield and fafeguard againft 
the tyranny and oppreffion of the Prince ? What real and voluntary 
vefpedl would they not have foon acquired, if, inllead of feeding 
their audiences with froth, ufelefs reveries, dreams, and the un- 
availing [repetition of fenfelefs and impoflible miracles, their na- 
merous preachers were vigoroufly to infift from the pulpit upon the 
beauty and neceffity of charity, humanity, equity and juflice, and if 
they u^re to fecond and fupport the rights of mankind by the mart- 
dates of Heaven, from whence they pretend to derive fuch unlimited 
authority ? then no man would ever think of reproaching them with 
the exorbitancy of their power, their prerogatives, or riches, were 
they to make ufe of them for the good of fociety, and for the pur- 
pofe of reftraining the pafltons of thofe mercilefs tyrants, which no 
jpower 01) earth has yet been able to keep within bounds : even the 
phtlofopher himfelf might he induced to forgive them their dreams, 
nierr fables, and the fauehood of their dogmas, did they but make 
wfe of them to terrify into a fenfe of rhcir duty thofe Princes, whom 
ignorance, joined to the uncurbed force of all the noxious paflioRS> 
ktti^s with regard to the knowledge of good gover/iment in a ftateof 
perpetual infancy. 

♦ But the uniform experience of all nations is more than fufficient 
to convince the greeted fceptic that fuch was neier the difpofition of 
the Pricfthood, and that the Church has always found it the (horteft 
ai>d eaiieil road to riches, power, and independence, by flattering 
the rices of the tyrant of the day or place, by joining the fpiritu^ 
to the temporal power, and by trampling thus united upon the tights 
of the people, fo that the interefls of defpifed humanity have bceA 
l>arely facriEced to the unbounded avarice and ambition of ci\dl aa^ 
ecde^allical tyranny.' 


IMiVs Sjfiim ^ Smiify. VxH. VL ' i j 

From *the free and liberal fentiments interCperfed in the fore- 
going extrads, our Readers will be enabled to form a judgment 
<if tbc Writer's general opinions on thcfe important fubjeds — 
SubjeAs {o highly interefting to every reader, and every citi- 
zeo, of whatever country, ^whether Chriftian, MobaAmedan, 
or Hindoo* 

A«T. III. J Syflem of Surgery, By Benjamin Bell, Member of the 
Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Ireland and Edinburgh, &c. &c. 
Vol. VI. Illuftrated with Copper-places. 8vo. 6s. 6d. Boards. 
Elliot, Edinburgh; Robinfons, London. 1788. 

AT length we are able to congratulate the Public, but more 
efpecially the ftudents jn furgery, on the completion of « 
work, which will afford them almoft every necefTary affiftance 
in obtaining a competent knowlege of the theory and pradice 
of the art. We would not, however, be underftood to mean 
tbat Mr. Bell's Surgery is the only book that will be necefiary 
for the ftudent : much previous readirg, and above all, a con- 
fiderable (hare of anatomical knowlege, will be abfolutely re* 
qai&e, not only to perufe the work with advantage, but even, 
in many infiances, to comprehend tbe meaning of the ingenious 

Tbc extent of the art, and the improvements that have lateljr 
been made, both at home and abroad, have neceflarily increafed 
the bulk of this fyfiem, perhaps more than the Author at iirft 
imagined ; on which account, he hath moft probably omitted 
minute anatomical defcriptions ; — rightly fuppofing his readers 
Co be well grounded in a fcience which is the only foundation of 
the praAice of furgery, and without which little proficiency 
can be made in it. 

This laft volume begins with the 39th chapter of the work; 
in which the Author treats of FraSiuns. After fome obferva- 
lions on the fymptoms, nature, and treatment of fraSures in 
general, Mr. Bell proceeds to coniider the fradures of different 
bones, and (hews, in addition to what he advanced in com- 
mon^ how each is to be treated wrth refpefk to its particular 
fituation, and the peculiar circumftances with which it is at- 

In the general diredions for reducing fractures of the limbs, 
Mr. Bell (hews the great impropriety of violent extenfions, 
efpecially when they are applied while the limb is on tbe 
firetch. He rightly obferves, that the chief refiftance met 
with in reducing a fractured limb, arifes from the a£lion of the 
neighbouring mufcles ; and that if the limb be put in fuch a 
fituation, that its mufcles may be as much as poffible relaxed, 
tbe redtt^ion will then be performed with the greate^ eafe. For 


14 BcIlV ^jfiim 0f Surgiry. Vol. VI, 

this naCerial fniprovciMfit the world .is indebted to the late Mr* 
Pott, to whom Mr. Bell offers a juft tribate of praife. * 

In the dire&ions for treating the ioAammation which nfnall^ 
accompanies fraiSures, our Author recommends the ^ early u(e 
of afiringent * appHcations, fuch as a folutioo of Saab. Satunu 
of Sal jfmmon, or Spt* Mindirer.* He infifts on the ufe of tbcfe 
applications, with a. view rather to prevent the inflammation* 
tbsm to remove it when formed. Inflammation is doubtlefs a 
fymptom which of all others demands the furgeon's chief atten- 
tion, as its confequences are often fatal, frequently dangeroas* 
and always trouMefome^ That the Author ibould, therefore* 
on fo important a part of his fubje£t, be diffufe, is more par- 
donable, than that he Ihould be de/edlive, or fail of giving full 
inftrudions for the management of that fymptom, which, when 
prefent, is perplexing to the furgeon, and difirefsful to the fuf- 
ferer; and which, unlefs it be fpeedily removed, produces, if 
the patient efcape with his life, long-continued pains refem-* 
bling rhe^matifm, coiitradions of the tendons, exuberancy of 
the calltfs, deformity of the limb, perpetual weaknefs and 
lamenefs', which are frequently attributed to the ignorance of 
the furgeon, 6t mifmanagement in the redu£lion of the frac* 
ttire. Topical bleeding is the only effeAual remedy for fup- 
preffing the inflammation arifing from the bruife of the foft 
parts ; and Mr. Bell prefers leeches to the lancet; which he 
applies in large quantities all over the contufed part. There is* 
however, another kind of inflammation, which arififs, nor from 
any external injury done to the foft parts, but from the irrita- 
tions of fliiarp fpHnters of the bone which are not properly re- 
placed, or which are perhaps wholly detached : in fuch cafes, 
leeching is of no fervice ; and as they feldom happen except in 
compound fra(lures, the fliarp ends of the bones can be fawn 
off, or the detached parts entirely removed ; and in Ample frac* 
tures, the detached parts of the bone frequently preventing an 
union, an incifion may be made for extrading them ; but this 
muft be done with great caution, for fear of wounding the 
blood-veflels; and it muft never be attempted until other me- 
thods have failed. 

Many caufes are enumerated which tend to impede the union 
of the ends of frs^dured bones, and proper direfiions are given 
for the peculiar management of each cafe. As thefe caufes are 
very various, and as it is impoffible that the method of removing 
one (bould fucceed in all, the Authqr has beftowed much labour 
in (hewing how they are to be known from each other. This 
circumftance is Common to Mr. Bell, who is, as we have often 

• pifcutitnt or refelltnt is the ufual epithet. 


Bell*/ ^j/lim tf iutiiry. Vol. VI. 1 J 

had occafion to remark tn onr review of hit former Tolame^^ 
J^eculiar }jr attentive to point out the diagnofticB. 

After having iiniOied hi,s general direfliQns, he proceedt to 
confider the fradures of the nofe, of the bones of the face» pf 
the inferior maxillary bone, the clavicles, the ribs, the Stitnum^ 
the Fertibra^ Sacrum^ Coccyx^ the OJfa Inmminata ♦, the Sca^- 
fula^ the Humerus^ the bones of the fore arm, wrifb, and hands; 
toe thigh-bone, Patetla^ and the bones of the legs and fee^t. 

Of compound fradures, and their management, Mr. Bell 
treats at large, fn a feparate fedion. ThefirftobjeA in thefe 
cafes is, to reftrain hemorrhages when they take place; the 
next ts, to confider whether the furgeon muft attempt to (are 
the limb, or to recommend amputation. This is an important 
enquiry; and the Author gives it all the attention which its 
importance feems to require. He fiates the opinions of former 
writers ; (heivs the impropriety of ra(b determinations ; and 
gives a number of excellent general diredions for the furgeon^ 
condud. He difluades from immediate amputation in private 
praQice, where patients can be kept quiet and perfectly at reff, 
and where proper attention can he infured on the part of the 
Turgeon, as weli as of experienced nurfes, uniefs when the bonri 
are fo ihittered that they cannot reunite; or when, from the 
violence of the injury, the texture of the foft parts is completely 
deftroyed: but in the navy and army, he thinks it may frev 
quently be neceflary to ufe immediate amputation, where the 
patient is expofed to a variety of bardfliips which tend to ag« 
gravate his danger, and where no accommodation can tje pfo« 
cttred nor attention given to leflen it. This praftice, however^ 
is ftill ^rthth* reSridked to fra^res of the thigh and humerus^ or 
where both the bones of the leg or fore-arm are broken. 

When amputation is not performed immediately or foon after 
the injury, it ought not to be attempted for feveral days ; dif- 
ferent caufes may then render it ncceflary. ift. Hemorrhages ua« 
der certain circumftances: 2d, Extenfive mortification i^^l^^ Tht 
ta^% oY the bones remaining difunited, while a copious dit 
charge of matter endangers the finking of the patient's ftrengtb. 
Each of thefe heads is diftin<Stly treated, and directions art 
given for determining when and how the operation may be per* 

In the 40th chapter, on luxations, Mr. Bell firft defcrihef^ 
tbofe fympeoms that are common to all diflocations, and gives 
the ufual genera] diredions for reducing them. The fubfequent 
pirts of this chapter are allotted to particular luxations, and 
their method of cure. The Author here proceeds in his ufual 

• We wifli that this term was abolUhad. 


.9$ BcU'i Sx/!im ff Sarg^y. V6l, VI. 

manoert, giving ample dire^lion^, on the moft approved prlo^ 
ciples, tor reducing the diilocations, and retaining the bone in 
its proper place. 

The next two chapters are on diftorted bones ; in which Mr* 
Bell (hews how diftortions are produced, how they may be pre- 
vented, and the means that are moft likely to fucceed in order to 
remove them. 

The 43d chapter is allotted* to the confideration and defcrlp-^ 
tion of amputation ; an operation which ought never to be per- 
formed where it can poffibly be avoided ; vet as it is often the 
only means of preferving Uile, it is frequently neceflary, although 
it may be repugnant to humanity, diftrefsfui to the unfortunate 
fufierer, and in fome circumftances fo fraught with danger, that 
nothing but a full and clear conviction of its neceflity can war- 
rant the propoiing it in any cafe. As to the operation itfelf, it 
is by no means difficult, and may be eafily performed by any 
perfon accuftomed to handle inftruments ; but to diftingui(h 
with precifion the cafes which require it, from thofe which 
might fucceed under a different treatment ; and to determine 
the particular period when it ought to be performed, are circum- 
ftances which demand more deliberation than perhaps any other 
in the whole pra&icc of furgery. Mr*. Bell therefore enumerates 
the cafes where amputation may be neceflary, ail ot which are com- 
prehended under the following heads. !• Bad compound fradures. 
2* Extenfively lacerated, or contufed wounds. 3« Limbs (bat- 
tered by a cannon-ball. 4. Mortifications. 5. White fwell- 
ings. 6. Large and increafing exofiofes. 7. Caries. 8. Can- 
cers and inveterate ulcers. 9. Various kinds of tumours, jo. 
Difiortions of limbs. In the preceding cafes, circumftances 
ofttfn occur which render amputation the only means of preferving 
life; and in pointing out thofe circumfiances, in determining 
when, and in defcribing how, the operation ou^ht to be per- 
formed, the Author appears in the feveral characters of a judi* 
cious dire£tor, an expert operator, and a beneficent man. 

To be able to alleviate the miferies of thofe who are obliged 
td fubmit to dangerous operations, affords the higheit gr^tifica* 
.tion to the operator ; and as pain is in general the mod dreadful 
part of any operation to the patient, Mr. Bell has given a chap- 
ter containing the moft efFe£tual methods^ of preventing or di- 
minilhing pain in furgical operations.' 

Midwifery being now confidered as a diftin£l branch of prac- 
tice, Mr. B. fuppofes that a minute account of it will not be ex* 
peded in a fyftem of furgery. For particular information on 
this fubjedi, he refers to thofe authors who have profefTediy 
written on it; he hath nevertheleis delineated the inf^ruments 
ufually employed io midwifery, and defcribed two operations, 


Bcir/ Sjfim of Surgfry, Vok VL Jj 

Whkb, tltboagh immediately conoeAed willi this bnnch^ are 
y^t ofore frequently performed by the furgeon than the accat^ 
cbeur ; viz. the Caerarian fedion, and the divifion of the fym" 
fbjfis fuiisf With refpeA to this laft operation, we have fre- 
quently had occafion to condemn it ; and the arguments which 
we bfooght againft it in our 70th volume, pag. 205 — 208, will 
apply to Mr. Bell's opinions : we (hall not therefore repeat . 
them ; but we are forry, on account of the general excellency of 
the work, that this Sj/^gm 9/ Surgiry fliould recommend an ope- 
ration which every man of profeffional knowlege and humane 
difpofition muft neceffarily condemn. — We wi£ Mr. Bell had 
coofidcred this fubjed more minutely.— He feems to have beta 
influenced by the fpecious accounts of the French writers. 

The remaining three chapters are on the opening of dead bo« 
dies, on embalming, and on bandages ; in which nothing new 

Of the general merit of the work we have fpoken in the be- 
ginning of this article : the merits and defe£ls of its feveral 
parts will beft appear from what we have advanced in our ae- 
counta of the former volumes ^. 

The Author aflures the Public, that no attention (hall be 
wanting on his part to rinder the work as complete as it can 
be I he means to infert in the fubfequent editions to which it 
may extend, whatever improvements future experience adds to 
our prefent ftock of furgical knowlege ; and that the purchafera 
of the firft edition may not be afiefied by fuch improvementi^ 
as may be inferted into any future edition, he will aiFord them 
an opportunity of procuring fuch additions, or alterations, fipU'- 

We ought not to conclude this article without informing our 
Readers, that the engravings which accompany this work are 
accurately expreflive of^hat they are intended to reprefent* 
They are contained in 99 plates, neatly executed. The figurca 
are generally on a reduced fcale. In moft cafes this circum- 
fiance is immaterial, but in fome it may lead to error. The 
figures of the inftruments, efpecially, ought to appear in theic 
proper fize^ this* objedion, however, is iomewhat removed by 
the very exad and minute defcription which the Author ufually 
gives of his inftruments, particularly if they are new, or any way 
materially different from thofe in ordinary ufe. 

* See Review^ vol. Ijcix. p. 44a. Ixxi. 548. Ixxvi. 35. Ixxvik 

Rev. Jan. 1789. C - Art* 

Arr. IV. ^rmfaaipm tf the Stchty htfiitwtei m Lnton fir ttff 

. ^kem mg tment pf drift ManufaSurtM^ und Cdmmern ; with tbb 

iPreroiimis o^cscd, in the Year 1788. VoK VI. Svo. 4 ft. Board«« 

Dodflcy, &c. 1788. 

ijr^ VERY vi6l(iiro'c of tbe/e T^anJkSibhi brirygs addftioh^l "pTOdfi 
JB/ '6f tht bcnfcfiw dcriviea to tKc PubHcfrorti this t»trt6tft Sh-^ 
^odon ; axtd tvc ate glad to fintl thftt tliie nomber of its meni- 
bers h dsily tncrealing, which ^il hIMrrilly tdd frelh v}go0r to 

The propagatton of tfmbtt' was 'out 'of thfc firft bWcfls Aat 
i^ttra£)cd this ^attention df (his Society; and ?t rti^ft afford plea- 
furc to cVer'y Engtrih reader, wbo is a wfell-wrftfcr to fcis coun^ 
tty^ to fittd that the Public have fo checrfaify contribtfted to for- 
^'rd the Society's riews fn this refped. Fr<ytn the inettioirs in 
fhe volume now before us, we are cheered with a gleam of hope, 
tWt tidtWitbftandihg ftie general coAiphfnts of the decrease of 
6ik timber for fttp-buildiAg tn theToUtherii parts of 'the ifland, 
whei^ it hM Irhherto molf abounded, a'^ppty will bt raifed 
in the northern parts of it that may in time fappty the de* 
idhnd. We htaVe had 6cc&(i6ti to metitton, more than onct, 
#ttfa juft ^phufcy tfatektenfive plantations ^made by Mr. White, 
it Botti^Aij in the edunry of Durh^, "which we here leirn 
continue to prosper arbundantly, fo as to encourage that worthy 
ctiltivator to extend fats ptanfmrons thert more and more, fr6di 
year to year ; and that, in particular, In the laft ieafon, he 
plahfed no fewer than nrVv rUovsAtrb oaks j which have 
fxtcceeded in a •fui^rifing degree. We here alfo find ifhat tb^ 
Rev. Mr. R. Lloyd, of Afliton, in (he county of Salop, planned 
(Jh flic autumn of the year 1784) siXTY^frra THo'usA'Nit 
tbv% ftij^DkiD and ^ortV oaks, and (owed, befide, near 
t^fi bdibels of acorns. Thefe plantations, which are all well 
fenced, and thrivHig, may ^oine in time tb be of grelat katiiHdt 
importahce-; bcftde^he beiieiit that will^rcd-ue to the proprietors 
df the bar reh "^ots on WMcfa theft iihprbVemciits 'hiive gtoerally 
Been made. 

But'thbfe p?antations In England, thobgb 6f imixntance, apr«* 
pear comparatively fmall when menf iotied With thofe 'of hiuch 
^feater extent in Scotland. We have frequently be^rd Atrnfifea 
that extenflve plantations jof tirnber-^i'ees 'arb ofieh teiade '7n 
that almpft. unknown 4>art of^tbexouiitcyt and. have heard our 
old friend Dr. Johnfon blamed for not oiily having ncgleded to 
noefoe this circumflahce, but •far:4raiviTtg even infiniTated, iti bia 
famous Tour, that no fort of attention was there paid to (hft 
railing 4>f timber ; but never did we obtain fo fatisfadory a proof 
of tiMB contrary as is here i^fForded by accounts of ihc'cxtedfive 
and ihriiring plantations made by the £arl of Fife^ in the couattes 


Vranfa£limz of the Bodiiy tf ArU^ i?c. Vol. VI. f9 

tf Ban^aod.Mumy. It gppeart, that in the courfe of fifieta 
years, hit Lord {hip has |>lanted in all 3005^ acres, which have 
been all wolL indofed with waH%> the ioul^ meaforement of 
which^.is 68,6j;6 clla ; and that thefe'extenfive^plantations are all 
atfre^nt \^ .a vefy thriving. coa(Ntion^ The iu^a of XX%t% 
plante^y andvthe number of ^achioct are u uiider : 






■* , « 







— . 



Sweet Cbefnut 

w^ . 



— ^ 

■ «^. 



— * 












— «« 



• • - 





. 10,000 





Spruce Fir 


^ . 


Silver Fir 

i«» ' 



<^mon Scotch Fir 



. Total 4*87*»i98 

Tti«(e^re pfineely plantations ! yet they form only a part of 
thofe that <wve* been nrade- by Lord Fife; for it is now, as bis 
LofdAip informs the Sociery, above fhirty-years fince his planta« 
tidns'commeneed ; >anti * from their infancy,* he adds, « to the 
prefent period, I have nurfed them with care, regularity, and 
perfererance ; every fucoeeding yeir has enkrged the old, orhss 
grven^bh-th to a new phnted rnclofure. By thefe means, aboot 
SBVffH THOVS^AKD«icres,0f bleak and inhdfpitable moors« have 
been dtethcd'wHh^ fifing and flourifiimg trees, in Aberdeenfhire, 
Bt»Ahh*e, din^lMoray.' It is with pleafure thht we regifler thefe 
hnpdftttit iftiprovemenfs, which we hope will ftimulate otheis 
who have'foth'* bleak and inhdfpitable moors* on their eftates 
-to follow To laudiEible tin examf^le. That they may fee what 
1eeee6fras attended thefe efforts, we fubjoin the following ubie 
df ineiftireittetit, -the circumferencetakenat three feet from the 
ground,* ih different ^rts of the plarntacion. The fpecifitation 
df ioil^ %<i ipfefeme, is intended to (hew what foils were deemed 
tife^fiidft favourable to the difierent kinds of trees. The tirees 
were planned -about twenty '^ve years ago. 

C a Xoam 

ap . Tranfiahns c/ibi Smitf $fArH^ &c. Vol. Vf . 

Length of »t^^v» Cireoa. 

Feet. * Feet. Fctt. Inchest 

Loam, and ctay bottom, Oaki, • 12 251030 % 9$ 

Light black earth, - Elm, - 13 30 35 5 4 

Heavy wet groand, *- AOi, - 20 35 40 3 9 

Dry Tandy foil, - Beech,. 14 3^ 3j 3 o 

Goodheav3rIo.a., \^,tr„; , J^ J | 

It will be remarked that the larch and fihtr fir grtady out* 
grow the other trees ; but we regret that no meaAirement WM 
made of the cgmmon fir% with which they might be compared* 
The common firs, wc are told, are planted merely as nurA^ 
to the other trees, the plants being bought in that country, at 
a proper fise for planting, at the very moderate price of ten 
pence per thoufand. 

We had occafion to take notice, a few months ago, on the au« 
thority of the Pnfidint di laTour d*AigUi$^ that heams of laruc 
wood were of exceeding great durability. This fad is farther 
confirmed in the prefent volume. Mr. Francis Dennifoo writes 

. from Peterlburg, that the larch wood is there folefv appropriated 
to (hip building, for which ufe it anfwers perfedly well;. and 
that line of battle Oiips are built of it at Archangel. Mr. 
Ritchie, his Majefty's Charge di$ Affaires at Venice, alfo wrife^ 
that it is there likewife employed in (hip-building; to which 
there appears to be no other objedion than its weight' on fome 
occafipns. It is certainly lighter than oak ; but, on account of 
the (hoals in the Adriatic, the Venetians are obliged to buitd 
with very light Wood. It refifts, he fays, the iotemperature of 
the air more than any other wood known in this country, aad 
therefore it is much ufed in making outer gates, pales, &c. 
which are conftantly expofed to the open air. It n no lefa 
dtirable within doors, and in fome of the very old palaces bere^ 
there are beams of larix as found as when firft placed there. In 
a word, wherever ftrength and durability are required, tbia is 
reckoned here the mod choice and valuable wood ; and it mav 
be applied to a great number of ufes. We are glad to collet 
authentic information concerning the ufes of thia valuable and 
ornamental trte, with a view to introduce the culture of it more 

. generally into this country. As a maritime nation, we cannot 

• pay too much attention to every article that may prove fervice* 
able in the conftruAion of (hip?, and ac a moderate price, which 

ttbis fpecies , of timber promifcs efieduaily todo« It flouriihesia 
a great variety of foils, and on the bSeakeft txpofures* 

In pur account of the fifth volume of thefe Tranfadioos, we 
had occafion to notice the recovery from the (ea, by eml^nk* 

' ment, of a whole ifland in l^e mouth of the Thames $ in the 


Tr^mfiawu of tin Smdy p/ArtSj tit. Vol. VL %t 

prefeot volume, we are alfo favoured with an account of another 
focceftfal attempt to rob old Neptune of part of bit domains. 
The Rev. Mr. Henry Bate Dudley^ in the pariih of Bradwell 
(near the fea) to Efiex, ** did, in the year 1786, fecurely in- 
clofe, by an embankment of foil only, a trad of land mea- 
faring forty-five acres, one rood, and twenty-five pol^s i which 
land, until fuch jCndofure, had been, from time immemorial, 
overflowed by the Tea from the German ocean/' Thefe are the 
words of an atteftation iigned by the minifier, churchwardens, 
and overfeers of the parifh, who thus proceed to atteft, that 
*^ the fea wall, now encloAng this recovered land, contains in 
length one hundred and eighty-three poles; that its bafe is 
thirty- two feet, its heieht feven feet, and the top five feet wide: 
That it is the general opinion, the land fo gained is worth 
twenty (hillings an acre on a leafe of twenty-one years.'' They 
alfo certify, that the expence of this improvement was as 
under, vis. 

144I rods (of 21 feet each) of walling at 30 (hil* 

lings per rod, and five guineas extra — ^221 12 6 

One new fea gutter five feet clear run — - 60 o o 

Removing and altering another •-^ .— 10 'o 

Hilling up rills — — — 50 o 'o 

Planks, iMrrows, and other tools — • 15 o o 

Cartiiig ditto, and ixtra's — — 600 

Total — 362 12 ' 6 . 
A faall price for fuch a valuable purchafe. 

Mr. Profeflbr Rofs, of Aberdeen, informs us, that the tur* 
ftip-rooted cabbage had been cultivated with Aiccefs in that re- 
mote part of the country, by being fown broad-caft, and hoed 
Idee turnips; and recommends that plant as valuable fpring 
food for cattle. This confirms the more exrenfive experiments 
of Sir Thomas Beevor, concerning this article. 

Mr. John Boote, having found tbe pra&ice of drilling all 
fsrts of grain, as mentioned in the fifth volume of thefe Tranf- 
adions, ^tremeiy profitable, has carried it into pradice on a 
ftill more extenfive fcale, having drilled no.lefs than four hun- 
dred and fifty acres, in the year 1787, by means of Mr. Cooke's 
drill machine, and has had the fatisfadion to find the crops in 
every cafe better than thofe that were fown broadcaft on land of • 
the fame quality ; fo that he computes he has been benefited 
by that pradice, in one year, to the amount of five hundred 
pounds at leaft— ^and therefore refolves to continue it. His 
letter is written in a high flow of ^irits, and gives a pleafanc 
account of die obfervations of his neighbours on that praAice, 
with their final convidion of its proving highly beneficial. 
Nothing b wanting to render tbelie experiments adtogeibtr fa« . 

C .3 ' tisfadory. 

ai . TranfaHionf of tbi Sotieif. of JrtSy kc. Vok VI» 

tisfa^ry, r%rept that he has oniitted to mention the width b^« 
tween the driUs, and to afcertaiir what U the moil favourable 
diflancc— •Frprp Mr, Winter's cxperiiuenT (ftc our account of 
Ben. Bramble's pamphlet in Rev:, for Nov. hfr, p. 461. } intervals 
of fevcn iaChes appear to produce weighder crops than either nine . 
oc eleven inches. Mr. Boole's experiments,, however, clearly 
cvioce th^t the pradice of fowing grain in narrow driJU, fo as 
to admit of the hand hue, cs. highly beneficial in moft fit-ua^ 
tions; And it would appear that the drill machine which he em- 
pfoyed has apfM^ered the purpofe of fowiog very wctL He 
iiads that gf afa feeds, fucceed pecfe£lly well with drilled crops, 
if they be fawn over the field immediately before the lail hoe-* 
ing be given to the grains ; — he has nor, however, yet been 
able to afcertain what ia the exail expence of hoeing tfaefe 
drilled crops. 

Suph of our agricultural readers as .have not an opportunity 
of feeing Kh\% volume, will perhaps be glad to be informed of the ^ 
refuit of two comparative experiments between broadcaft and 
drilled wheat on the fame foil, l>y Mr. Boote. 

^ - • - Produce per acre, 

, BuA. GaL Pint* 

a ft» Wheat drilled upon poor clay,, after clover 25 4 i 
Wheat Ibwn broadcaft on part of the (ame field 13 7 a 

Difference *- 11 4 f.* 
^im Wheat drilled by Mr. Boote on part of his farm, ad* 
joining to a field of ground of the fame quality belonging to a 
neighbouring farmer, which was fowh broadcaft, tnd was tn 
equally good order before, and had dung to the wheat, while 
Mr. Boote's had none. «--^ The ciiops, while growing, - were 
compared by an impartial neighbour, who eftimated Mr. Boote'a 
. crop to exceed ihe other in the proportion of three to two, at 

Thefe are important experiments. 

We are glad to find that the Chinefe hemp, mentioned in 
the former volume, has been foimd to ftitceed. perfedly well to 
this climate, and promifes ta be a valuable addition <t> the lift 
of ufeful vegetables* The Rev. Dr. Hinton, at Northwold, 
having accidentally faved fome ripe feeds, fowed them on the 
loth of May 1787, oci a fmall patch of good land-'^Tfaf;jr 
came up well, and attained as much pe rfedion as ordinary hemp, . 
The produce, when dreflfed, weighed at the rate of ninety five t 
fibne Teven pounds and twelve ounces per acre ««-v (the -ufual 
crop of hemp in that neighbourhood, we are atfo informed, 
fddom exceeds fixty ftone)*-,aod at the rate of three buibeis^ 
two pecks and half a pint of feed per acre, were (dved. Dr. 
Htntofl fuppofes that the d^io which were brought from China 
have failed merely by havipg been two years old, at which age 

.la hemp 

bcmp £eed feldom vegetates. No^k .that it ^ (ound to ripen 
with us, fre|h feedj. can alM(;^yi 1^ obtained. 

I]fr. HintoA alfo.comaiunicates the refult of three companv- 
6ve trials between whj^ac fov^n broadcaft, and drilled; each on 
the fame field, and uo.dei: the fame ma.nageqienr, in every ot^er- 
tefpeiS. In the/e trials the advantage n^as invariably in favour 
of the driHed crop. 

In exp^iment ift, the excefs was, picr acre, 5 bu(h. 16 c^q^^* 

In experiment ad » -r-: diito — 4- "^ 9 
' In experiment jd, -r- dl^to — 2 — 8 

No. I, we are totil, was hand-boed three times ; No. 2 and 
5 band^hbed twice. 'Jli^ expenceof thefe operations from 16 
to 18 pence per acre (each hoeing, we prefume). The broad- 
caft was carefully weeded by h^fldi at the expence of from feven' 
to ten (hillings per acre. ' We mention thefe experiments thus 
HMticqlarly^ as they l^ad to in^>orti^)t conclufions, in agxicul- 
uam. Dr.Uinton has aiCa omitted to (pecify tlM diftance o£ 
the drills Ssom each qUioc 

Tbeb are all the articka that relate to the l4il>je3of agricul* 
tare in the prefent volume ; and had thofe belonging to tke^ 
other branches of fcieoce which have engaged the attention of 
the Society, been equally nvmerpus ind v^oable^i our review of 
this voliimje WQuid h.^vc fufniflied a larger article than ufual. 

Under the head Ckmijlry there if only one article— It is an 
account of a oative foffi) alkali, found in the neighbourhood of 
Bombay— 'whtcb Mr. Hellenus Scott fiys may be afibrded in a 
refined ftate for the price of 300 rupees, (about 37 pounds 10 
IbiUifigs) per ton, and could be obtained tn large quantities* 
From an accurate analyfis of this fpecimen of the fait, by Mr. 
Keir, of Birmingham, it was found to confifi of the following 
materials, in the proportions expreiTed : 

Cr. Dec 

5S 8 of dry mild mineral alkali 
*a4 o of water 
17 2 common fiilt 

190 o grains of crude fait. , 

This b rather purer than good barilla — but as the betero- 
geneoiits matter in barilla is difirrent from that in this native 
%a\ alkali, it may have vesy different effeds in foaae manu- 

Mr. Jcflc Ruffel, of London, briefly ftates the comparative 
purity of this fait ar oppofed to others, thus : 

Refined native foffil alkali (the fpecimen) — 9 
Rough native ditto , •* — "^7 

Rttiia pearl a^ — — -^9 

C 4 Good 

14 traiifaBioifs oftbi SoMiy rf Arti^ &e. Vd. VL 

. Good barilla — *— — 7 , 

Rough Eflex potafli, the very beft *-* *-* sf 

He ilfo mentions that the average price of barilla, for three* 
years paft, was twenty»fevea pounds ten (hillings per ton. 

We fear, that unlets the Bombay alkali could be afforded at 
t lower rate than Mr. Scott mentions, it has Tittle chance of 
becoming an article of commerce to this country. 

We have heard of a kind of foap that is manufadured in 
India, which may be employed in wafhing with fea water, with' 
the fame effeS as common foap has with good foft water. It 
would be a matter of fome importance to a maritime and com«» 
mercial nation to have the nature of this compofition afcer^ 
tained. . . 

PoLiT£ Arts. 

Mr. William Tatis, furveyor, having, at his own expenccy 
made a new furvey of the county of Lancafter, and prefented a 
copy of it, with an atteftation of its accuracy by a confiderable 
number of the inhabitants of that county, obtained the Society's 


Under this bead, Mr. Thomas Greaves^ near Warrington, 
tranfmits to the Society fome fpecimens of paper made from the' 
bark of witfaens, i. e. willow twigs. The bark was ftripped 
from the twigs in autumn, which muft have been attended, wc 
ihould think, with a confiderable expence. Had they been 
pulled off in the month of April, juft after the fap begins to 
^ow, ^ is commonly .done by thofe who carry on the bufineft 
of fine ba(ket-making to a great extent, it could have been 
done at a much fmaller charge.— -As great quantities of this bark 
are thrown away as entirely ufelefs, it would feem that it might 

}'urni(h materials for a confiderable quantity of paper, a^ a very 
ow price. For Mr. Gfe^ves has proved experimentally, that it 
can beeafily converted into paper without any additipn-r-and that 
It is by no means neceffary it fliould either be previoufly dried, 
or .freed from its leaves, before it be applied to that ufe^ We 
Aiould think hop- binds would anfwer this purpofe ft^ll better. 

We have here (ome farther attefiations of the goodnefs of* 
Englldirmade paper for the purpofe of taking impreffions from 
copper plates, fo that, it is probable, tjiis branch of manufadure 
will foon be fully eftablilhed in Great Britain. 

As it appears prpbable that the breeding of filk worms may 
in time be introduced into this country, the Society beflow a 
due degree of regard to every obfervation that may tend to giver 
ufeful information on this point. In the prefent volume, the 
public are favoured with an intelli£ent letter on that fub}e£l from 
Mr> PetfrNoailli^ of Greatncfs, Kenr. It relates to the proper 

Tranfaaiom rf ihi SkiHy tfJkttj &c. Vol. VI, af 

mdde of winding off filk from the cocoons. It fiatet, that if m 
thread be formed of 18 or 20 cocoons, the value of fuch filk 
may be eftimated at zo (biUings per pound, of 16 ounces, 
while a pound of filk compofed of the very fame materials, 
coofiftiog of only fix or eight cocoons, would be worth 30 ibiU 
lings i and if four or five cocoons only, it might vie with the 
moft fuperlative produce of Italy, that would be worth 40 ibQ« 
hogs per pound. He then eflimates the expence at which this 
fuperior fort may be obtained. With this view, he ftales that 
one woman and a girl can eafil^ wind off one pound of filk, of 
(hefineft quality, in a day ; and that the fame woman and girl 
could wind, of the coarfeft fort of filk, fix, eight, or mote 
(fay ten) pounds in a day. Let the wages of the woman aoA 
her girl be ftatcd at one (hilling per day. 

The cofi of winding 10 pounds of filk of the fioeft (brt, wouU 
dierefore be — — -^ o jo a 

The price of it at 40 {hillings per pound -—20 o o> 

Net price — 19 so O 
The coft of winjing 10 pounds of the 

coarfeft fort would be -— CIO 

The price of it at 20 (hillings per 
pound — — — lO o o 

Net price — — — 9190 

60 that the profit by winding it off fine would be 9 1 1 a 
An attempt had been made to fpin the filk dirtfily from the 

cocoons, without having been previoufly reeled, which he fliews . 

to be, in all circumfiances, a very un«oeconomical praflice. 


Under this head, we find a defcription of a new machine for. 
fBeafuring angles, invented by Mr. Matthew HiU, of Scar- 
boroughi — A iedor, and tool for fetttng wheels and pinions in 
aratch work, invented by Mr. Jofeph Ridley.^And a carriage 
for conveying' timber over fofc or boggy land, by Mr. Johfi* 
Befaot, Wefiminfter ; of none of which can w€ convey an ac* 
curate idej, without the plates. 

The volume concludes with the ufual lifls of rewards be-» 
towed — prefents received— premiums propofed, and the pre* 
fsQt members of the Society. 


- < a6 ) 

Art. V. txptritmnts and Oh/ervoiiMu on Ammd Htat^ md the Urn 
JJammaiioH of fmbufiMi Bodiu : Being %tk Attonpt to rdblvc the 
Fhenoflicna icito a ^necad Law of Nature, By A. CuMfffi^rdit 
M. p. /. R. $. L. & £. and Meinbcr of i^o Phjl^fopbica] Spcie- 
tks of Mul>lio and PbiUdeiphia. T^e Secood £diuoA» with ^^rf 
lar^e Additions. 8vo. 'ja. Boards* JoKoran. 1788. 

TBiE ibeory of aninnl heat asd oomhiiflSom as d«Itvfrcdt 
by De. Crawford ia the foVaiQC edition of hiB vorllt ii^ 
now mofo fully eftabliihed by the refulis of WAfk^ WH fi^KB*. 
rmcAla which appear to have been ande^ with the la^ fcm-, 
fiuloufr sttentfoo fo accuracy, 10 order to afcecHiio fooQ iiMr- 
faAa, aod to coneA fome osiAakes iji the concUifioaA dftwa 
fton thofe that were before prefeoted Jo the public. 

It feems now to be the prevalent optmon, thftit t^i^iypp^xM^ 
and induAioos from thorn, art the ooly meac^ by which we 
are pormilted to intefpret the chara£lcrs ii^prcfled by the Deky^ 
en bie works; and tiU pt»}ofi>ph«r> who is. thiis^ employed, in 
cti hiv a f ing natural knowlege, is well aware that this method of 
IharcMngi after tHrth, necelarily demands much labour, and pa- 
tient invefiigation, aided by fagacity^ a^d ^ireAird with Juifg* 

Dr. Crawford pleads, in excu& for the late appearance, of 
this fecond edition (containing oew^iircoveMes, and tiie^cor* 
itdiM o£ efvor»), the difBctiJty in purfuing, and the time re- 
qmiite for*makin^, experimental refearches. He is convinced^ 
as indeed every true phjlofophcr mtftft he, iJiM t^ correA Cff^ra 
h the heft method of apologising fof thevi v Mid; that t^i^iigh 
the free cooMnunication of diCcoverieft i% efleotial to the progrtfii) 
of knowUge, yet it it ef mucb greaJter inip«ci«u>ce tp th.e iiv^. 
terefts of fcience, that fads fhould be well afcertained, than 
that they (hould be fpeedily publiflitd. He does nor, however^ 
Axean to infinuate that the fads which he has now 6ibaiit<(^to 
the public are free from error ; miftakes may ea^iy arife 10 everjp. 
attempt, where fo much nicety is required, to determine the re- 
lations between the fuhtle- eleeneala of fire aod aur; end he 
kopes, that Aich of them as OMiy be found ia his work, will^ by- 
thecaiidid public, be aCcribed to the iiaperfieAiottsof ourfeofpt^ 
tx the inftruments employed in the courfe of- the eaperina^ts.. 
' Thv abflrufeaefs of the fubjed, and the novelty of Hu Cr^tv- 
f^yc^^h theory*, were probably the reafcns why his dodrina waC 
with fome oppofitfon, on its firft appearance ; efpeciaily ^y Mr>. 
Motg'^n f , who Ynade many pertinent refledions on Dr. Craw* 
ford's opinions. As an amicable contention, fuch as Mr. Mor* 
gan's with Dr. Crawford really was, always promotes fcience^ 

♦ For an abridgment of which fee Rev. vol. bd. p. 378. 
' t See Review, vol. Ixiv. p. 350* 


H^boptd that the Dodoi would he iocilird ta repot, Hzttlifj^ 
and exteod ha^ experi«MBnu« This he bjUh.&ow dooe» au^d.hiai 
tboorjr, not maurMiHy altcced, has rcce^vfd oimcb additmal 

A« we have before given ao abftra£l o( omr iogenions Au*. 
Ihor's theofy of aaiowd he«r, and of the ioflaBpipatioa of coov*! 
huftibU bodies, it ia Honeceffiuy that we ibouid rapeat U. We 
ibaU iherelore only egdeiivouj- to refnelb the memory of our. 
rci4era» by io^Kiniag the4^ that accocding la the zeAiUa of Oi;« 
Crawfofdfi QxperimcAts; it appeara thai p«iie air, c^maixung a. 
laige porttoa of eleflgueotary fire, t% by intpiratioiw received iotQ> 
tkelungai aodthat the bJ,Qod^ impregnated withphlogifipn, is^i;e- 
twroed frooa the exareimtics. Now the attj;adia0 of air to 
pblogifton betog greater than that of Wood, the phJogiftoii 
qiHis the blood, and umtea witb the, air i the aij at the fame, 
tuse depo&iin^ pa^ t of its elemeatary fire : and the capacity of 
t|)e hlood for receiv4og he^it being iiicreafed by the change it 
undergoes ia lofing its pbiogiffaoR, the elementary fire before, 
depofitcd by the air will be abforbed by the blood. The, 
bleed io ics^paflage through ibe capUlariea ia again impreg*, 
naced with pb]ogifto9«. in coAfcqueace of which, its capacity fop 
heit la diiDiniflied^ and tbe^efore, ia the coiirfe of the cii;cular% 
tion, it will give oot, aod difFufe over the whole fyftem, the, 
heat acquired in the lungs : or, io a word, in refpicatian, the 
blood ia Gootinually discharging phlogUlon, and abforbiog heat^ 
aod on the, CiMitrary,. during ita circuUtioA^ it is comiQuaUy' 
iaibibiflg phlogiftoni and emitting heat. 

With refpe^ lo the infiaomiation of combuftible bodies, it 
appears, by IXi. Crawford's experiments, that wheo atmo*» 
f^rical air is converted into fixed air and aqueous vapour, a, 
great part of ita heat is detached; it appears alfo that the capa- 
cities of bodies for containing heat ate increafed by partings* 
with their phlogiftoa in the procefs of combuftion* Hence in. 
the Si^ of inflammation, the phlogiftoQ that is feparated f/ony 
the inflammable body unites with the pure air, which, at the 
fame time^ being converted into fitted air, and aqueous vapour* 
gives off a large portioa of its abfolute heat ; this abfoluto 
heat, thus exfrtcatedv produces ap intenfe degree of fenfible 
heat, and if the extrication be fudden, the heat will burft forth 
into flancK* 

. The explanation which this theory sffords to the leveral phe-^ 
nomena attendant oo animal heat, and combuftion, is a ftrong 
confirmation of ita truth, iodependemly of the eafy folutioi^ 
which it gives of a great variety of fads. The phyfiologift 
will here find feme of thofe parts of the animal economy ex- 
plained which hitherto have be^n unaccounted fpr: the natural 


It CrawfbrdV Expmmmis en Animal Hfot. 

philofopher and chemift will alfo find many hiSti elucSdatecl ' 
which could fcarcely be folved, on any other hypotbefis. 

With rtrped to the nature of heat, whether it be zfuhftanu 
or a ;vtf/i(f, our Authorfs dodrine is totally unconnedted with 
tny hypothefis concerning it, being founded on this fimple fad 
dtaiuced from experiment, viz. that the changes which are pro- 
duced in the temperatures of different bodies by the applica^ 
tion of given quantities of heat, are different* He ha«, indeed, 
in many places, ufed expreffions which feem to favour the ai#* 
tiriaUty of heat ; but his fole motive for adopting fuch language 
was, as he fays, becaufe it appeared more con fonant to the faSt 
which he had eftabliihed by experiment. He is neverthelefs 
perfuaded that it wiH be extremely difficult to reconcile many 
. phenomena with the fuppbfirfon that heat is a quality. It is not 
cafy to comprehend on this hypothefis, how heat can beabforbed 
in the procefles of fufion, evaporation, or combuffion \ or how* 
the quantity of heat in the air can be diminifhed, and that in the 
Mood increafed, by refpiration : but the opinion that heat is a dif- 
tinA fubftance« or an element/tt/ ^^^iV, being adopted, the phe* 
iKMnena admit an eafy and obvious interpretation. Fire, the 
Dodor thinks, will, on this fuppofition, beconfidered as a prin* 
ctple which is diftributed in various proportions throughout the 
different kingdoms of nature $ he fuppofes the mode of its 
union with bodies, to refemble that particular fpecies of che« 
nica! union, wherein the elements are combined by the joint 
forces of preflure and artraAion, fuch as the Combination of 
fixed air with water. If, however, fire be a fubftance, fubjed* 
to the laws of attradion, the mode of Its union with bodies 
Utmz to be different from that which takes place in chemical 
combinations; for in thefe, t)ie elements, as Dr. Crawford 
obfervcs, acquire new properties, and lofe thofe by which they 
were chara^erized before the union : but he has (hewn that fire 
Ao^% not, in confequenee of its uni6n with bodies, lofe its dif- 
tinguifbing properties; consequently, we have no direct proof 
of its materiality. Dr. Crawford's conclufions are, however, 
as we hinted above, not in the leaft affeded by the nature of 
beat or fire; they arc fimply the fa£U refulting from experiments 
and the teftimooy of the fenfes, and ttiey muft be admitted not* 
witbftanding any adopted hypotbefis. The fubjeA is, doubt* 
lefs, extremely intricate \ and much time, a long feries of ac- 
curate experiments, and the moft minute obfervations, are per* 
haps ftill requlfite to complete the inveftigation of the nature of 
this fubtle principle. Few years, indeed, have elapfed, fince 
philofophers have turned their attention, in a proper manner, to 
thefubjeA; and from the progrefs that is already made, we 
may hope that a few more years writ unfold what is how wrapt* 
in cbfcurity, or involved in error. 


Ctwafvait* ttrm/lathn rf Tidkk s^ 

To Ibis cditiofty a Itrge tppendix i< added, cotitahiiiig the 
' reletioii of fome fiuther czpertmeiits^ in order to fliew the dif* 
lercnces between the beats imparted by pure and comnioo air | 
nlfo a long fer ies of experiments communicated by Mr. Gadoiin^ 
* profefibr of chemiflry at Abo, on the abfolate heat of bodies^ 
which confirm Dr. Irvine's opinion concerning the point of 
total privation ; and a general view of the difcoveries made by 
Dr. Black and Dr. Irvine. Here Dr. Crawford vindicates 
bioifelf againft the infinuations which he fays had been throwa 
out ban after the publication of the firft edition of his work, 
that he had pubHflied Dr. Irvine's difcoveries without ac« 
knowleging the anthor ; the copy of a letter from Dr. Irvine 
fufficiently proves the Wifehood of the report. 

At the end of the book, Dr. Crawford hu given a general 
view of the refults of all his experiments in the form of a table, 
exhibiting the comparative heats of different bodies to water, 
as the fhndard. 

Art. VI. An Account cffome of the moft remarkahlt E*uinis of thi 
H^sr hitnvtin tbt Prnffians^ Auflrians^ and Ruffia^tf from 1^56 to 
1763: and a Treacile on feveral Branches of the Military Art, 
with Plans and Maps. Tranflated from the 2d Edition of the 
German Original of J. G. Tielke, by Capt. C. Craafurd, of the 
Qaeen's Regiment of Dragoon Guards, and Capt. R. Craufurd, 
of (he 75th Regiment, late of the loifl. Volume II. large 8 vo. 
15 s. Boards. Walter. 1788. 

IN a former number of our Review*, we annoynced the 
firft volume of this ufeful and elegant work. The article 
in this fecond volume, as recited in the title-page, are di- 
vided into four feAions. The firft fediton contains details of 
various marches of the troopi of both armies, with divers flcir- 
-ffliflies, -attacks of pofts, and other movements of detachments 
and parties, previoully to the grand operations of the can^paign. 
Although tbefe are neither vefv important nor inftrudive, yet 
diey are, in maqy places, rendered interefting^ by the valuable 
notes of the tranilators, explaining the nature and eftabliflimeiit 
of the Cofl^cks, and other irregulars in the Ruffian army ; toge- 
ther with a deicriptioa of fotpe pieces of artillery peculiar to 
that fervice. 

Sedioh the fecond, gives a circu^mftantial account of the 
battle of Zocndorff, and a critical examinafion of the^difpo- 
fitions of the two armies i whence we learn, that the valour of 
the Ruffian foldiers was no^ employed to the greateft advantage, 
but that, on the contrary, they were fo injudicioufly formed, 

. iL ♦See Vol. Ixxviii. January 1788, p. 55. 

*^ as 

4{0 '^n^tatis^'H^JIafien tfTk\y^ 

«9 to b<s tin iev^f^l ^>arfs^ mfikaUd tiy the PtnOim MXttrf^ 
wkh Iftich tflba, >rh0e<me Ml is faid to baire ^killed ^mcUf-two 
fuen. Mrayncircuiiiftafilcea^ ibotfa btfan mnd after ttia batde, 
doitot ieeiti'tofjfAacethe RihSaageoend^ 'Ferinec^ in tuftry ad- 
vatitageciui tpotnt of vieiv:, eitbinr for •viglhnce or ikilL«^Tte 
prodtlefHcfi of the&offiant fortbc ^hoUow fquare is iiere ooticed, 
«tid ^ftly cenfoircd. 

^e&tofi Hbe tbira^ givfcs a minute joarnal of the fiige df Col- 
-berg, for istikh neither 'the beficged nor the b^^rs appear io 
have been iproperly fdrnKhed ^ cbe^garrHbnof that fortreb coo- 
fifting cbieflyof rniHtia>and bunghers, aionoft witbout eogineers 
4>r artilkry officers ; the mjmber*of the beftcgert was much Md 
fmall for carrying 'on tbe ndcefiary works ; and tbey were uib 
deftttote of 'a proper tn\n of irtilkryV having ^only >fix 'twelve- 
,pouiidera,'aiid three^orfourigims of a lighter 'nature: tbey weve 
Kkewtfefca^lly provided with amrmuoition. The event waSy^^^tfae 
Ruffians were forced to raife the fiege, with the lofs of between 
four and five hundred men ; while that of the befieged is faid| ia 
their account^ to have been oiily (ix foldiers and two burghers. 
The defertce of this plice does great honour to the comnnand-* 
ant ; and the like is due to tbe Ruffian general for the ftriA dif- 
ci|>lhie obferved by h»s troops, with refpefi to the inhabitants of 
^e*ertVffons df this place. 

Si^dion thefautth, coittains the atfthor's plan for taking the 
•fdrtVfefs by a cdup^di main j a varitty df reafons (he Tays) pre- 
v^iiteti him Yrom laying it before the Ruffian. generals, but (hat 
his knowleee of its flate confirms him in the opinion that it 
lAl^t'bave been carried into execution in the lattrr end of 175B, 
or the beghiningof i7;9, butnothter } for, aftier that period*, 
the WhoVe was ttrengtbened, and the garrifon reinforced. 

The differenft articles are illuftrated by ten wellengfated plana 
and thaps. 

Wfeare extremely Torry to learn, from an advertifemetit at 
'ite'cotictufion df this volume, that the *fubfcriptians have not 
^bien iUfficretit to defray the expences of the publication ; athl 
^hat tble C^tainr Craufard do not ihiirk it advifable to |jTdbeda 
'With the work, till ihey have fitft afcertatned whethertbere will 
be a ftiffieient number df fubfcribers ; tbey, therefore, rcqueft 
thatthofe who wlfli to fuWcribe, #ill fignify thefar ititentioria 
to Mr. Walter, the bookfeller; who is direded not to receivfe 
arty ?ubfcriptions^ but only tb make memorandums df 'the 


f 31 ) 

deric Croftilcdi, Mine-M«lter, or Siqperiiidmdvnt of the Jdfrnea ia 
Sweden. Titefl«ted from the ordinal Swedifi), with Angola* 
lions; and an additioiial TreMHe oiti the Blow- pipe, by GuiUv 
von Eo^eftrom, Counfdbr of *the College of Mines in Sweden, 
The iecofld Edition ; greatly enlarged and improved l)y the Ad- 
dition of the modern Difcovcrjes, and by a new Arrangement of 
the Articles. By John Hyadnih de MagdJan, Talabi^rco-Ldfi- 
tanns/R'eg. Soc. Ldnd. AczTd.lmp. Petro. '5rc. &c. Sodas. '8v6; 
2 VoTs. 148. Boards. DJliy. 1788. 

AS Moft ^odr mifl^alogrcal Readers am «icqu»iiite4 Willi 
Cronikdt^s fyftdni, and as thofe who lire not wM find an 
%^Qmit oi k \ti our «ic<«oufit of Erxgeftrom'a tranflatioi}, Rer# 
?b). zni. p. 3i'2, H^ (h^U nofrchiefly confine oi>rfeJvas to a dc^ 
uil of the additions and valuable niotes for which the public li 
MAt«d to Mr. Magellan. 

The ordbr «d^j[)ted byrht AutKcn*^ in his Ty&em, mail fleceft^ 
ftrily be foffieiirhBt 'Sdtercd in the prefem edition, to arake k 
flrlrable lo the improved ftaie of the fcienc^. Mf. Mfigeilan 
JYiftifite bhnfelf in this refpeA, by the authority of the great 
Bd»gAim, wjlo, ffSeakingcf 4hisfyftem, fays, ^^ If Iht adihor 
had li^ed longer, for the benefit of the iciencds, he woold no 
donbt have reS?fied ehe di()x>fition of hii mineralogioal tftkm*^* 

The dafies "of minerals remain the fame ms In the drigtnri 
woit^ Vife. I ft Earths, ad Siitts, 3d Infiiunmables, tnd 41)1 

The firft elaft wa^ divided iiito dine ontors, one ibr €adi of 
the primitive earths ; later difcdverlea and exporimenrs^ how* 
cVer, iMlve now detefnuiied that all earths are reducible 'to ihefe 
fifte, viK, Calcarebiis, Pondtfrous^ Magnefian, Si(iceoiie, and 
il^fihieeoils I to which Mr. Magellan has referred all the^/nmr 
ofX>oiiitedc. Amohg the additions to'this claA, ai« fortiejvft 
^(^rvitiOi^ ontaarle, and arablefoil, and On the feveral com* 
pounds of calcareous earth. Pondtrrous earth, or barytts, waa 
mifiottted it) the former edition, as Was affo knagrtefia. Under 
this hft meniitmcd cJlrtb, Mr. Magellan %aspjated Epfom falt^ 
p. 97 ; ihd und^r thi: order of ntutral falts. We obferve vitrio- 
lated magnefia, p. J84. ; thiis pjacing the fame fubftance in two 
dilFerent clatrcs. SiaiiTar duplicates alfo occur; but they tefec 
to each other,-^a5 muriatic cbafk among theialts, .p. 380, an4 
Muriatic calcareous earth among the earths, p. 39-^16 'VitriolHm 
Vmris among them^taU, p. 695, and amotog 4he falts^p. 401,; 
tritb fame others. This'cii^amftance, faowevev, could OM be 
tvdided, ind is of 4K>'canfequence where the reference is madie^ 
Jt isigrceAlc to the general fyflcm, i«^hich daflts bodies accord*.^ 
ing to their cobponeni parts. 

32 CrwfiedtV Sjfim ofMburahgj. 

Tocnamente all the additions which Mr, Magellan has maAr^ 
woltld increafe ou# article too much. His notes are the noft 
valuable^ being partly compiled from our beft authors, -and 
partly original % of tbefe laft, thofe on diamonds and prectoaa 
Itones contain much real information. The note on chj 
gives an abridged account of Mr. Wedgwood's thermometer^ 
with a comparative view of his and Fahrenheit's fcale. 

Among the fahs, many additional fedions are introduced, one 
of which is allotted to the aerial acid. This is not the onl^ 
air tha^ is clafled in the mineral kingdom; inflammable and he- 
patic airs have places allotted to them in the 3d clafs, in the 
Botes to which Mr. Magellan gives a concife view of the phlo- 
giftian and antiphlogiftian do^rines. The plumbago, com- 
pounded of phlogifton and aerial acid, is feparated from the 
Vioiybdena, and cUded among the inflammables, whilp molyb<* 
d^na is retained among the femi- metals. . 

The notes to the fourth dafs are more numerous than thofe 
which Mr. Magellan has given with the other three. The utilitf 
of metals in common life, and the variety of forms under whicti 
they appear, ifix>rd much room for enlarging on the fubjed. 
Gold, as in moft fyflems, holds the firft rank. The editor, like 
other writers on the fubjeA, gives feveral inftances of its duAi* 
lity. Wefliould not have mentioned this circumflance but for the 
Ikke of corre£ling fome typographical errors in the note at page 
513, in the laft paragraph of which Z^zfV^^* inches ought to be 
23 inches fquari\ 272.23 ought to De, 272.25; and 56.7 iS« 
56.7175. Thefe however are fmall defeds, and are ampljr 
counterbalanced by the great fond of chemical and metallurgi- 
cal kiiowlege which the notes contain. 

Quickfilver is- brought from the place in which it was for^ 
merly arranged, and numbered with the perfeA metals* Mr. 
Magellan concludes his long but valuable notes Ofi this metal^ 
with the following paragraph-— the fubjed on which he ex<-^ 
patiatea being the difl^renc fpecific gravity of different parcels o£ 
quickfilver : 

* h^bitt I difmifs the fubjefl, I maft beg leave to give a Q>tci- 
men or twp of the eoormous blunders committed by various philo<; 
Ibphers and numerous pretenders^ who have been extremely bufy in 
car timesy to determine the heights of mountains, and the relative 
poUtioo of places above the level of the fea^ by meaAs of barometri* 
cal obfervarionsy without paying any particular attention to the 
fpediic gravity of the meicury, with which their barometers wero 
made, if the two barometers were both at 30 inches high, and 
equally circomftaoced in every other refpedl, excepting only the 
ijpedfic gravity of their quickfilver; (o that one be filled wich the 
£rft kind I have tsied, viz. whofe fpecific gravity was == 13.6s, and 
the other zr 13.45 ; in this cafe, and in all probability many of thu 
kind have often occurred, the error muft have been no lefs than 527 
itet; becaofe the heights of the mercurial colunros in each baro- 

Crdtiftcdt^i Sxflem df Miniralbgy.. 33 

iheter muft be in the inverfe ratio of their fpedfic gravitiesi viz. 
13.45: 13.62:: 30: 30.379. 

Now the Logarithm of 30=14771.21 

And 0^30-379 = 4^25.73 

The difFerencc = 54.52 fathoms, 
tvhich difference ihews that there are 54.52 fathoms between one 
pUce and another, or 327 * feet; though in reality both places are 
00 the fame level.' 

This is a juft remark, and ought to be obferved by infiru^ 
nieot- makers when they conftruft barometers for meafuirog 
heigbis. The fpecific gravity of the mercury i^ay be marked 
tuk fome part of the inftrument, and will be ufcful for other 
purpofes befide meafuring heights. 

The notes to the bafer metals contain, like the reft, a variety 
of u(eful obfervations relative to fmelcing, preparing, puri- 
fying, and combining the metjale for various purpofes c de- 
fcribing the ufes to which they may be conveniently applied, 
and the danger attending them when not properly manufactured, 
Befide thefe pradicai obfervations, Mr. Magellan introduces 
BO fmall ffaare of phtlofophy $ the fubje6l indeed requires it : 
and though his notes do not abound with what was before alto- 
gether unknown, yet by colleAing, from various authors, the 
fater difcoveries and improvements, and bringing them together 
in a regular manner, he hatn rendered fcience a material fcrvice* 
Where he has difcovcred errors, he hath correfled ihcm j and 
where the opinions of former writers have been apparently op- 
^fite or contradi£tory to each other, he has, by philofophical 
inveftfgation, pointed out the caufe of thefe difagreements, and 
Jtconciled them. 

By way of Jfpendix^ be has added a defcription of two port- 
able laboratories for aiTaying minerals, and making chemical 
experiments on a fmall fcaie. The apparatus is ingenioufly 
contrived, and fecms well calculated for making the intended 

A fe<9nd Appendix contains fevtral particulars ufeful to 
ihineralogical enquirers, efpecially the method of analyfing 
earths and ftones, as given by Mr. lCirwan;^--the defcription 
of an inftrument for finding fpecific gravities, by the very in* 
genious Mr. NichoKbn $ and an eafy method of procurmg ac« 
carate original weights. 

The Eflay on the Blow-pipe, by Mr. Engeftromi is alfo 
added, and enriched with many notes, on the refuhs of expe-' 
rimentt made with that inilrumeot, and xhe proper mode of 
ttfing it. 

* Thefe arc all French meafure, 
Tliy. Jan. 1789, D As 

24 Ri|thcrford'i Vino of Amiint Hijiorj* 

As Mr. Migellio is a foreigner, a criticifai on his language 
might be thought improper ; yet we cannot clofe this article 
without remarking that, in fome cares, the Englifh reader will 
meet with difficulties that may perplex him. We will mention 
two or three infiances. In the courfe of the work we frequently 
flaect with the word Dalarm^ aS a province in Sweden, where cer^^ 
Cain minerals are native ; at page 361 we are told ^ falfdnHmum 
is found in theprovince of P^/;' and in pages 118, 119, 2375 
and other?, certain minerals are defcribed as natives 6l Dali^ 
forlia. Now Dalamiy Dal, and Dafecarlia^ are one and the 
fame province. In page 123, CryJIals and Criftah occur \ ibis 
may be the fault of the printer. In page 287 the ^oni pnalahle 
is ufed: this is a French word, and means foregoing, or rather^ 
previous; Coldfiort and red-Jhort iron, though ufed by our 
iisiiths, &c. do not clearly convey the ideas of the original 
Swedifli Kallbreckt and Rdd-breckt'^ this defed oHift be attri-** 
buted to Mr. Engeftrom. 

Thefe blemifhes, however, are of no great confequence : 
they are mentioned in order that they may be correded in a 
future edition of this excellent work, which, in its prefent 
improved ftate, cannot fail of being gratefully received by the 
Adept, and of being highly ufeful to the Tyro in mineralogy. 

Art. VIIL A VU-w of Ancient Hifiory \ including the Progrefs of 
Literature and the Fine Arts, ^^j William Rutherford, D. D. 
Mailer of the Academy at Uxbridgc. Vol. I. 8vo. 7s. Boards. 
Murray. 1788. 

AFTER all the details and abridgments which, have beeft 
given of ancient hiftory, there is ftill ample fcope for in- 
quiry and fpeculacion : not indeed for the purpofe of afcertain* 
ing the truth, the order, or the date of fa£ts;— ^n thefe refearchea> 
learned diligence has perhaps been employed with as much fuc>< 
cefs as is to be expelled |— but with the defign of exhibiting in- 
terefting views 6f ancient events, manners, and opinions, and 
deducing from them fucb obfervations and conclufions, as admit 
of an ufeful application. Several modern writers have attempted 
this union of hiftory and philofophy; but few, in our^opinion, 
more fuccefsfully than the author of the work now before us.- 
From the impcrfed and often obfcure accounts of the moft re* 
mote period of human fociety, which are fcattered through the 
writings of the ancients. Dr. Rutherford, with much good iNOftf 
and fireogth of judgment, has brought into one conneded view,- 
fuch particulars as are moft deferving of attention. Without 
burdening his reader with the detail of critical inveftigation, he 
has given the refult of his own inquiries, in a mafterly fkeich, 
in which probable events ate happily deuchcd from table, and 

' \ *'• the 

Itotherford'x f^nv af Ancient JJiJIorj. 35 

die relation of hiftorical incidents is judtcioufly combined with 
a view of the progrefs of government, religion, fcicncc, arts, 
mannerf, and cuftoms, in each country. The whole is written 
with ftrcngth, perfpicuity, and elegance. 

This firft volume treats of the affairs of Egypt, Aflyria, Pcr- 
fia, Phoenicia, and Judea, and of thofe of Greece, to the clofe of 
the firft Perfian war. 

The following account of the extenfion of the trade of Phce- 
nicia will ferve to (hew how much xnzy be done by a judicious 
fcledion and arrangement of materJAls : 

' The hillory of this people furnifhcs a remarkable proof of the 
wonders which induflry can perforin, and of the opulence to which 
commerce can raife a nation which applies to it with ardour. 

• The firft voyages which they performed were in the Mediterra- 
aean, of which they frequented all the ports. Goading along the 
Ihores of this fea, they made fettlements in the ifles of Cyprus «nd 
Rhodes, and extending their navigation, pafled fucceHiyely into, 
Greece, Thrace, Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia. Penetrating into the 
eitremities of Europe, they vifited the Gauls, difcovered the fouth- 
em part of Spain, and gave a name to that kingdom, which it fliii 
retains •. 

* Hitherto their navigation, like that of all the ancient nations, 
had been confined to the Mediterranean ; and the fourh of Spain 
was the boundary of their voyages. Pafling the Southern point of 
that country, the Phoenician Tailors perceived that the Mediterraneaa 
communicated by a narrow channel with another Tea. The dVead of 
encountering unknown latitudes, and the perils which prefented 
themfelves in crofltng this unexplored and formidable pafTage, long 
deterred the Phoeniaan pilots: but incited by the love of gain, and ' 
encouraged by their perpetual fuccefles, about 1250 years before the 
Chrillian erauhey ventured beyond the boundaries of ancient navi- 
gation, and paffing the ftraits of Gades, entered the ocean. Succefs 
crowned the boldnefs of the cnterprife. They landed on the 
weftem coaft of Spain. This firft voyage was followed by others; 
aad the Phcenicians foon fent colonies into the country, founded 
Giati there, and formed permanent fettlements. Their lucrative 
traffic to thefe regions induced them to ere6(, on an ifle, known at 
prefent by the name of Cadiz, a fortified place, which they might 
employ as a repofitory or warehoufe for the Spanilh trade. To fe- 
curc the pofleflion of that ifle, they built a city, to which, from the 
purpofes of its eredlion, they gave the name of Cadiz f* 

* The advantages which the Phoenicians derived from this trade 
were fudden and extraordinary. Spain prefented the fame fpedacie 
to its firft viiitants, that America prefented to the Spaniards in the 
fixteemb century. The ancient Spaniards, like the Americans, were 
deftitute of arts and induftry. Their country abounded with gold 
and filver; but tHe inhabitants, unacquainud with the value of thefe 

* * Spaniza, which the Romans have changed into Hifi^ania^ and 
we into Spain, fignifies, in the Hebrew language, little djifcreiit from 
the Phccnidan, full of rabhiis* \ • Refuge, inclofure.' 

D 2 precious 

J6 Riitbeiford'x ///«; 9f AmiiHt Hsjtwrf, 

precious metals, applied them to common ofet. The Ph(entclatli^ 
availed themfelves of this ignorance. In exchange for oil, glais, 
and trinkets, fo much coveted by barbarians, they received "fuch a 
quantity of fiKer, that their ihipa coold not contain the treafure. 
'They were obliged to take out the lead with which their anchont 
were loaded, and pat the filver in its place. 

* The wealth.which the Phoenicians drew from Spain was not con- 
fined to the precious mecals. Wax, hooey, vermilion, iron, leady 
copper, and above all, tin, were valuable articles of traffic. Thit 
lafl meal was unknown to other nationa til) it was introduced by the 

' Spain WAS not the only country beyond the pillars of Hercules 
into which the Phoenicians had penetrated. Accuftomed to the na* 
vigacion of ihe ocean, they extended their difcoveries to the left of 
the (Iraits of Gades, a^ Ur as to the right; and vifiting the weftern 
coalls of Africa, formed fettlements there, a little after the Trojan 

* While the Phoenicians ppflefled the trade of the North and the 
Weft, they drew to themfelves the commerce of the South and the 
£aft, which is faid to have been opened by the Egyptians. Having 
become roaftcrs of feveral commodious harbours towards the bottom 
of the Arabian Gulph, they eftablifhed a regular intercourfe with 
Arabia and the continent of India on the one hand, and with the 
ea(lern coail of Africa on the other. They landed the valuable car- 
goes which they brought from thefe opulent regions at Elatb, the 
lafeft harbour in the Red Sea towards the north. Thence they were 
carried by land to Rhinocolura, the neareft port in the Mediterra- 
nean to the Arabian Gulph ; and being re-fhipped in that harbour^ 
were tranfported to the Phoenician capital. Thus the wealth of Per- 
fia^ India, Africa, and Arabia, centered in Tyre, and thence was dif- 
tributed over the \^eftern parts of the world. 

* In order to fecure the commerce of thefe countries which they 
had difcovered or vifited, the Phoenicians founded colonies and cities, 
an the moft commodious fituations, as far as their voyages extended. . 
About eighty years after the Trojan war they founded the city of 
Gades, on a fmall ifland near the weftern coaft of Andalu/in, and foon 
afterwards thofeof Adrymetum, Leptis, Ucica, and Copfa, in Africa. 
In their voyages to Greece, Thrace, and Italy, they built cities and 
planted colonies in* Cittium, Thera, Argos, Thebes, Samothrace, 
and Thafus. Soon after this we find Phoenician colonies on tvtry 
ifland of the Mediterranean, in the Balearic ifles, in Sardinia, Cor- 
iica, Sicily, Malta, and many parts of the northern coafts of Africa. 
The revolution which the conqoefts of Joihoa made in the countries 
of Canaan was favourable to the colonization of the Phosniciana. 
After the irruption and deyaftation of the Hebrew tribes, the greater 
pirt of the arcient inhabitants of Palasftine, finding themfelves threat- 
ened with immediate deftrudion, endeavoured to fave themfelves by 
flight. Sidcn offered them an afylum ; but the territory of that city 
not lufHcing to fupport the multitude of exiles, they were under a 
necefTuy of exploring unknown countries, and ieeking new iettle- 
meats. The Phoenicians lent them their ihips, and employed thit 
acceifion of fubjetts to extend their trade and to people their diAant 


Rtttherford^j f^no of Anient Hiftory. 37, 

cStles. Hence that vaft nunrber of colonies ^hich, taking their de- 
parture from Phoenicia^ foon after diiTufed themfelves through all the 
ikirts of Africa and countries of Europe. 

* No event is more remarkable in the Phoenician hiflory, than the 
fedndation of a new flate on the African coall about 890 years before, 
the Chriflian era. The foundation and growth of Cartha^badta *^ 
or the New Town» have been adorned by poetical &d\ion ; but ita 
cooieqaent greatnefs made an important £gure in the hiAory of the 
world. Situate4 on a bold projection of the African cbaft, in the 
very center of the Mediterranean, Carthage comprehended within 
her view the Eail^ as well as the Weft/ and embraced, by the extent 
of her commerce, all the feas, and all the countries of the known 
world. An excellent port offered a fecurt afylum to fhips : the na* 
toral fertility of the adjacent foil ; the happy fite of the town, fur- 
rouoded by a clufter of lilands and countries conveniently (ituated 
for commerce ; the adventurous (p!rit of the merchants and mariners ; 
^ the&ill and indoftry of the artifans; together with the wifdom of 
' the government, which was never fliaken by feditions, nor opprefTed 
by tyranny, till the later periods of the commonwealth ; all contri* 
buted to the fudden increafe and rapid improtement of the Cartha* 
ginian colony. From the enlargement of its territory it became a 
ieparate fiate, which fooo rivalled and afterwards furpa/Ted the mo- 
ther country; and, in a duration of feven hundred years, compre- 
hended within its dominion the fined portion of Africa, as well as a 
great part of Spain, Sicily, Cor/lca, Sardinia, Malta, with the 
Balearic, and the Fortunate Iflands. 

' From the enumeration of the countries to which the Phoenicians 
traded, of the cities which they built, and the colonies which they 
planted, in the various and diftant parts of the world, an idea may 
oe formed of the greatnefs and extent of their commerce. As in an- 
cient times the nations of the earth had little intercourfe or connedion 
with each other, the Phoenicians were employed as fadors and car- 
riers to all their neighbours, and became mailers of all the trade 
that was carried on in the known world. Their (hips conveyed the 
produdions of every climate ; and the empire of the fea was in their 
poiTeflion. Other nations applied to them when any great maritime 
enterprife or diftant expedition was to be undertaken. I'he fleets 
which Solomon ^tced out, to fail from the Red Sea to Ophir and 
Tarihifh, probably on the eaftern coad of Ethiopia, were condudled 
by Phoenician pilots, who had been accudomed to vifit thefe coun- 
tries before the time of Solomon. It was to Phoenician mariners 
that Necho, King of Egypt, above 610 years before Chrift, ^ave the 
extraordinary commiflion to circumnavigate Africa. That prince 
fenta Phoenician fleet from the borders of the Red Sea, With injunc- 
tions to keep along the African coafls, to make the tour of them, 
and to return to Egypt by entering the Mediterranean at the Pillars 
of Hercules, or Straits of Gibraltar. The Phoenicians taking their 
departure from the Red Sea, entered the Southern Ocean, and con- 
ftantly followed the coads. After having employed two feafons in 
ihis navi^atioji, they doubled the- fouiherir promontory of Africa, 

r' I ■ I ^ I I >■ > I ■ ■ I . ■!■■ I II I —II 

* ' Abbreviated into Karchedon by the Greeks, and pronounced 
Caithago by the Romans.* 

D 3 and 

38 Thi Parian CbrotmU. 

and arriviag at Ae Pillars of Hercules, entered the Meditemwcan, 
«od reached the mouths of (he Nile in the third year of their 

In a work fo well executed as the prefent, to fearch for trifling 
inaccuracies would be faftidious : the author will eafily correS 
them in a fubfequent edition. We fliaJl only remark •, that it 
would have much incrcafed ihe value of his book, if Dr. R. bad 
been lefs fparing of his references. Dccifivc aflertions, oh points 
which have bc^n the fuhjeft of difpute, or concerning which sn 
inquifitive reader may be fuppofed to wi(h for farther informa- 
tlony ought Co be Aipported by authorities. 

Art. IX. Thi Parian Chronicle. (Concluded from our Review 
for Odober, p. 357.) 

T^ICENDUM ift mihi ad ea qua a te diSia funt^ fed iia^ nihil 
-^-^ ut affirnum \ qiueram omnia^ dubitans flirumq\ it mihi ipfi 

Having a^Iready given a concife account of this learned and 
ingenious work, we (hall briefly ftate fuch doubts as have 
arifen in our minds, on reviewing Mr. Robertfon's arguments ; 
and fubmit them to his impartial confideration. If we before 
omitted any obfervation of moment, from a dcfire of contra<%ng 
our article into as fmall a compafs as podible, we (hall now en- 
deavour to compenfate for the negledl. 

Objedion I. The charaSiers have m certain $r unequivocal maris 
$/ antiquity. This fccms rather to be an anfwcr to a defender of 
the infcription, than an objedion. If a zealous partisan of the 
marble (hould appeal to its charaders and orthography, as de* 
tiiive proofs of its being genuine, it would be proper enough to 
anfwcr, that thefe circumflances afford no certain criterion of 
authenticity. But in thi^ word certain^ fculks an unlucky am- 
biguity. If it means dtmonRrative, it mull be allowed that no 
infcription can be proved to be certainly genuine, from thefe ap« 
pearances ; but if it means no more than highly probable^ many 
infcriptions pofTcfs fuflicient internal evidence to give their claims 
this degree of certainty. The true queflion is. Has not the Pa- 
irian Chronicle every mark of antiquity that can be expedcd in a 
inonument claiming the age of 2000 years ? The letters F and 55 
are^ by Mr. R/s own confedion, fuch as occur in genuine in- 
fer! p ions, arid to fay in anfwer, that an impoftor might copy the 
forms of thefe letters from other infcriptions, is already to fup- 
pofe the infcription forgtd, before it is rendered probable by ar» 
gument. The learned author of the Diiitnation feems to betray 
fome doubt of his own conclufion ; for he adds, p. 56, * thai 
the antiquity of an infcription can never be proved by the mere form 

* P/emifing that, in the^ extract iicre.givea^ wc h«re omitted va- 
tious references made by Dr. K. 


The Pariah Chrmcli. 35 

"rfihi Utttn^ hicaufi tbt tn$ft ancitnt charaSftrs an as tafitf counter*' 
frited as the modern/ But this objedion is eqoally applicable to 
ail other ancient infcriptions^ and is not to the purpofe, if the 
prefent tnfcription has any peculiar marks of impofture in its 
charaders and orthography. • The charaSlers do not refemble the 
Sigean^ the Nemeany or the Delian infcriptions.* Mr. R. anfwers 
this objedion himfelf by adding, ' which are fuppofed to he of a 
mare ancient date* The oppofite reafon to this will be a fofficient 
anfwer to the other objedion, * that they do not refemble the Far^ 
nejian pillars or the Alexandrian MS.* If ' they differ in many re-' 
fpe^is from the Marmor Sandvicenfi,* they may be prefumed to 
agree in many* * They feem to rkfemble^ more than any other ^ the 
alpbabet taken by Montfaiicon from the Marmor Cyzicenum,* Thus 
it appears that the Parian Chronicle moft nearly refembles the 
two infcriptions, to whofe age it moft nearly approaches. 

When Mr. R. adds, that the letters * are fuch as an ordinary 
Jime^cutter xvotdd probably makcy if he were employed to engrave a 
Greek iufcription^ according to the alphabet now in ufe^ he muft be 
underftood cum granofalts* The engraver of a fac ficnile gene- 
rally omits fome nice and minute touches in taking his copy ; 
but, even with this abatement, we dare appeal to any adept \a 
Greek calligraphy whether the fpecimen facing p. 56, will juf- 
tify our author's obfervation, ^ Thefmall letters (0, 0, A), inters 
mixed among the larger^ have an air of affe^lation and artifice* 
Then baa the greater part of ancient inscriptions an air of afFeda- 
tion and artifice. For the O is perpetually engraved .in this di- 
minutive iize, and O, being of a kindred found, and of a kin- 
dred flupe, how can we wonder that all three (hould be repre* 
feated of the fame magnitude ? In the infcriptton which imme- 
diately follows the marble in Dr. Chandler's. edition, N^ xaiv. 
thefe very three letters are never fo large as the refi, and often 
much fmaller; of which there are ioftances in the three firft 
lines. See alfo two medals in the fecond part of Dorville's Si- 
cula, Tab. xvi. Num. 7. 9. 

• From the archaifmsy fuch as \y Awu)pti»tf iy KvjS/^oiCj if^ 
liz^iy &C. &c. no conctufton can he drawn in favour of the authen* 
tidty of the infcriptien* Yet furely every thmg common to it 
with other infcriptions, confefiedly genuine, creates a reafon- 
able prefumption in its favour. ^ But what reafon could there 
be for tbefe arehaifms in the Parian Chronicle ? We do not ufualty 
find them in Greek writers of the fame age^ or even of a more early 
date,* The reafon is, according to our opinion, that fuch ^7r- 
cbaifms were then in ufe ; this we know from other infcriptions, id 
which fuch arehaifms (or, as our author afterward calls thorn, 
barbarifms) ace frequent. Nothing can be inferred from the 
Gitek writers, unlefs we bad their autographs. The prefent 
'fyftem of Oftbogr^hy inrour printed Greek books is out of the 

D 4 queftion. 

4^ Thi Parian CbtmcU. 

qucftion. Agtin, * Tb$ infcription fcmetimet adopu ani-fomttimm 
negU^s thife afchaifms, as in lines 4, 12, 27, 52, 63, 67.* Thia 
incooGAency either is no v^lid obje<9ion, or if it be valid, will 
<3enr)oli/h not only almoft every other infcription, but almoft 
every writing whatCoever. For example, in the infcription ju ft 
<|uoted, N*^ XXIV, we find toN ^xcriXia 1. 20. and otoM irifAimi, 
24. A little farther, N*" xxvi 1. 31. we have IT MoLyvnaUft STt 
7^. 81. iK Mxyiftaia^^ aodiob. 108. iKT MayyvcriaU The 
Corcyrcan infcription (Montfaucon, Diar, Ital. p. 420.) pro^ 
mifcuoufly ufes (KSavn^&//at and iT^ayii^ofxcu* In £ngli(b, who 
IS f jrprifed to find bas and hath^ a handy and an band^ a ufeful^ 
and an ufeful^ in the works of the fame author \ .We could prcv 
d jce inftances of this inaccuracy from the fame page, nay from 
the fame fentence. 

* Ihe authenticity of thofe infcriptions, in which thefe arebai/ms 
appear y mujlbe ejiahlijhtdy before they can he produced in oppofition to the 
fre/ent argument.^ This is, we cannot help thinking, rather too 
Severe a reftridlion. If no infcription may be quoted, before ic 
be proved genuine, the learned author of the Diflertation need 
noi be afraid of being confuted, for nobody will engage with 
bim on fuch conditions. Perhaps the reverfe of the rule will 
be thought more equitable : that every infcription be allowed to 
be genuine, till its authenticity be rendered doubtful by pro^ 
bable arguments. We will conclude this head with two (bort 
obfervations. In Selden's copy, 1. 26. was written IIOHIIN, 
wbich the later editors have altered to IIOIHIIN, but without 
reafon, the other being the more ancient way of writing, com* 
mon in MSS. and fometimes found on infcriptions. (See G^ 
Koen's Notes on Gregorius de Dialcdis, p. 30.) In L 83. the 
Marble has KolXXiou^ for which Palmer wiflied to fubftitute 
KaXxUu, Dr. Taylor refutes him from the Marmor Sandvi* 
<*^;2/>, obferving at the fame time, that this orthography occurs 
in no other place whatever, except in thefe two monuments. Is 
it likely that two engravers fhould by chance coincide in the 
fame miftake, or that the forger of the Parian Chronicle (if it be 
forged} fhould have feen the Marmor Sandvicerife^ and taken nac» 
tice of this peculiarity with the intention of afterward employ- 
ing it in tne fabrication of an impofture i 

We will now confidcr, more briefly, the other objeAions. 

II. ^ It is not probable that the Chronicle was engraved for private 
ufi» I . Becaufe it was fuch an e^fpence^ as few learned Greeks were 
Me to afford.* If only ^ few were able to afford it, fome one of 
thpfe few might be willing to incur it. But let Mr. R. con- 
iider how likely It is that a modern, and probably a needy Greeks 
fhould be more able to iffbrd it in the laft century, than a learned 
Greek 2000 years ago ! 2. * -// manufcript is more readily circu'- 
latcd' Do men never prefer cumbrous fplend9ur to cheapneft 


Tlfi Parlsn ClftrnJii 41 

lad convenience ? And if this compofition, inffead t( being 
engraved on marble, had been commiued to parchment, would 
it have bad a brttcr chance of coming down to the prefent s|ge ? 
Such a flying iheet would foon be loft; or, if a copy had, bj 
miracle, been prefcrved to us, the obje<9ion8 to its being genuino 
would be more plaufible than any that have been urged againft 
the infcriptton. What Mr. R. fays about the errors to which 
an infcription is liable, &c. will only prove that chronological 
infcriptions ought not to be engraved ; but not that they never 
were. We allow that the comman method of writing in the 
reign of Pfoltmy Philadelphus was NOT on stones. But it 
was common enough to occur to the mmd of any perfon wha 
wtflied to leave behind him a memorial at once of his learning 
and magnificence. 

III. This objection, that the marble daes not appear to be en* 
graved by pubtic authority y we (hall readily admit, though Bent* 
ley (Difl. on Ph^ilaris, p. 251.} leans to the contrary opinion* 
In explaining this objcQion, the learnfd Dillcrtator obferves^ 
ihat though the expreffion, ipxorro; ifA llacptaif would lead us to 
fuppofc mat the infcription related to Pars, not a fin;^le cir« 
cumftance in the hiftory of that ifl4nd is mentioned. But tbia 
expreffion only (hews that the author was an inhabitant of Pa* 
roSj and intended to give his readers a clue, or parapegma^ 
bv the aid of which tbev might adjuft the general chronology of 
Greece to the dates of their own hiftory. ^ It is as abfurdae 
would be a marble in Jamaica containing- the revolutions of England^* 
We iee 00 abfurdity in fuppofing a book to be written in Ja- 
maica, containing the revolutions of England. The natives of 
Paros were not uninterefted in events relating to the general hif- 
tory of Greece, particularly of Athens ; and how can we tell 
whether the author were an inquilinus or a native of the ifland 1 
whether he thought it a place beneath his care, or whether h9 
bad devoted a feparate infcription to the chronology of Paros i 

IV. It has been frequently obfervedt that the earlier periods of tbi 
Grecian bijiery are ^nvolvtd in darknefs and confufionm Granted. 

It follows then, that an author who Jhould attempt to fetth the 
dates of the earlier periods would frequently contradiH preceding^ and 
be contrac&Sied hy^jubftquent writers : that he would naturally fall into 
mijiakes^ and at bejl could only hope to adopt the mojl probable fyftemm 
But the difficulty oftbetajk^ or the impojftbility offuuefs^ are noifuf* 
fcient to prove that no man has been rajh or mad enough to make theat^ 
tempt. On the cuncrary, we know that many have made it. What 
a jiumbcr of difcordani opinions has Mr, R. himfelf given ua 
from the ancients concerning the age of Homer ? This conii* 
dctation wiH in part obviate another objection, that the Parian 
Chronicle does not agree with any ancient author. For if the 
ancients contradid one another, how could it foUow more thaa 


4^ fb$ Parian Chr^rmlt^ 

ime of f hem ? ati^ why might pot the suthor, without any {«• 
putation of ignorance or raflinefs, focnetimes depart from tbcm 
all ? If indeed he dtfagrees with them When they arc nnani- 
mous, iC might furnitii matter for fufpicion ; though even chia 
4Would be far from a decifive argument, unlefs the ancienta were 
fo extremely unlike the modems, as never to be fond of fingular 
and paradoxical pofitions. 

V. This Chronicle is mt once mentiomd hy any writer of antifstitf. 
How many of thofe tnfcriptions, which are pceferved to the pre* 
fcnt day, arc mentioned by claffical authors ? Verrius Flacctia 
tompofed a Roman Calendar, which, as a monument of hta 
learning and induftry, was engraved on marble, and fixed in the 
tnoft public part of Preneftc. Fragments of this vtty calendar 
were lately dug up at Prenefte, and have been pubiiflicd by a 
l^rned Italian. Now, if the pafTage of Suetonius, which in- 
forms us of this ctrcumftance, had been loft, would the (iience 
of the Latin writers prove that the fragments were not genuine 
remains of antiquity ? It may be faid, that the cafes are not 
parallel, for not a fingle author mentions the Parian Chronicle^ 
whereas Suetonius does mention Verrius's Roman calendar. 
vTo thia we anfwer, It is dangerous to. deny the authenticity of 
any monument on the (lender probability of its being cafually 
nientioned by a fingle author. We (hal) alio obferve, that tbia 
ftfS of the Hemicyclfum of Verrius will anfwer fome part of 
the Diflcrtator*s fecond obje^ion : •» The Parian Chronicle is not 
an hfcription that might hiavt been e§nceaUd in a private library.* 
Why not ? it r$ of no extraordinary bulk ; and might formerly have 
hten concealed in a prirate library, or in a private room^ with mt 
much eafe aa m^any infcriptions are now concealed in very nar* 
row fpaces* But ^inlefs this monument were placed in fome 
confpicuoos part ^ theifiand, and obtruded itfelf on the notice 
tef every trat^eller, the wonder will in great meafure ceafe, why 
it IS never quoted by the ancients. Of the nine authors named 
In p. log) b^ affy one ever vifited Paros ? If Paufanias had 
travelled thither, and publifbed his defcription of the place^ 
We might "perhaps expert to firid fome mention of this marble in 
fj curious and inquifitive a writer. But though the infcription 
Icxifted, and were famous at Paros, there fe<fms no neceffity for 
any of the authors whofe works are ftill extant to have known 
or recorded it. If there be, let this learned antagonift point out 
the pUce where this mention ought to have been made. If any 
perfons were bouinJ by a (ironger obligation than others to fpeak 
tof the Parian infcrfption, they muft be the profcfTed chrono* 
loggers : but ales ! we have not the entire worka of fo much at 
^ fingle ancient chronologer \ it it therefore impoffible to deter- 
fnine whether this Chronicle were quoted by any ancient. And 
Cuppofing it had been fceo by fome anctenti whofe writings ftill 


fb4 PmoH CbroniAi 43 

femain, why (bouM he mike particular mention ^f\tl Many 
authors, a$ we know from their remaiiM, very freejy copied 
their prrdeceflcNrs without naming them. Others, finding only 
a colledion of bare events in the Infcription, without hiftorical 
proofs or rcafoos, might entirely negle^ it, as deferving. no 
credit. Mr. R« ieems to lay much ftcefs on the ^r/ci)^, /;m^» 
and particular fperiiication of the events, p. 109. ought 
to refled, ihat this abrupt and pofirive method of fpeaking is net 
only ufual, biH neccflary, in fuch Ihort fyftems of chronology as 
the Marble contains, where events only, and their dates, are fet 
down, unaccompanied by any examination of evidences for and 
againft, without dating any computation of probabilities^ or de- 
dudion of reafons. When therefore a chronological writer had 
undertaken to reduce the general biftory of Greece into a regular 
and confident fyftem, admitting that he was acquainted with this 
Infcription, what grounds have we to believe that he would fay 
any thing about it i Either his fyftem coincided with the Chro* 
nicle, or not: if it coincided, he would very probably difdaia 
to prop his own opinions with the unfupported aflertions of an* 
other man, wbo, as far as he knew, was not better informed 
than himfelf. On the other hand, if he differed from theaiK 
thority of the Marble, he might think it a fupeffluous exertion 
of complaifance, to refute, by formal demonftration, s| writer 
who had chofen to give no reafons for his own opinion«*-<»We 
(ball pafs hence to objection 

Vil. With refped to the parachronifms that Mr« R. pro* 
duces, we ihall without heAtation grant, that the author of the 
Infcription may have committed fome miftakes in his chrono- 
logy, as perhaps concerning Phidon, whom he feemf to have 
confounded with another of the fame name, &c. But tbefe 
miftakes wii} not conclude againft the antiquity of the Infcrip- 
tion, unlefs we at the fame timc^ rcjed many of the principal 
Greek and Roman writeis, who have been convided of (i'milar 
errors. We return therefore to objedion 

V I. Sonu of tb/ fails feem to have ban taken from authors of a 
latiT dat4. We have endeavoured impartially to examif>e «nd 
compare the pafTa^es qpoted in proof of this objection ; but we 
are obliged to confefs, that we do not perceive tlie faintefl traces 
of theU or imitation. One example only deferves to be except- 
ed, to which we fhall therefore pay particular attention. 

* The names of fix, and, if the lacuna; are properly fupplicd, the 
Aames of twelve cities, appear to have been engraved on the Marble, 
exai^ly as we find them in Elian's Various Hiftory. Bat there is 
not any imaginable reafon for this particular arrangement* It does 
HOC correfpond with the time of their foundation, with their (ituation 
in Ionia, with their relative importance, or with the order in which 
Ihey are placed by other eminent ^hillorians.' 


44" ^^ Parian Cbnntclu 

The thaoce of fix names, fays Mr. R. being placed by twm 
Mthws in the fame order, is as i to 720, of twelve, as i to 
479«OOl,6ca. * h is therefrri utarly improbable that thefe names 
WuU have been placed in this erder en the Marble^ if the author rf 
the In/eriptien had net tranjcribed themfrem the hi/lerian.* 

On this argument we Aall obferve, i. That the very con«- 
timry conclufion might poffibly bejuft, that the hiftoriart tran«> 
icribed from the Infcription. Yet we (hall grant that in the 
prefent cafe this is improbable, efpecially if the author of the 
variovs Hiftory be the fame Elian, who, according to Philo- 
ftratu*, Vit. Sophift. II. 31. never quitted Italy in his life. But 
an intermediate writer might have copied the Marble^ and iElian 
might have been indebted to him. ' 2dly, We fee no reafoni to 
allow, that the lacuna are preperlj fupplied. Suppofe we (hould 
aflert, that the names ftood originally thus, Miletus, Ephefus, 
Erythrae, Clazomensb, Lebedos, Chios, Phocaea, Colophon, 
Myus, Priene, Samos, Teos. In this arrangement^ only four 
names would be together in the fame order with Elian ; and 
from thefe Miletus muft be excepted, becaufe xhere is an ob- 
'irioas reafon for mentioning that city firft. Three only will 
then remain, and furely that is too flight a refcmblance to be 
conftrued into an imitation. For Paufanias and Paterculus, 
quoted by our Author, p. 1 54, have both enumerated the fame 
twelve cities, and both agree in placing the five laft in the fame 
Older, nay, the fix laft, if Voffius's conjedure, that TEUM 
ought to be inferted in Paterculus after Myum TEM, be as 
true as it is plaufible. But who imagines that Paufanias had 
cither opportunity or inclination to copy Paterculus ? 3dly, Al- 
lowing that the names were engraved on the Marble exadly in 
the order that Elian has chofen, is there no way of folving the 
phenomenon, but by fuppofing that one borrowed from the 
other? Seven authors at leaft (Mr. R. feems to fay more, 
P* I54> S-) tnention the colonization of the fame cities ; how 
many authors now loft may we reafonably conjedure to have 
done the fame ? If ilierefore the compofer of the Chronicle, and 
Elian, lighted on the fame author, the former would probably 
preferve the fame arrangement that he found, becaufe in trait* 
icribtng ^ lift of names, he could have no temptation to deviate^ 
and the latter w uld certainly adhere faithfully to his original^ 
becaufe 'he is a notorious and fervjle plagiarift. Mr. R. indeed 
thinks, p. 158, that if a fucceeding writer had borrowed the 
words of the Infcription, he would not have fupprefied the name 
of thJe author. This opinion muft fall to the ground, if it be 
ibewn that Elian was accuftomed to fupprefs the names of tl)e 
authors to whom he was obliged. Elian has given a lift qf 
fourteen celebrated gluttons, and, elfewhere, another of twenty* 
eight drunkards (from which^ by the way, it appears, that 
3 people 

Tii PafUn CbrSnidi. 45. 

pebpltf Vnere apt to eat and drink rather too freely iii andeiit tt 
well as modern times) ; and both there lifts contain exaAly the 
fame names in the fame order with Atheneiis. Ncrw it is ob» 
fervable, that fourteen names may be tranfpofcd 87)178,291^900 
diffrrent wajs, and that twenty*eight names admit of %0^9%i^ 
344,61 i,7i3,86o,5Of,504»0OD,coo different tf aofpofitions, ^ic 
&c. Elian therefore tranfcribed them from Atbeaeisj yo 
Elian neirer mentions Atheneiis in his Various Hiffory. So 
that whether Elian copied from the Marble, or only drew from 
a common fource, he might, and very probably would, coaceal 
bis authority. 

VIII. The bipry iff thi dife9Viry $f tbi Marbles it afittre and 

1(1 p. 169, it is faid to be ^ related with fufpicious etretanftarua^ 
emdwithiut any efthcfe clear and unequivocal evidences which alu/dy$ 
difcriminate truth fr$m falfehoed.* The queftion then is finally 
decided. If the Infcription has not any of thofc evidences^ 
which truth alvoays pofleiTes, and which falfehood always wants, 
it is moft certainly forged. The learned DiiTertator feems for « 
moment to have forgotten the modeft cbarader of a DOUBTSft, 
and to perfonate the dogniatift* But ^waving this, we (ball add, 
that, as far as we can fee, no appearance of fraud is difco^eiv 
able in any part of the trahfadlon. The hiftory of many ki* 
fcriptions is related in a manner equally unfatisfa^ory $ and if if 
could be clearly proved that the Marble was dug up at Paros, 
what would be eafier for a critic who is determined at any rate 
to objed, than to fay, that it was buried there ia order to kn 
afterward dug up i If the perfon who brought this treafure tm 
light had been charged on the fpot with forging it, or concur- 
ring in the forgery, and had then refufed to produce the estor- 
nal evidences of its authenticity, we (hould have a right tm 
queftion, or perhaps to deny, that it was genuine, fiut no 
fuch objedion having been made or hinted, at the original time 
of its difcovery, it is unreafonable to require fuch teftimony as 
it is now impoffible to obtain. ^ There is nothing faid efit in Sir 
T. R$e^s negotiatimss.* What is the inference f 1 hat Sir Thomas 
knew nothing of it, or believed it to be fpurious, or forged it, 
or was privy to the forgery ? Surely nothing of this kind can 
be pretended. But let our Author account for the ckcumftancc* 
if be can. To us it feems of no confequence on either fide. 
* Peirefe made no effort to recover this precious relic ^ and from bh 
compofure be Jems to have entertained feme fecret fufpicions of its au^ 
fbentiiitjt** reirefc would have had no chance of recovering it 
after it was in the pofieAon of Lord Arundel's agents. He was 
either a real or a pretended patron of letters, and it became bins 
to affeA to be pltafed that the Infcription had come into £ttt* 
land, and was iUuftrated by his iearned friend Selden. John F. 
Gronovius bad with great labour and expence collated Aniw 

' Comncna's 

46 ^^ ParuiH CknniJi. 

Comneiis^i Alcxiades, and tneetided to poUifb (ben. White- 
be wtt watting for fome other collations, they were intercepted, 
andithe work waa puUiflied by another. As foon as Gronoriua 
heard this unpleafant news, he anfwered, that learned men were 
engaged in a common caufe; that if one prevented another in 
ai|y publicatioD, be ought rather to be thanked for lightening 
the burtbeo, than, blamed for interfering. But who would con- 
dode Cram this anfwer, that Gronovius thought the Alextades 
fj>ttrioes, or not worthy of any regard ? 

Mr. R. calculates, that the venders of the Marble received 
200 pieces. But here again we are left in the dark, unlefa 
we knew the prectfe value of thefe pieces. Perhaps they might 
be equal to an hundred of our pounds, perhaps only to fifty. 
Befide* aa- they at firft bargained with Samfon, Pierefc's fup- 
po(td Jmu agent, for fifty pieces only, they could not have^ 
forged the Infcription with the clear profpefl of receiving more* 
Neither does it appear that they were paid by Samfon. It is 
fuUy aa reaibnable to fuppofe fraud on the one fide, as on the 
other; end if Samfon, after having the Marble in his pofleffion, 
refitfed or delaj^ to pay the fum ftipulafed, he might, in cod- 
fcquence of fuch refufal or delay, be thrown into prifon, and 
might, in revenge, damage the Marble before the owners could 
recover it. 

* We own this account of ours to be a romance ; but it is law- 
ful to combat romance with romance. 

IX. Tbi w$rld has ban frttpuntly impofid upon by/purious booh 
ami infcriptiom^ mid thtrefore we jhpuld hi extremely cautious with 
ngard ti'wbat we receive under the venerable name of antiquity. 

Much truth is obfervable in this remark. But the dan- 
ger lies in applying fuch general apophthegms to particular cafes, 
mthe firft place, it.muft be obferved, that no forged books will 
exaAly fuitMr. R.*s purpofe, but fuch as pretend to be the au- 
thor's own hand-writing ; nor any infcriptions, but fuch as are 
ftill extant on the original materials, or fiioh as were known to 
be extant at the time of their pretended difcovery. Let the argu- 
ment be bounded by thefe limits, and the number of forg.eries 
will be very much reduced. We are not in poflTefGon of Cyria- 
cus Anconitanus's book, but if we were governed by authori- 
ty, we ihould think that the teftimony of Reinefius in his fa- 
vour greatly overbalances all that Auguftinus has faid to his 
prqudite. The opinion of Reinefios is of the more weight, be- 
craufe he fufpeds Urfinus of publilhing counterfeit monuments. 
We likewife find the mofl eminent critics of the ptefent age 
quoting Cyriacus without fufpicion (v. Ruhnken. in Timasr 
Lex. Plat. p. 10. apud Koen, ad Grcgor. p. 140.) ' The doc- 
tritie advanced in the citation from Hardouin is exactly c©n- 
formabk to that writer's ufual paradotfos. He wanted to dcflroy. 
Ihe credit of all the Greek and Latin wiitefs. But infcrip- 
1 3 lions 

LardacrV ]9^$rB. 47 

lidos kvog like a nillftone about tbe neck of his p^ojeA. Ht 
tberefore lefolvcd to make fure work, and to deny the genuine* 
a^ of as many as he faw conventent ; to cffaSt which purpole^ 
he intrenches himfelf in a. general accufation^ If the author of 
tbe Diflercation had quoted a few more paragraphs from Har- 
douin, in which he endeavours, after his manner, to (hew the 
forgery of fom9 iofcripttons, he would at once have adminifteredl 
tbe poifon and the antidote. But to the reveries of that learned 
madman, refpeding Greek ruppoficirious compofitions of thif 
nature, we Ihall content ourfelv«8 with oppofing the fentknentt 
of a modern Critic, whofe judgment on the fubjc^l of fpurious 
infcriptions will not be difputed : 

Maff£i, in the introdudion to tbe third book, c. i. p. 51* 
of his admirable, though unfinifhed work Je Arte Critka La^ 
fidarii^ ufes thefe words : Infcriptionum Grace kquewtium com*' 
mentitias^fi cum Latinh comparemus^ diprebendi paucas : neque enim 
uMum omnino eji^ in tanta debacchdntium falfariorum Itbidiue^ m§^ 
numenti genus^ in quod ii ftbi minus licere putaxnrint. Argmment» 
eft^ paucijjimas ufque in banc diem ab eruditis viris^ et in hoe litera* 
rum genere pluritnum ver finis reje^as tffe, /<»^«^ damnateu. 

We here iinifh our exceptions. Much praife is due to tbe 
Author of the Diflertation for the learning and candour (o con* 
fpicuous throughout his work. Even thofe who are moft pre* 
judiced againft his hypothefis, will read his book with pleafure^ 
as well for the tafie and erudition difplayed in treating the jnaia 
queftion, as for the entertaining difcuffion of incidental matters. 
If we feem to have aflumed more of the ftyle and tone of con-» 
troverfy than fuits the impartiality of judges, wc plead in tx^ 
cofe, that we intended only to animate, in Tome degree, a fub* 
jed, n^icb, to the generality of readers, muft appear dry 
and tedious* If the Author fliould pay any attentioq to tbe 
bints which we have thrown out, and publiih the refult of hia 
tboughts on them, we ihall coolly reconfider his arguments, 
Refellere fine iracundia^ et r^feili fine pertinacia parati* 
In the emendations 6f the i ith and 78th lines of the Infcrip- 
tion, the genius of the Greek language requires us to read, 
Uavxifiifanx and ciyifint f^^ UocifX^ri^cuMv and ai/f/?»cre. - 

I ' ' ■ ' ' ' ~ t i— ■ . •- 

Art. X. Tbe Works 0f Nathaniel Lardaefy D. D.* containing, Cre- 
dibility of the Gofpel Hiftory ; Jewilh and Heathen Tcftimonics ; 
Hiftory of Heretics ; and his Sermons and Trafts ; with ^neral 
Chronological Tablet » and copious Indexes. To the fir(l Volume 
||i$ prefixed tbe Life of the Author, by. Andrew. Kippii» D*D. 
F.R.S. and S. A. In 1 1 Vols. 8vo. Price to Subfcribers 3I. lu 
ia Boarda. Johnfon. 1788. 

WE heartily congratulate the Public on the appearance of 
this COMPLETE EDITION of the Woxlcs of Dr. Lard* 
net,; who has not improperly been complioierted as *^ the Piloce 



48 Lardaer'j Worh. * 

of modern Divines/^ and whofe cbirf work can not fall ot hlsimt 
held iff thehighcft repute as long at the credibility of the Gofpcl 
Aall be deemed worthy of demonftration. Uniting to an inti* 
mate knowlege of antiquity, candour, good fenfc, and the moft 
facred regard for truth, he hat laboured with foccefs in winnow- 
ing the chaff of fpurious evidence from thofe genuine and folid 
teftimonies which prove the verity of the Chnftian Scripturcti 
He had none of that weak credulity which refls fatisfied with 
flimfy forgeries, pious frauds, and artful interpolations, or of 
that wretched timidity which trembles at removing thofe recda 
and ftraws with which the ignorant and fuperftitious have en- 
deavoured, and the artful pretended, to prop up the fortrefs of 
truth. Hence his writings are eminently valuable. None have 
heen more highly or more juftly praifed* ^^ It was the frequent 
faying of a very learned perfon, that if be were fentenced to im* 
prifonment for feven years, he would not dcflre to take any 
books with him into his confinement, befides the works of Jor^ 
tin and Lardner *." 

The feveral pieces contained in the eleven volumes before ur^ 
and now firft colleded together, have feparateiy been pobltfliedi 
at difierent times ; moft of them by Dr. Lardner himfelf, and 
fome few after his deceafe ; and accounts have been given of 
them in our Review, which may cafily be found by confulting 
our General Index f. A republication of them was now be* 
Come neceflary. His great work on the Credibility of the Go/pel 
HiJItry^ in 17 volumes o^avo, was become very fcarce, and fold 
for as much as all his works originally coft, unbound; and fome 
of his trads were not to be purchafed, Thefe hcter will have 
the recommendation of novelty ; efpecially the EfTay on the Mo* 
fait Account of the Creation and Fall of Man^ al moft the whole in- 
preffion of which was loft, in confex^uence of the misforcuncs of 
she bookfeller. 

' Nothing, however, is abfolutely new in this edition, except 
the Lift of the Author^ written by Dr. Kippis, which, notwith* 
Handing it can furnifh no great amufement to the mere lovers 
of anecdote, will be efteemed by all rational Chriftians as a pro-^ 
per tribute to the memory of Dr. Lardner, and an acceptable 
addition to the mafs of Britifb biography. Sentiments of f fteem 
and veneration, combining with natural curiofity, prompt us to 
enquire into the hiftory of thofe men by whofe writings we have 

♦ Memeirs of T. Hoi lis, Efq. vol. i. p. 254. 

f Oor firft account of the Credibility is in vol. iv. p. 18. of the 
Review. Some account of che Jenjjtjh and Heathen Teftimemies (entitled 
in our Index On the Truth of the Cbriftian Religion) is to be found ia 
vol. xxxii. p. 1.; xxxiv. p. 31- and p. 430. ; and vol. xxxvi. p 270. 
The laft work of Dr. Lardner'a noticed by ui, was his Hifiory ef 
Heretics, fee vol. Ixiv. p. 33* 


LarJoer^j ff^orih 49 

fieeh improved in wifdom and virtue. Can w^ therefore be fur- 
prifed that many ibould defire a life of this excellent writer ? foir 
to whom among the moderns is theChrtfiian world under greater 
obligations ? But againft undertaking a taflc of this Icind it baa 
been objeded, that the lives of fcholars, palled for the moft part 
in their libraries, can furnifb few incidents deferving the bip-^ 
grapher^s attention ; and that the works of fuch men as Lardner 
contain by much the moft valuable and amufing part of their 
memoirs. This, in general, is true ; and yet the JLn/fx of the 
learned, if faithfully written, will always be coveted. Little 
perhaps is to te known, but there is a pleafure in knowing that 
little. Add to this, that an acquaintance with their bitiorj 
and character often affifts us in underftanding their Writing^i and 
in afcertaining the degree of credit to which they are entitled^ 
For thefe reafons, the life of Lardner ought to be held pp to 
view. His indvflry, integrity, candour, and gentlertefs^ (hould 
be made known, as they ferve to increafe the value of his works^ 
as well as to refled a luftre on human nature. Why the rela- 
tions of fuch a man ftiould objed to his life being publi(hed, we 
cannot divine; but we think Dr. iCippis is to be applauded for 
perfifting, notwithfianding their obje^lfonsj in his fefolutioo* 
He well knew that no difgrace could accrue to him from the 
narrative with which he has enriched the prefent^ditiom The 
DoAor has made a good ufe of thofe materials, which he appears 
to have colleded with diligence; has drawn up the memoir ia 
an eafy and agreeable manner, and taken frequent opportunities 
of enlivening the narrative with thofe ingenious ftriSurcd and 
obfervations, in making which he is peculiarly happy. 

The particulars of Dr. Lardner's life^ indepcndcritly of hii 
being an author, lie in a very narrow compafs. He was born 
at Hawkhurfl', in Kent, June 6, 1684. After a grammatical 
education, to which great attention muft have been given, and 
in which' a no lefs rapid progrefs muft have been made, he wa^ 
ient firft to a difTenting academy in London, Which was under 
the care of the Rev. Dr. Joihua Oldfield ; and thence, in his 
l6th year, to profecute his ftudies at Utrecht, under the cele- 
brated profefiors D'Uries, GraeviuSi and Burman. Here be re- 
mained fomewhat more than three yeaxs, and then removed for 
a fliort fpace to Leydeh. In 1703 he returned to England, con- 
tinuing, at his father's houfe, to employ himfelf by clofe anddi- 
Ugeht preparation for the facred profeffion which he had id 
view. Qualifled as he was, it was not till 1709 that he preached 
his firft fermon, />om Romans, i. 16.—^' a text (his biographer 
remarks) th'an which thete cduld not have been a more proper 
one for a man, who was dcftihed in the order of Divine Provi« 
detice to be one of the ableft advocates for the authenticity and 
UO'h of the Chriftian revelation, that ever cxiilcd/ 

Rty. jan» 1789. K A few 

5« LarJ iiet*i ff^orh. 

A few years after this; Lardncr was received iA!o Lady Tre- 
by,'s family, as domeftic chaplain and tutor to her foriy aod con- 
tinufd iti this comfortable fuuation till her Ladyfhlp's death, in 
1721. This event threw him into circumftances of fome per- 
plexity, haying preached to feveral congregations during his ^e- 
fidence with Lady Treby, without the approbation or choice of 
any one congregation. Here we are told, ^ that it refle£is no 
iionour on the Diflenters, that a man of fuch merit (bould (o 
long have been neg!e£ted.' But furely it cafts no dijhonour^ when 
«II circumAances are confidered. The pulpit was not the place 
in which Mr. L. was calculated either to convey improvement, 
or acquire reputation. Dr. Itippis afterward informs us, * that 
his mode of elocution was very udpleafant'; that from his early 
and extreme deafnefs he cotild have no fuch command of hisf 
voice, as to give it a due modulation ; and that he greatly 
dropped his words.' It cannot then, as his biographer adds» be 
Inatter of furprife that he was not popular; and we may add to 
this, it cannot then be any refle£lion on the congregations to 
which he occafionally preached, that they did not choofe for 
their minifler a man, who, notwithfianding his great learning 
and amiable virtues, was fo deficient as a public fpeaker, that it 
was impoffible to hear him with any pleafure, and fcarcely with- 
out pain* 

Though Mr. Lardner had no church at whtch he officiated 
as Miniftcr, he was engaged, with fome of his difienting brethren, 
in preaching a Tuefday-evening IcdVurc at the Old Jewry. Ac- 
quainted probably with the dire<9ion of hi» iludies, they ap- 
pointed hrni to preach on the proof of the Cndibility sfthi Gofpel 
Hiftory. This he difcufied, we are told, in three fermons (p. 84, 
they are called twofermom^ which we believe to be right, as we 
find twb fermons wfth nearly this title in vol* x.), and profccut- 
ing the fubjcd which he had taken up in thefe difcourfes, in 
Feb. 1727, he publi(hedy in two volumes odavo, the firji Part of 
<* The Credibility of the Gofpel Hiftory, or the Fa<2s occa- 
sionally mentioned in the New Teftament confirmed by Paf- 
fages of ancient Authors who were contemporary with our 
Saviour, or his Apoftlcs, or lived near their Time/* An Ap- 
pendix was fubjoinedy relating to the time of Herod's death. 

Thus Mr. L. commenced author, aod began hia literary 
career with Angular reputation. 

< It is fcarcely ncceflary to fay (obftrrves Dr. K.) how well thia- 
work was reteived by the learned world. Not only was it highly 
approved by the Proteftant DiiTenters, with whom the author was 
more immediately conncded» but by the clergy in general of the 
cftabliihed church ; and its reputation gradually extended into fo- 
reign countries. It is indeed an invaluable performance, and hath , 
rendered the mofl effential fervicc to the caufe of ChrifHanity. Who- 
ever perufes this work (and to him that does not perafe it, it will be ' 


JLkrJner*/ ff^rh. 51 

to Kis bwn lofs) wril find it replete with adihirabte ihflru£Uon, foiuid 
learning, and juft and candid criticifm */ 

Thefe two, with the fubfeqnent fifteen, volumes odavo, and 
Ihc four thin quarto*, entitled Jetvijh and Heathen Tejfimonies^ 
occupied him, with the interruption arifing from fome fmiller 
prod u£l ion s, d u ri ng t he fpiice of forty^ three years. 

Dr. Kippis give^ us a particular account of the time when 
each volume was pub!i(hed, and of the fubje£ls difculTed. In each» 
interfperling his narrative with n>any pertinent and ufeful hints ^ 
^nd obfervations ; but our limits Will not allow us to follow hioi 
through this detail. Wc agree with him in his remarks con- 
cerning academical honours^ occ^afibned by Mr. Lardncr's receiv- 
ing a diploma from the Nfarifchal College of Aberdeen, con- 
ferring on him the degree of DoQor in Divinity, but we muft 
kiot extrad them« We are refolvcd however to make room, 
whatever matter we may thruft by, for that ufefu) information 
which Dr. K. introduces, ih fpeaking of the Supplement to the 

' I cannot avoid fbotigly recommending the Supplement f to the 
Credibility to the attention of all young divines. Indeed, I think 
that it ought to ht read by every theological ftndent before he onits 
the univexfity or academy in which ht is educated. There are toree 
other works which will be found of eminent advantage to thofe who 
are intended for, Or beginning to engage in, the Cbriftian miniilry. 
Thefe are, Butler^s Analogy, Bifhop Law's Coniiderations on the 
'theory of Religion, atid Dr, Taylor's Key to the Apoftolical Writ- 
ings, prefixed to his paraphrafe on the EpiAIe to the Romans. With- 
out agreeing with every circumftancc advanced in thefe works, it 
nay be faid of them, with the greateft truth> that they tend to open 
and enlarge the mind ; that they give important views of the evi- 
dence, nature, and defign of revelation ; and that they difplay a 
vein of reafoning and enquiry which may be extended to other ob- 
jeds befides thofe immediately confidered in the books themfelves. 

' Ic muft not be forgotten, that the Supplement to the Credibility 
has a place, in the excellent colle^Uon of treatifet in divinity which 
has lately been publiflicd by Dr. Watfon Bifhop of LandafF. For a 
colledion which cannot fail of being eminently conducive to the in- 
ftrttfHon and improvement of younger clergymen, and for the noble, 
manly, and truly evangelical preface by which it is preceded, this 
great Prelate is entitled to the gratitude of the Chrillian world. 

' May I not be permitted t6 add, that there is another colledion 
which is ftill wanted ; and that is, of curious and valuable fmall 
tra^, relative to the evidences of oar holy religion, or to fcriptural 
diScolties, which, by length of time, and in confequence of having 

♦ Hereby (fays Mr. Radcliffc, in his affixed Enlogium on Dr. L.) 
he has erefted a monument to his great matter and himfcif, which 
maft lad as k)ng as the world endures. 

t N. B. This, fome years ago, was publiflied feparately by the . 
kookfcllcrf, under the title ofTte Hiftory of the Qo/pels and Epifiles. 

E z been 

51 Lardncr'i IVorh: 

been feparately pririted, are almoft funk into obli9ion,/or, if remeoK 
bered, can fcarcely at any rate be procured ? The recovery of fuch' 
pieces, and the communication of them to the public, in a few vo* 
Inmes, and at a reafonable price, would be an accepuble, as well as 
an ufeful fervice, to men of enquiry and literature.' 

Applauded as Dr. Lardner's works were^ be received little re- 
ccoipence for them. Some of the latter volumes of the Credi- 
bility were publifhed at a lofs, and at laft he fold the copy-right 
and all the remaining printed copies, to the bookfellers^i for the 
trifling fum of 150 A Laudatur et algeU 

His objed, however, was not private emolument, but to ferve 
the interefts of truth and virtue ^ and it pleafed Divine Provi- 
dence to fpare his life, both to complete his extenfive plan, and 
to fee the laft volume, the 4tb of the Tejiimonies^ publilbed. 
This was in 1767. He was feized with a decline in the fummer 
following, and was carried off in a few days at Hawkhurft, the 
place of his nativity, where he had a fmall paternal eftate, in the 
05th year of his age. At his particular requefl, no fermon was 
preached on occafion of his death. * Thus (fays his biographer) 
did his modefty and humility accompany him to the laft moment 
of his earthly exiftence.' 

Some pofthumous works were publiihed, particularly his Hif- 
Ury of Heritics^ by the Rev. Mr. Hogg of Exeter j to our ac* 
count of which we have already referred. 

We Ibould be happy to extract the conclufion of the Memoir, 
in which is given at length, from various teftimonies, the cha- 
raSer of this great and amiable * man ; this, however, may be 
unnecefi^ry, as the candid of all parties muft agree in allowing, 
thaty^Ti; names are more truly entitled to be remembered with venera^ 
iion and applaufe. 

Subjoined to the narrative, is an Appendix containing letters 
which paflTed between Dr. Lardner and Dr. Waddington 6i(hop 
of Chicbefter, Dr. Seeker then Bifliop of Oxford and after- 
ward Archbifhop of Canterbury, Lord Barrihgton, Dr. Mor* 
gan, Dr. Chandler, and Dr. Doddridge, together with fome 
valuable papers, particularly one, communicated by the Rev. 
Mr. Henley to Dr. Kippis, on the difputed pafiage in Jofephus. 
Here we are entirely of opinion with Dr. K. that • this paflige 
ought to Be for ever difcarded from any place among the ty'x^ 
dencie of Chriftianity, though it may continue to exercife the 
ingenuity and critical ikill of Scholars and divines,' 

Before wedifmifs^this article, it fliould be remarked, that Mr« 
Baxter Cole merits our commendation, for the fidelity, care, and 
■^ ■ • - - 

* The candour and moderation with which Dr. L. maintained his 
own fentiments, condituced a prominent feature in his chara^er. 
Theie virtues were fo eminent as even to excite the commendation 
of JOr. Morgan, the author of the Moral Philofopher. 

% ' judgment 

Pctitpicrre'i Th$ughs m the Divine Goodnefi. 5 j 

jfHigment which he has difplayed in the deparUneot of Editor; 
Dr/ Lardner's lingular mode of fpelling nuny words is very pro* 
perly rejeded, and he has adopted the orthography now moft in 
life ; but what is of moreconfequence to the learned reader (and 
we Reviewers particularly thank him for it), be has pa«d great 
attention to Lardner's works, as books of reference. To facili- 
tate our turning to any quotation, he has inferted at the top of 
'the pages the volume and page of the original edition; by means 
of which, the prefent edition may in all cafes be confulted with 
nearly the fame eafe as any of the former. We highly applaud 
this mechod, and recommend it to the imitation of ail thofe who 
colled and give new editions of the works of valuable authors* 

For the copious Indias^ Mr. Cole likewife deferves our 

Aar. XI. Thoughts en the Di*vine Geodntfi, relative to Moral 
Agents, particularly displayed in future Rewards and Punifh- 
ments* Tranflatcd from the French of Ferdinand Olivier Petit- 
pierre. 8vo. 58. 3d. Boards. Robinfons, &c. 1788. 

THE ingenious, and pious author of this (nterefiing book is 
well known, by the talents which he difcovercd during the 
courfe of his minidry in Switzerland, and the virtues he dif- 
played under the perfecution which he fuffercd for his particular 
opinions. Some mention was made of this when we announced 
the original French work, with the high commendations which 
it deferves ♦. It is our bufinefs, at prefent, to fpeak of the tranfla- 
tion, which, like the good copy of an excellent piflure, is every 
way worthy to attradl the attention of thofe, who cannot ftudy 
the original. The gentleman, or lady, who has favoured the 
Public with this tranflation, has done juflice to the author, by 
entering deeply into the benevolent feelings of his excellent 
heart, and often expreffing them happily. The reader will 
find in fome places, indeed, phr^s that feem to be caft in a 
Gallic mould, and that deviate more or If fs from the eflablifbed 
modeof Englifli didion : he will alfo find, here and there, epithets 
more pompous than thofe that are ufualiy beflowed by Fnglifh 
writers on the objeds which they are intended to chara£)ertze: 
hut tbefe phrafes, and thefe epithets, were defignedly employed 
by the tranlhtor, though as feldom as poilible, with a view to 
preferve the fpirit and energy of the original, and we think this 
view does not ftand in need of the apology that is made for it in 
the Preface to this tran/lation. — We wifli that the pun£luation 
of the work had been more corred, as accurate pointing makes 
the fenfe of a period enter with fuinefs and facility into the con* 
ception of the reader. 

♦ 6ce Review for March 1788. 

E 3 Aiketch 

54 PetitpicrreV TBiughU m tbt Diving Onimft. 

A (ketch of the plan of this work was gfven» when the origin 
nal was annovnced, and to this we refer our readers* We (ball 
confine ourfelves at prefent to foroe ()peclinens of the tranflat 
tion, which will enable them to judge, for themfelres^ of \x% 
merit, and will, at the fame time, ferve as a farther fpecimen of 
the original work. To (hew that the jt^ke of God, infiead of 
ftanding in any fort of oppo(ition to yii% goodni/s^ is rather to be 
confidered as an important branch of it, M. retitpierre reafon^ 

* The delinitioa of Divine jofiice (that it u^goednt/s dirtHed hy njoif" 
d<fm), however true upon the whole, ha3 the defedl of being too ge- 
neral, and of not deternnining, with preciAon, in what the particular 
charader of Pivine juftice confi(ls» or the reafons why the goodnefs 
of God is {bmetim^s called juilice. Every a{t of Divine juftice is« 
indeed, an ad of his goodnefs direded by wifdom ; bat every ad of 
goodnefs, thus dircded, cannot be catled^an ad of juftice. The gift- 
that God made of his Son to a finfal world cannot, with propriety, 
be called an ad of juilice, though ^t is the higheft inftance of his 
goodnefs and wifdom. 

* I therefore incline more to another received definition of Divine 
juilice, which expreiTes with greater precifion the ideas ufualiy at- 
tached to that term. 7'be infttitejufiice of God (according to this de- 
finition) conjijis in 1?i5 ccnjiant and immutable mcill, qr determination, 
to difpcnjt to e*very ont that lubich kfi corre/ponds <witb bis moral Jlate, 
The juilice of one man towarde another is tbe conftant and babitua\ 
xvill of rendering to entery one tbat ivbicb is bis due ; but as this man - 
nerot fpeaking is improper, when applied to an independent Being, 
v^e fubilitute another in its place^ and fay, that as a man is called 
juil, who gives to every one his due, fo is the Divine Being called 
juft, becaufe he difpenfcs to every one that which is moil fuitable tq 
his moral ilate, throughout the whole of his exiil^nce/ 

The author illuftrates this idea of Divine juftice, by con(]der* 
ing the different ftates, circuroftancc?, conftitutions, and cha- 
ra^ers, of moral beings, and the various methods by which 

f;oodnefs, in perfcA union with ftri<% rediiude and wifdom^ 
eads them to moral improvement and final happinefs. 

After having endeavoured to prove, by a critical examination 
of many paffages of Scripture, that our Saviour reprefents future 
pupi(hment, as a chafiifement defigned for moral improvement^ 
txA that tbe word eternal,^ when applied to punifhment, (ignifie^ 
^Ung and dreadful corre^idn 'f-^-iher having (hewn, moreover, 
that this chaftifemcnt will be feverc and terrible for theobftinatc 
workers of iniquity, be makes the following judicious obferva* 
tion : 

* By confidcring this fevcre juilice as a branch of goodnefs, we (et 
the amiable attribute of goodnefs in its true light, and this will pre- 
vent us from falling into the dangerous illnfion of expeding nothing 
from Divine love but mercies and favours. We ihould not only 
coniider the end, bat alfo the means of felicity, and thefe will be 
ff vere nfon every foul of man tbat dottb eviL The goodnefs of thq 


PctitpicrrtV Thoughts on the Divine Goodnefs. 55 

T)e]t7 is iflfeparable from wlfdoro, and, confequently, exempt from 
fnch fiUfecompaffion as arifes from weaknefs : it is an inflexible good* 
nefs^ which, without being influenced by our erroneous fupplications, 
will complete its deiigns ; and thus the fuflerings that are neceflary 
to our chief happinefs are as certain^ as the infinite goodnefs of God 

In thecotirfcof his work, the Author (hews frequently (and 
with great evidence and judgment) how truths whicri are mifun« 
clerftood, lead to the mod abfurd and pernicious confequences. 
Among the truths fo perverted in their meaning and application, 
wc may reckon the fupreme authority of God over hiscreatures^ 
and his confequent right of determining their condition, and re« 
quiring their fubmidion and obedience. Thus the fupreme aa^ 
thority of God has been appealed to as a principle, which juftifies 
the condemnation of a great (and, in fom<* fyfiems, the greateft)* 
part of his creatures to endlefs mifery. But, according to M* 
Pctitpierre, the fupreme authority of God over his creatures it 
bis unlimited right to confer happinefs on them in his own 
way ; and he (hews that the Divine authority can never be incon<*. 
liftent with goodnefs, becaufe it is founded on goodnefs, , as its 
proper bafis. We ihall give his reafoningon this fubjed in the 
words of bis tranflator : 

* If the authority of God ( as is generally and juftly fuppofed) 
arifes from thta^ oftreation, let us confider 'what there is in this a^ 
that lays a jull foundation for unlimited authority. In the ad of crea* 
don I can didinguiih two things, the pciver which formed us, and the 
wll which determined the Deity to put this power in execution. Now 
jt is evident, that foitjer alone cannot b? the foundation oi authority j 
the idea of po<wer or ftrength, and that of authority or right, have no 
natural connexiop. A Being may have fufficient power to fubje£t me 
jU> his pleafure ; but this alone can never give him a right to my obe- 
dience: any real authority muft be derived from another fource. It 
is therefore in the *will (which determined creation) that we are to 
feek for the foundation of that fupreme authority, which the divine 
. Being poflefles over his creatures. Now that ivili; which brought nt 
into exigence, was the firfl ad of infinite goodnefs ; it arofe from the 
pure principle of benevolence and love : it conflituted the Creator 
the Parent of all, and is the pledge of that happinefs, which, ifluing 
f/ODLhifln, mail finally complete the felicity of every intelledual na- 
ture. Ah 1 when I contemplate the Being of Beings, under the lo*- 
terefUng' point of view in which Creation places him; when I view 
him as a oenevolent Creator, an eternal and gracious Father, who 
gave me exiUeoce that he might give me happinefs, I am no more at 
a lofs to difcern the foundation of his fupreme and unlimited autho« 
rity : I fee that his authority is the right to render me happy in the 
way bell fuited to my nature, and by the means the bell adapted to 
that end. I then perceive the ilrongeft and the modeffential ob]iga»> 
don on my part, to fubmit, implicitly and without referve, to his 
authority. I fee the folly and extravagance of ^ver complaining of 
^ difpenfations or laws of an infinitely wife Being, and the pre- 

E 4 fumptioOf 

jfi Pctitpif rrc-j Thoughts on tbi Divtm Goodmfi. 

fumption, 4n a weak and ignorant creature, of deciding concermng the 
tneans by which its happinefs is to be procured. IVoe unto him that ^' 
firi^eth 'with his Maker / ' 

We (hall clofe our fpecimens of ihii tranflation, by feme pa- 
ragraphs from that part of the work, in which the Author proves, 
that ri^ GLORY of God J inftead of requiring any thin^ contrary to his 
infiniti GOODNESS, is highly interejied in its eternal exercife. In 
the proof of this propofition, which is full in evidence and beau- 
tiful an^ pathetic in expreffion, M. Petitpierre (hews, among 
other things, how the manifeftation of all the Divine perfedions 
(in which the glory of God properly and eflentiailly confifts) is 
included in thedifplay of an unchangeable^ univerfal, and eternal . 
goodnefs to all his creatures. Thus he means to refute the opi- 
nion of thofe theologifts, who confider the glory of the Divine 
ytijlice as requiring tbeendlefs torments of the wicked and repro- 
bate. After (bewipg bow Divine goodnefs (hines forth pre-emi- 
nent and confpicuous in wifdom which direds, power which 
executes, holiaefs which promulgates the mod perfefi laws for 
our improvement^ happinefs^ ^n'd ju/iice ; — whofe chaftifements are 
deiigned to prepare and accomplKh the deftrudion of fin, the 
great enemy of human felicity, — be calls out, in a kind of rap* 
ture, — ^ What heart can conceive, what tongue can exprefs, the 
praifes due to fuch exalted glory ?— When all thefe adorable 
perfections {hall be fully manifefted to every creature, when fin 
IhaH be conquered, and finners (hall become holy, virtuous, and 
happy, then their -hearts, penetrated with love and gratitude, 
will for ever adore the Author of their exiflence and felicity, 
and the gj-ateful hemage of their thankfgiving and praife (ball 
refound through the manfjons of cejettial glory for ever and 

It is a farther obfervatipn of the Author, that the g!ory of the 
Creator rifultsfrom the perfeSJion of his creatures^ as the honour of 
the workman arifes tioaa the excellence and perfection of his 

* But (adds M. Petitpierre), on this principle, can any thing be ' 
more contrary to the glory of God, than the cndlefs mifery and ruin 
of the reprobate ? A multitude of intelligent and immortal beings, 
whofe nature and conditjon will be in eternal con trad idlipn, — their 
nature fufceptible of happinefs and ardently defiring it, while their 
everlifting portion is horrid and unremitting agony ! defcription muft 
fall infinitely ihor^ of this terrible idea, but reafon tells us, that it 
never can advance the glory of the Creator. — If we fuppofe that the 
■reprobate remain for ever in an impenitent and obdurate ftatc, what 
then do we behold ? a race of beings for ever devoted to crimes and 
faiFcrings, and that, under the empire of almighty power and good- 
nefs. — If we admit that, by their fufFerings, the reprobate may be 
rendered capable of fincere repentance, then the fuppofition of their 
-eternal piifery reprefents penitent beings returning to God and for 
ever imploring his forgiveaefs, but eternally rcjcdled by the. Father 

. of 

Sir y. Bonis and the J^mpsror 6fM$rocc9l %j 

of Mercies.— In whatever way, therefore, we confidcr the reprobat^ 
in eternal mifery, whether as obHinate iinners or as penitent of- 
fenders, we cannot help confidering their Hate, as in contradiction to 
the infinite goodnefs of the Divine nature, and, confequently, as ab* 
folutely impoiUble. 

* in dehghtful contrail with this painful objedl of contemplation 
flands that Infinite goodnefs, which will leave no being in the nni- 
rerfc a final prey to wickcdncfs and mifery. This goodnefs will ac- 
compliQi its work by enlightening their underllanding,redifying their . 
will, rooting out every vicious habit, dcftroying every evil propenfity, 
and employing, for this purpofe, every method of gentlenefs or (c- 
rerity, tharwifdom fhali deem neceffary, till evil is baniihed from 
the univerie, and all its intelligent inhabitants are rendeied good and 

From thefe farther fpecimehs, our readers will be enabled to 
Yorm a judgnnent of the fpirit of this work, and the merit of the 

Art, XII. Sirjo/epb Bapks and the Emperor of Morocco, *A Tale. 
By Peter rtndar, Efquire. 4to. is. 6d. fcearfley. 1788. 

PURSUING his blow, Peter aims a fecond droke at the 
Piefident of the Royal Society :— For the firft attack here 
alluded to, fee our laft Month's Review, p. 555. 

The poet feems to have taken the^hint of this fatirical piece 
from the humoroi|s account of Sir Nicholas Gimcrack, in the 
Tatler ; but in applying that charader to our celebrated botanift, 
be feems to have run counter to ail our ideas of ^* the natural or 
moral fitnefs of things,'** — This application, however, and this 
iitncfs, are not points for our decifion.— Of the poetry, and of 
the pleafantry, rake, reader, the following fpecimen : 

On a Butterfly Hunt, the hero of the piece fiarts the Emperor 
of Morocco ; and the purfuic is thus defcribed : 

• Lightly, with winnowing wing, amid the land. 

His Mooriih majcfty in circles flew I 
With fturdy ftridipg legs and out llretch'd hand. 

The virtuofo did his prey purfue. 

He ftrikes, he mifTcs, ftrikes again— he grins. 
And kt% in thought the monarch fix'd with pins ; 

Sees him on paper giving up the ghoft, 
Naird like a hawk or martyr to a poll. 

Oft fell Sir Jpfeph on the flippery plain. 

Like patriot Eden— fell to rife again ; 
The Emp'ror, fmiling, fported on before : 

Like PhcEbus courfing Daphne was the chace. 

But not fo was the meaning of the race. 
Sir Jofcph ran to kijl, not kifs the "Moor. 

58 Sir J. Banh atiJ ihi Emperor of MontCH 

To hold him prisoner in a glafa for ftitw^ 

Like Tamerlane (redoubtable his rage) 
Who kept poorfiajazet, his vanquifh'd foe, 

Jufl like an owl or magpie in a cage« 
• * • « » 
A countryman, who^ from a lane. 

Had mark'd Sir Jofepb, running, tumbling, fweatingj 
Stretching his hands and arms, like one infane^ 
, And with thofe arms the air around him beating. 
To no particular opinion leaning. 
Of fuch manaav'ring could not guefs the meaning. 

At length the PreHdent, all foam and mock. 
Quite out of breath, and out of luck, 
Purfued the Aying monarck to the place. 
Where ftood this coun^man* with marv'Ung face^ 

Now through the hedge, exadly like a horfe. 
Wild plunged th« Prafideal, wkb all bia forcr^ 
His brow in fweat^ his foul \n perturbation; 
Mindlefs of trees, and buihes, and the brambles^ 
Head over heels into the lane he fcrambles, 
> Where Hob ^ood loit in wide- mouthed fpeculation I 

♦* Speak,'* roar'd the frefident, « this inftant-^lay^ 
•♦ Haft reen»— haft Teen, my lad, this way^ 

•^ The emperor of Morocco pafs ?" 
Hob to the infedl-hunter nought replied. 
Bat (hook his head, and fympathiung iigh'4 

*« Alas^ 
*• Poor Gentleman, I am forry for ye ; 
•* And pity much your upper fiory /" 

Lo ! down the lane alert the emp'ror flew. 

And ffruck once more S^ir Jofeph's hawk-like view \ 

And now he mounted o'er a garden wall 1 
In rufhed Sir Jofeph at the garden door, 
Knocked down the gard'ner— whatcoold man do more^ 

And left him as he chofe to rife or fprawl, 

0*er pcerlefs hyacinths our hero rulh'd ; 
Through tulips and anemonies he puih'd. 

Breaking a hundred necks at ev'ry fpring : 
On bright carnations, blufhing on their banks. 
With defp'rate hoof he trod, and mow'd down ranks,^ 

Such vaft ambition urg*d to fcize the king ! 

Bell-glafics, a!l fo thick, were tumbled o'er. 
And To ! the cries fo fhrill, of many a fcorej, 

A fad and fatal ftroke proclaim *d ; 
The fcarecrow all fo Tt^^ was overturn M ; 
- His vaniftiM hat and wig, and head, he mournM, 
And much, indeed, the man of ftraw Was maimed! 


Sir y. Banks and tbi Empenr tf Mar$cc9^^ 5^ 

The gard'ncr now for juft revenge op fproog* 
Q*erwhelm'd with wonderment and dang» 

And fiercely in his turn purfued the knight I 
From bed to bed, full tilt the champions rac'd» 
This chacM the k|iight, the knight the cmp'ror chacM, 

Who fcal'd the walls, alas ! and vanifh'd out of fight ^ 
To find the emprefs, p'rhaps, and lell her Grace 

The merry hift'ry of the chace. 

At length the gard'ner« fwell'd with rage and dolor, 
0'ertaiking> grafps Sir Jofeph by the collar. 

And blefs'd with favorite oaths, abundance (howVs; — 
f Villain,** he cried, ♦* beyond example ! 
r Joft like a cart-hoffe on my beds to trample, 

** More than your foul is worth, to kill my flowVs ! 
'* See how y6\iT two vile hoofs have made a wreck«— 
f * Look^ rafcaU at each beauty's broken neck !" 

Mindlefs of humbled flowers, fo freely kiird^ 

Although fuperior to his foul decUr'd, 
And vegetable blood profufely fpill'd^ 

Superior, too, to all reward ; 
Mindlefs of all the gard'ner's plaintive drains, 
^he emp'ror's form monopoliz'd his brains. 
At length he fpoke, in fad defpairing tones, — 

♦ ♦ « • * 
f*,Gone is my foul's dtfire, for ever gone!"— 

f* Who's gone?" thegard'ner ftrait replied 

" The emp'ror, fir," with tears Sir Jofeph cried— 
f« The Emp'ror of Morocco— thought my own ! 
f To unknown fields behold the monarch fly ! — 
** Zounds ! not to catch him, what an afs was I !'* 

His eyes the gard'ner, foil of horror, ftretch'd. 
And then a groan, a mpnftrous groan he fetch'd^ 

Contemplating around his ruin'd wares ; 
And now he let Sir Jofeph's collar go ; 
And now he bray'd aloud with bittered woe, 

'* Mad, madder tbf n the maddeft of March hares ! 

f « A p— X confound the fellow's Bedlam rigs ! 
** Oh ! he hath done the work of fifty pigs ! 
** The devil uke his Keeper, a damn'd goofe, 
«« For letting hw wild bead get loofc." 
But now the gard'ner, terrified began 
To think himfelf too near a man 

In fo Peg-Nicholfon a fiiuation ; 
And happy from a madman to efcape. 
He left him without bow, or nod, or fcrape. 

Like Jeremiah, midil his Lamentation.' 

To Peter Pindar, £fq. we aoknowlege ourfelves indebted for 
I hearty laugh, while employeJ in the foregoing extrad from 
this comic tadc ; and we are much miftaken if Sir J. B. bimfelf, 

* ^ had 

^ Thi'AmicahU ^ixoti, 

had he been at our clbo^, while we were tranfcriblng the lines, 
would not have equally enjoyed the joke. It is faid that fie is 
no enemy to a little harmlefs ridicule; and, if fo, he would 
only have found himfelf tickled, not hurt : for hurt no indivi- 
dual can be, by a ficire that applies, generally, to every colle£lor 
of natural hiflory, but not, with any peculiarity, to himfelf, 

ArTj^XIII, The Amicable ^ixote ; or the Enthufiafm of Friend- 
^ fhip. i2mo. 4 Vols. los. fevved. Walter. 1788. 

TO improve the virtues of the heart, and to give pleafure to 
our feelings, are the principal objeds which the writer of 
a novel ftiould keep conftantly in view. Perhaps, indeed, the 
latter may be confidered as the way which moft certainly leada 
to the ^complifbment of the former. The fame deftination • 
which Bifliop Lowth*, in his elegant Preledions, points out as 
fubfifting between the. poet and the philofopher, extends to the 
preacher, and to the novelift. The office of poetry is to per- 
fuade, of philofophy to convince. In the one cafe, the feelings 
are addreiTed ; in the other, the underftanding is the object. 
The philofopher reprefents truth and virtue in their naked and 
vnornamented ftate, but delineates them with fuch accilrate 
juftnefs and mafterly force, that reafon imofediately acknow« 
leges their excellence, and judgment is fatisfied with its de- 
cilion. The poet embelliflies them with all the decorations 
of fancy, and paints them in the moft-fafcinating colours which 
the imagination can fuggeft, and thus allures the affcdions of the 
heart to cultivate and embrace them. 

One of the o^ices of the preacher is to inculcate the duties 
of morality, to teach mankind what they owe to themfelves, 
and to their fellow-creatures ; to defcribe the exa£l point where 
virtue ceafes, and where vice appears; to Ihew that the pro- 
priety of moft feelings confifts in their moderation, in their 
maintaining an equal diftance from the one, and the oppofite 
extreme. All this the preacher endeavours to accomplifb by de« 
monftrating, in a cool dida£tic manner, the truth of his aiTer- 
tions ; he addrefles the underftanding in fuch a way as to render 
it impoffible that it ihoul J refift his evidence, and thinks that 
the pailive obedience of the aiFedions is a neceftary and una- 
voidable confequence of the conviction produced on, and the 
aftent befto'Ared hy, the judgment. 

The novelift has a fimilar duty to difcharge ; he Iikewife is to 
inftrud us with rcfpecft to the co'ndu6l of life, to redify our 
errors, to increafe the number, and to enhance the value, of our 

* Vidje " Prak^ioaem primam dt Poetica Fine l5 Utilitaie,'' 


Tbi Jmicahli ^tx9U* tt 

virtnes. To gain this defirable end, he is entrulled with 
powers nearly as large and as ample as tbofe of the poet ; be 
may indulge in various flights of fancy, and excurfions of 
genius ; be is permitted *< to colle£^, combine, amplify, an4 
animate" every thing that will be fubfervient to his purpofe. 
He is allowed to exhibit not only what has already happened^ 
but what he can imagine, without violence to reafon, may in 
future appear. Of the novelift, it may, with propriety, be faid, 

*« Each change of many-coIourM life he drew, 
Exhaafled worlds, and then imagin'd new ;" 

He may perfonify the virtues which he wilhes to recommend, 
and may illuftrate them with examples; he may delineate interefi- 
ing cbaraders, and place them in interefting fituations. Some* 
times he may pourtray a faithful pi^^ure of human life, 

" And catch the living manners as they rife ;'* 
Sometimes his obfervation will furnilb him with the power of 
giving inftrudion ; fometimes his imagination will enable hiia 
to convey entertainment to the mind. He may introduce aa 
aflemblage of various characters ; or he may ihew united, ia 
one charader, both virtuous and depraved qualities; .from a 
confideration of which, the reader may perceive and determine 
what is valuable to adopt; and what it Will be Mt to reje^: 
from fuch a view he may be enabled to faibion his own min<i, 
to introduce into his heart many amiable aiFedions, and to 
banilh from it thofe Har(h and rugged feelings and propenfities 
which may have taken root in it, like weeds in a rich foil. 

The very fingular work now before us, which produced the 
foregoing reflexions, poflTciTesconfiderable merit. Much ingenuity 
is difplayed in the delineation of many of the chara^ers* The 
author (hews great experience in fhe ways of men ; and there \t 
huitour in the manner in which fome of the incidents are con> 
duScd. We obfervcd, however, with regret, fcveral punf» 
which, though fairly and aptly applied, add little to the merit 
of thefe volumes ; and notwithftanding all the allowance that 
we can reafonably make for ^ixotifm^ many fituations into 
which fome of the perfonages are introduced, are unnatoral ; 
and fome of the chara^er^ partake more of caricatura than of 
real life. We muft declare, at the fame time, that the errors 
which we have noted, are not, in our opinion, the errors of a 
common writer; they proceed from an exuberance of imagtna* 
tioD that hurries its pofleflbr along, without permitting him to 
coofuh his judgment. Befide fhrewd remark, which is the oft^ 
fpring of good fenfe, we difcover much information and learn* 
ing. With refpeA to the latter^ perhaps, we may fay^ 

•• Something too much of this.*' 


^ Obfer'vations on tbi eicceffivi Vfi tf Spirituous Liquors. 

The tuthor, however^ pofleilcs excellencies more than fti^* 
cient to counterbalance fucb partial defers, which in future 
may eafily be avoided, as not refulcing from any deficiency of 

Art. XIV. Obfer'vations on the pirnicious Con/equences rftbt iXceffi*iM 
U/i of Spirituous Liquors^ and the ruinous Policy of permitting 
Didiliation in this Country {Ireland] . 8vo. Papiphlet, printed 
at Dublin. 1788. 

TH £ national grievance here complained of, with refped 
to the inhabitants of the kingdom of Ireland, appears, in- 
deed, to be of moft enormous magnitude, and fuch as loudly 
and pathetically calls for redrefs. The lower ranks of peopid 
in (hat country, it istwcll known, are fo extremely addi^ed to 
the ufe of their common, pernicious, dram, whijkey^ that it i3 
become an evil of the moft alarming and ruinous confequence ( 
and appears equally deftrudive to the health and to the moralt 
of the populace. The dreadful effeds of their fondnefs for 
this intoxicating fpirit, and the prodigious excefs to which thift 
miferable fpecies of inebriation is carried, with all its horrid 
effeds, are here painted in the a>oft lively and glowing colours % 
and we do not doubt that the pencil of truth has alone been em- 
ployed in the delineation. 

To remedy fuch fatal mifchief, by at once ftriking ttt its 
root, the very fenfible and patriotic Author of thefe Obferva* 
tions propofes to the Parliament of Ireland, an entire and abfo^ 
lute prohibition of the diftillery; and, certainly, this meafure 
would prove a radical cure for this political diforder : for if no 
whifky is made, none can be dnmk* He would not, however, 
deprive the labouring people of a proper and agreeable beverage: 
but inftead of the baleful and poifonous liquid to which they 
have been too long unhappily accuftomcd, he would fubftitute 
another, more innocent, more pleafant, and more whole(bme^>^ 
Porter : — a liquor which gives pleafure, health, and ftrcngtb^ 
to the Engliih labourer, without inebriety, and all tbofe terrible 
tfl^ds which are daily experienced in Ireland, from the mad- 
nefs and excefles of the wbifkey drinkers. 

As a farther recommendation of his plan for encouraging th6 
porter-brewery in Ireland, inftead of their prefent ruinou« dif- 
tiliery, he makes it appear, by proper eftirhatcs ftnd calcula- 
tions, that government would fuftain no injury by the lofs of 
the duty on that pernicious ardent fpirit which he wiflies to 
abolifl) ; but that, on the contrary^ the revenue would be greatly 
increafed by the malt-duties : fo that) in point of policy^ as 
well as of patriotifm (which, indeed, is truepoUcy)^ there can 
be no reafonable or folid objedion to tht fcbeme here fo ear« 
Acftly and pathetically recommended. 

7ii Pntry ofAma JMkiUd. 6) 

• If h be objedcd that /pints of another kind would ftill be 
ufcdj if wbiikey were anaihilated, thf^ Author fliews that the 
importation of brandy from France, or of rum from the Weft* 
Indies, would be attended with advantages to the revenue^ 
which would amply compenfate for the former duties on the 
article which he hopes will be fupprcfled. He obferves, that 
^ thefe fpirits are imported in our own (hips, which encourages 
navigation; and they are received in return for our manufac* 
tures exported; which excites commerce. We therefore con- 
dude, that the diftillation of whifkey is a lofs to the country, 
becaufe the material would fell for more than the manufadure ; 
that it is injurious to revenue, becaufe it prevents the intro* 
dadioa of foreign fpirits, which pay treble the duty ; and that 
the importation of foreign fpirits is highly advantageous, as it 
promotes navigation and commerce, and encreafes revenue.' 

Should it be imagined that the Author writes from inte- 
refted views, we can only copy his own declaration, on this 
bead, for the fatisfadion of our readers : 

* Neither felfifh or partial views have contributed^ in anf 
^P^9 to the produ£lion of this difcourfe; the Author writes 
not from Mercenary ends, nor with a view of injuring any de- 
aomination of traders ; bis fole motive is, to attempt the alle*> 
viation of mifery, and the difFufion of happinefs; and he hopes 
that the purity of the intention will procure an indulgent eye to 
the dcfc&s of the compofition/ 

Swift gained immortal honour by bis letters aprain ft Wood's 
balf-pence( and we think phat the unknown Author [^/ if 
totally unJtnown to us] of this well-defigned trad is not lefs en- 
titled to the grateful acknov^Iegements of his countrymen, for 
the very laudabl« exertion of his refpedable talents, on a fub- 
jed of infinitely higher importance to the welfare of the com* 
munity to which he belongs. 

Art. XV. Tii Poetry of Anna Matilda : Containing a Tale for 
Jealoufy, the Funeral, her Correfpopdence with Delia Crufca, 
and feveral otiicr poetical Pieces. To which are added Recol- 
le^Uoos, printed from an Original Manufcript, written by Ge* 
aeral Sir William Waller, izmo. 3s. 6d. icwed. 'Bell. 1788. 

WE expc£ted, as the publication of this little volume wss 
fubfequent to that of thi Poetry o/the World*j to find 
in it more laji words rf Anna Matilda^ notwithftanding her for-r 
t&er poems concluded with telling us, ' Her book was clos'd--^ 
her lyre was broke.* But we were agreeably difappointed. The 
poems of this fair incognita which appear in this little coU 

— ■ I - - - 1 - n ' . ' • ' ' • 

f See Review for November lafli p. 449. 

7 / leSioii 

64. Tbi Poetry of Anna Matilda. 

ledion, have all, except one, been before'tbe public, an^ t^etr 
republication in the prefcnt form originated in a delire of having 
her name more clofely united to that of Delia Crufca. Proud 
of their pbetical attachment, ihe wifhed to have it recorded in 
a diftin6t publication. Him (he loelcs up to as her friend, ge« 
nius, and favorite bard ; and we may conceive her addreffing 
him in the elegant apoftrophe of Pope to Lord fioHngbroke ; 
«* Say, fhall my little bark attendant fail, - 
Parfue the triumph and partake the gale?*' . 
Having, in a preceding article, given our opinion of the 
merit of the poetry of Anna Matilda, it is unneceffary to enter 
into an/difculfion of it here. She is certainly not equal to 
Delia Crufca. But fince our readers may wifli for a fpecimen 
of her mufe, as well as oi his^ we will take this opportunity of 
prefenting them with an entire poem. When we gave an ac- 
count of the * Poetry of the World,' we extrafted the Elegy of 
Delia Crufca, written on ihe plains of Fontenoy ; we (h-ll now 
lay before them Anna Matilda's Stanzas to Delia Crufca^ oc« 
cafioned by his elegy. 

* Hu(h*d be each ruder note ! — foft (ilcnce fpread. 
With ermine hand, thy cobweb robe around; 

Attention ! pillow my reclining head, " 
Whilft eagerly 1 catch the golden found. 

Ha ! What a tone was that, which floating near, 
Seem'd Harmony's full foul — lubo/e is the lyre ? 

Which fcizing thus on my enraptur'd ear. 
Chills with its force, yet melts me with its fire ? / 

Ah dull of heart ! thy Minftriers touch not know. 
What Bard but Della Crusca boafts fuch fkill f 

From him alone, thofe melting notes can flow — 
He only knows adroitly thus to trill. 

Well have I left the Groves, which fighing wave 

Amidil November's blaft th^ir naked arms, 
Whilil their red leaves fall flutc'ring to their grave^ 

And give again to dull May's vernal charmd. 
Well have I left the air-embofom*d hills. 

Where fprightly Health in verdant bufkin plays i 
Forfaken fallow meads, and circling mills. 

And thyme-drcfs'd heaths, where the foft flock yet flrays. 
Obfcuring fmoak, and air impure I grfeet. 

With the coar(^ din that Trade and Folly formi 
For here the Mufe's^on again I meet— 

I catch bis n^tes amidfl the vulgar florm. 

His notes now bear me, pehfl^e, to the Plain, 
Cloth 'd by a verdure drawn from Britain's h^art i 

Whofe heroes bled fuperior to their pain> 
Sank, crowa'd with gloryt and contemn'd the fmart. 


Soft, ts be letdt me roond th' enikngviaM fielclf» 
Tbe laarel'd (hades forfake their grtfly tomb* 

The bvrftiog fod its pdid iamate yields. 

And o'er (h'immoital wafte their fpiriti rotin. 

Obedieiit to the Mofe che z6t% revivt 

Which Tine long paft had veiPd from mortal ken. 
Embattled rqoadrons ra(h> as when alive* 
. Ai^d/bMdrwj faichbns gleam o^wJkMlowf men. > 

Ah, «ho art thou, who thus with frantic air 
Fiy'ft fearlefs to Aipport that bleeding youth ( 

Binds his deep saifaes with thy glowing hair. 
And dieft bende him to atteft thy truth f 

•• His Siller I; an orphanM pair, we grieved 
'• For Parents long at rt ft within the grave, 

** By a falfe Guardian o( our wealth bereavM-— « 
** The little all parental care could fave. 

'* Chill look'd the world, and chiUy grew our hctrtff 

** Oh t where (hall Poverty expe£]t a fmile ? 
*' Grofs* Uwlefs Love, aflumed its ready arts, 
'^ And all befet was I, with Fraud and Guile. 

" My Henry (ought che war, and dropM the tears 

" Of love fraternal as he bade farewel ; 
*' But fear foon made roe rife ahe^i my fears— 

'* I foIlowM and Fate tolls our mutual knell/^ 

Chafte Maiden, re(l ; and brighter fpriog the greea 
That decorates the turf thy bloom will feed l 

And oh, in fofteft mercy 'twas I ween. 

To worth like thine, a Brocher^s grave's decreed* , 

The dreadful (hriek of Death now darts around. 

The hollow winds repeat each tortur'd iigh. 
Deep bitter groans, ftill deeper groans reibuod, 

Whilft Fathers, Brothers, Lovers, Hdbands die ! 
T^rn from this fpot, bleft Bard I thy menul eye ; 

To hamlets, citiet, empires bend its beam! 
'Twill there fuch multiplying deaths defcry. 

That all before thee'll bot an abftrad feem. 

Why wafte thy tears o'er this contrafted Plain f 
The iky which canopies the Tons of breath. 

Sees the whole Earth one fcene of mortal pain, • 

The vaft, the anitrerfal Bed op Dbath ! 

Whirt do not Hulbands, Fathers, dying moan f 
Where do not Mothers, Sifters, Orphans weep? 

inere is not heard the laft expiring groan. 
Or the deep throttle of the deathiol Sleep t 

If, as Philofophy doth often mufe, 

AJtate 9/<war, is Matured fieae io metn^ 
Battle's the sickksss bravery would choofa— — « 
Nobleft DISEASE in Nature's various plan i 
Riv. Jan. 1789. F Let 

«6 Tbi Peary df Anna Matitia. 

Let vulgar fouls floop to tbe FereHs fgt^ 

Or flow, beneath pale Atrophy depart. 
With Goot aod ScrophuU iMjeak variance, wage. 

Or. fink, witk forrow cank'ringat the heart; 

Thrfe, be to comA6Q Minds^ th' uni^i(h'd decree! 

The Fiii.M feled an illDefs-inore Sublime ; 
By languid pain», foorn their high fouls to free> 

Bjut ieek tke Sword'9 f««^ft edge^ and fpurn atjime. 

Anna MaTilda/ 

There ia fomcthing very poetical in the third lioe of the firft 
ftanza, JtUntion! pHlow my recUnlng head: ^but the compli- 
ment to Delia Crufca in the laft line of the third flanza migbt, 
we think, have been more happily expreiTed : He only knou/s 
adroitly how td trill. The Whole, however, will be rc^d with 

To make out this little vblume, is added to the poetry, fome 
ctirioua- ^rtf/J, written ** in other times." This ia a fragment 
from the autogi^ph of the famous Sir William Waller, an im- 
portant a£^or in the bufy drama of the laft century. It is en«> 
tilled RECOLLECTIONS; and introduced by an addrefs from 
Anna Matilda to tljofe who read. — Perhaps fome of thofe who 
read this addrefs may be inclined to queftion the fex of Anna 
Matilda* We have our doubts whether a lady wrote the fol- 
lowing paflage : 

* That he (Sir William) had a mind caplbleof the tendereftira- 
preflions,and alive to all the charms of love, appears from this, that 
he never lived unnnarried. Three tiroes he ex'Ohed in the flowery hy- 
meneal chain ; and fpeaks of each lady with exalted foudnefs and af> 
fe6lion. But thofe, alas! were days in which the connubial paifion was 
the only one toleratod !' 

T^xt fragment is written in that pious ftyle which th<n per- 
vaded alotoA every, fpecies of compoutioo. It will irtnufe; and 
one part of it rcfpcfiing Cromwell, and his qmck infight inta 
charafferSf will be deemed, by the hiftorlan, worthy of particular 
obfervation : * 

* The beatjng upp of coll, lokc's ^uarveks, in which 
Cromwell's horfc did good fervice. And here 1 cacint); bu: mention 
the wonder which I have oft times had, to ke this ea^le in biseirey: 
he att tjpis time had never ihewn extxaorJin^ry panes, not dol think 
that he did himfelf believe that he had thc^n^ \ for dikaugh he was 
blunt, he did not bear himfelf with pridr, or diidainc. As aji oiicer 
he was obedient, and did never difpnte my orders, nor argiie upon 
them. He oid, indeed, feeme to have great cdnning, and whilll he 
was cautious of his own words, not putting forth too many left they 
fhould betray hb thoughts, he made others talk, untill he had as it 
were fifted them, and known their inmoft defigrrs. A notable in- 
ftance was his difcovering in one ihort converfation with one Cap- 
tain Giles (a great favorite with the Lord Generall, and wbbmehe 


MowTHLY C AT ALOGV M^ MandIfavigation,^6cc, 6f 

mod confided in}, tliat although his words were full of zaal, and 
Ills a^ltons feemingly brave^ that his heart was not with the cau(e: 
ttnd in fine> this man did (hortly after join the eoemy at Oxford, 
with three and twenty llout fellowes. Odc other inllance I will 
here fett down, being of the fame fort> as to his cunning. 

• When I tooke the Lord Picrcy att Ando^cr, having att that time 
an ioconvenient diflemper, I de^red Collonell Cromwell to enter- 
taine him with' fome civility ; who did afterwards tell nie, (hac 
amongfl thofe whom we tooke with him (being abpat thirty), their 
was' a youth of fo faire a countenance, that he doubted of his conw 
dition ; and to confirm himfelf willed him to fing; which he did 
with fuch a daintinefs that Cromwell fcrupled not to fay to Lord Pier-^ 
cy, that being a warriour, he did wifely to be accompanied by ^ma^ 
x^Hj;on which that Lord, in fome confufion, did acknowMg that 
file was a damfel ; this afterwards gave caufefor fcoffe at the King*^ 
party, as that they were loofe and wanton, and minded their plea- 
Kire, more than eithei; th^ir Country's fervice, or their Maimer's 

Thus has Mr. Bell, in his beautiful typography, given us 
both verfe and prdfe, in a little volume of 139 pages, whicti 
will find many readers, and, probably, not a few admirers. 

For JANUARY, 1789. 

Inland Navigation. 

Art; ,16. J hritf Rraiew of the Arguments far and again fi the in-^ 
tendtd Canal, from Cambridge to the River Stort> ^s produced at 
Chcfterford, Sept. 5, 1788. By Y. Z. 8vo. 6d. Scatchcrd 
and Co. 

EVERY fcheme of this kind which hath, within dor memory, 
been planned, hath met with oppofition, from men who were, 
or fancied' themfelves to be,-intcreftcd in thole fchemes not taking 
effcft. Thui ic ba.-^ happencJ, in regard to the above-mentioned 
projedl. It has been oppofeJ ; but the weight of argument feems, 
as far as we can judge from hearing only one party, to lie all on the 
fide of thofe who have etpAafed the undertaking. The'reafoning 
of the gentlemen who are friends to the dcfign, appears, indeed, to 
be very cogent, clear, and irrefragable. 


Art. ij. AnaUSla Latina: for the Ufe of Schools. 12 mo. is. 6d. 
' " ' bound. Dilly. 1788. 

As it IS well known that boys at fchqol fcldom read the whole of 
their firft books, it was thought that a feledlion might contribute 
both to convenience and ceconomy. Such a reafon is afligned for 
this poblication ; and we have only to add, that the feleftion is 
"made from the Gofpels of Bcza's Latin Tcftament, according to the 
direftion of Dr. Anthony Blackwall, from the Colloquies of Cor- 
drry, the Fables of Phocdius, and Garrctfon's Preliminary Exer- 

f 2 cifea 

dfes fca ntaklog Latin, with thfc Latin fopplied from tite tttrma 
ittfAUHu^y-^and, iiiat the book appcarr well calcuiaced to aafwer^thtf 
propofed defign. 

Aft. 18. JnakSa Gr^cA E'vangilUa:^ for the Ufe of Schools. 
i2mo. i%* bound.' DjII^. 17S8. 
This little work is of a fioiilar kind with the abo^e tnencioned. 
Some chapters are here feleded from the Greek Oofpels, according 
fo the diredion of Dr. Black wall ; and appear to be fuited to the 
jurpofe : though we rather think that the Greek fcholar Aoald pafa 
regularly through the Greek Teibment. 

Art. .19. JDialogut hitHoixt a Mafitr ami his ScJhcIar, in which arc 
diknffed the following Suhjeds,; by F. Wragg, Mader of the 
Boardiag School, Chorch Street, Stoke Newiogtcn^ Middlefex i 
The Impn>priety of the external Parade of fome of the Clergy, 
and iu kiconfiftency with the facred Office tbev afiume— The 
erroneous Ideu that many are too ^apt to form of an 'Univeriity 
Education, and the real Advantages there enjoyed by the Stu* 
deot — ^The Caufe why fome retorn as ignorant from College as 
when they &rfk fet out upon their Studies— A proper Exerciie of 
* our Reafon in Matters of Religion— Why it ought, in many Id* 
ftances, to give way to Divine Kevetatioiif ; and a Plan laid dowa 
by which contending Pirtiaa in Chrifttaaity flUf. become more 
reconciled — The Exigence of , the Deity, and his con ftant Go- 
vernment of the World, againft the Atucks of AtheiAs and In* 
. fidels. iimo. is. 6 d. Hookham. 1788. 

If the reader fhould be led, by this long bill of fare, tO'promife 
himfelf much entertainment or in(lru6lion, he will be difappointed. 
Had the piece been written with more coherence, corrednefs, and 
elegance, the writer would, with a better grace, kav e inveighed ^ainil • 
An UDtveriity edncatioa. 

Ne OR 6b-Sl A y ER Y. 

Aft^ «0. • ^ Anfxuir t9 tbt Rev. JMr; Harriets " Scriptural Re- 

iearcbes on the Licitnefs of the Slave-Trade.*' By the Rey.. 

W. Hughes, M. A. The ftcond Edition. 8vo. 1 u Cadell. 


la oar Review for June laft, p. 515, we noticed, with approba- 
^n, the ^iSt edition of Mr.. Hughes's trad; which we are glad to 
£et hath pafled through the jprefs a fecond time. The following is 
the Author's prefatory advertiiement on this occa&on : 

' When I nrll wrote an anfwer to the Reverend Mr. Harrises Re- 
fearches, I thought it would be fufiicient to prove, that the arma- 
ments which he pretend^ to derive ' from ^Serip tore, in vindication 
of the Slave-trade, 'were fallacions and abfard, and founded foiely on 
mifreprefeatatioa ( I therefore took no notice of his /«/«, or of hia 
€9rMarieSi which I confidered as of 00 fort of importance in them- 
felves. Others, however, have thought ditferently ; and, in de« 
ference to their judgments, I have now taken a diiUnd notice of 
each of Ihem, without omitting a reply to any argument ^at I 
conceived coujd be, regarded by any one as of weight enough to re* 
quire Gonfatatnn/ 


Mr. Hoghet «ppe«rs to h;&ve condudlcd this farther profecudon of 
bii Aihje^ with the fame judgmeot and ability which we^applaudc4 
in the formrr pare of his andertaking ; and afc6f completiog his 
refttution of Mr. Harris's defence of the practice of N(groe-fltvery> 
he tikes leave of the reverend and fjious. refearcher with tartly ad» 
Ttfing hioiy ^ when he writes his next defence of che African Slave- 
trade, CO qubte fome authority better calculated for the fupport of 
tjrniony and iDJuilice than his Bible.' 
J^t. 21. 4m I Wit a M«/v, and a Brother P With all Humility 

addrefled ^o the Briiiih Legiflature* 8vo. is. 6d. Payjie and 

Son. 1^88. 

This writer, who is a zealoas advocate for the entire abolition of 
the negroe dave-trade, has added an elaborate trad to the conii- 
derabie nomber of tbofe that have appeared on the fame Ade of this 
ircjy ifltereftingqueflion : in which he has in^cludcd an An/war to 
.Mr. Harris's Scriptural Refi^cjfes, cosmmonly fl^yled tffe Li'verfool 
PampbUtm Our anonymous. A\ithor has taken pains with bis fubjeft, 
, in order to eViirce that negroes are "tneu, that they are capable of 
^tt idea of cpvit gvusrmmemt, of Murai dift'tn&iont^ of nUghn^ of a 
Qady and afnturt ft ate of esufttnct ; and that as ms», they have an 
abfolote right to life, limb, property, liberty. Sec. In brief, his 
proditMon, though it does not contain a great deal that is new, it 
luXg 00 the whole, nswofthy of the public attention. 


Art. 22.. jTreatife oftBe ta^tv 0/ Mortgages. By John Jofeph Powell, 
Efq. of the Middle Temple, Barriiler at Law, The fecond Edi- 
tion*, re vifed and correded by the Author. 8vo. 6s. i^oards. 
Whieldon. 1787. 

The fubje^l of this treatife is of very cxtcnfive concern, as there 
are few eftates in the kingdom, that have not, at one period or other, 
been held in the legal fetters of mortgage. Mr. Powell has, with 
great labour and affiduity, colleded and arr|inged the various deci- 
fions that have paffifd in the courts, refpeding this complicated branch 
of jurifprude nee.— This gentleman is likewife the aathor of the two 
following treatifes. 

Art. 21, Jn Effay on the Learning rtfpe&ing the CreattPn and Execution ff 
^cwersiZMid alfo refpeding the Nature and Effedl of Leafing Powen ; 
in which the Do^lrine and the Judgment delivered by the Court of 
King's-Beoch, in the Cafe of Pugh and the Duke of Leeds, ami 

• the principal Andiorities for and againft it, are coniidered. By 
John Jofeph Powell, Efi^. BarriEer at Law* of the Inner Temple. 
8vo. 8 s. Bbards. Whieldon. 1787. 

Aert. 2-4. Jn EJk/ t^on tkf Leetrnimg ftfShvifie^ horn their Inception by 
Writing, to thetr Coofummation by the Death of the Devifor. By 
iDha Jofeph Powell, Efq. Barcifter at Law. 8?o. 9 s. Boards. 
Uriel, Whieldon, Itc. 1788. 
Each Af the two foregoing treatifes, on the Execution of Powers,--* 

and on the Law of Devifes, involves queftions of nice and intricate 

* The firft editioB, which was publiibed in 1785, efcaped oar no* 
ti^ ; as lu|fe fcveral other lav* books ; bat wt propofe to discharge 
'lUi drhtp with all convenient fpeed« 

9 J difcofipny 

^6 Monthly Catalogue, Jfts^kc. 

difcuffion, and they are both myterially conneded with the law end 
pradice of conveyancing ; which the author feems to have made th^ 
peculiar objed of his ftudy. Though of a technical nature, and nqt 
furniihing any thing likely *to interell, orentertain, the generality of 
our Traders, yet thefe vplumes will certainly be deemed uf great im- 
portance in THE PROFESSION. 
Art. 25. TrUlinihi Court of King^s-Bencb^, hef^e Lord Kti^n, and 

a Special Jury, between £dward Dodwell, Efq. PlaintiiF, and 

the Rev. Henry Bate Dudley, Defendant, for Crim. Con. 8vo, 

I s. 6d* Symonds. 1789. 

One of thofe recitals which too often occur, to difgrace the. annals 
of mankind. 

Art. 26. Lamjs for ngulating Bills of Exchange, l^c. By J. Biagrave^ 
Notary Public. i2mo. is. Green and Co. 1788. 

A new edition of a ufcful little tra6t, which we noticed ac its firft 
pnbHeation : fee our General Index. ^ 

Arts, Short-hand Writing, fefc. 

Art. zy, jn EJfay intended to eftahhjh a Standard for an uni^utrfal Syfiem 
of Stenography or Short -hand Writing, upon fuch fimple and ap- 
proved Principles as have never before been oflfered to the Public 5 
• whereby in a few Days a Perfon may inftru^ himfelf to write Short* 
hand correctly, and by a little Pradice cannot fail of taking doW^ 
any Difcourfe delivered in Public. By Samuel Taylor, many Years 
Profeflbr and Teacher of the Science at Oxford, and the Univer- 
£ties of Scotland and Ireland. Large 8vo. il. u. Boards. Bell. 

To be able expeditiouily and faithfully to write, in legible and 
unequivocal charadlers, the whole of what pafTes in converfation or 
is delivered by a public fpeaker, is the ultimate end of ihort-hand. 
That fyftero, therefore, which accomplifhes thefe purpofes in the 
cafiefl and fimplefl manner, mufl undoubiedly claim a fuperiority 
over all others. Whether this be the cafe with, Mr. Taylor's fyilero, 
we cannot, from our own experience, affirm ; but from its fimilarity 
to other methods, and the cafe with which the words are formed, there 
is no room to queftion but that, in pradice, it will be found every 
way calculated to anfwer the intention. 

Mr. Taylor's charadlers, like thofe of many of his predecefTors, are 
fimple (Iraighr, and crooked, lines: his /, /, «, ^, j, t, are the fame 
as Byrom's, other letters are Byrom's changed ; thus Taylor's i or ^ 
is Byrom's m ; ,and Taylor's m, Byrom's kox q\ and fome are dif- 
ferent. The method of joining the letters is alfofimilar. The choice, 
or rather the defignation of the- charadlers, is not arbitrary, but 
ought to be fuch as will beil anfwer the purpofe of eafy jundion, o^ 
which alone the expedition of writing depends : it is on this account 
that writers have adopted many peculiarities, every man's fancy di- 
reding him to a particular mode ; and on this account every prac- 
titioner deems his o^mu i^^thod (very juHIy) fuperior to all pihers. 

Pudice, however, is the moll elTcntial pare, and without ag;re^ 
deal of it, weXpeakJrom experience, thei>eil calculated and. mo^ 
approved fyilem will be found infufitcient for any other purpofe tha^ 
for memofaadums, or for abbrevia^oos in psivate wiiUB^ 


Monthly Catalogue, PoetuaU 71' 

Art- *29, The Art of^making coloured CryJJals to imitate precious Hones. 

Tranllated from the French of Monf. Fontanieu^ Member of the 

Royal Academiea of Sciences and Architednre. To which arc ' 
• added nameroos explanatory Notes, and a new Tfieory of Phlo- 

giiloo, Eledric Fluid, &c. By William Drew, Efq. 8vo. 2S. 


A prefixed advertifement informs us that the origj,Dai of this little 
trcatife was read by Its ingenious author before the Royal Academy 
of Sciences at Paris in 1778, and that its having met with much ap- 
probation in France, is a fufficient apology for its appearance in the 
Englifk language. 

It contains dire<5lions for making coloured glafs, merely pral^cal, 
without much fcienttfic inveftigaiion. That the operations here de- 
fcribed will produce coloured glafs of various ldnds,is beyond a doubt; 
yet in the art of vitrification, fo much depends on the degree and con- 
tinuation of the Arc, that it is extremely difficult to produce- two 
xaalles perfedly alike. M. Fonranieu fays, however, that he has fuc- 
ceeded in making, conftantly and invariably, thefe different compo- 
fifions; and he trufts that whoever accurately follows the procefTes 
which he direds, will equally fucceed. If praftice confirms this af- 
kmon, his treatife^is valuable. 

With refpeft to Mr. Drew's new theory of phlogifton, eleftric fluid, 
kc, we i^ali tranfcribe the whole o5 what he fays on this head : 

* This pablication affords me an opportunity of advancing a new 
theory of phlogifton, which explains, in a fati8fa6lory manner,, many' 
remarkable phenomena attending combuAion and the calcination of 
metals. I maintain t\i2il pure phlogifton and eledrie fiuid are formed 1 
by a chefivical combination, of the matter of light y iht matter of fire znd,. 
aerial acid in certain proportions— and that light inflammable air \%f 
formed oi the fame elements, but with a larger portion of the mmttef 
of fire. This theory, fupported by experiments and obfervations, and 
applied to the folution of^ many intricate phenomena of nature, 1 hope 
ioon to Offer to the world.' 

Poetry. ; 

Art. 29. The Poetical Flights of Chriftopher Whirligigs Efj. Cornet 
ofHorfe. 4to. • is. 6d.- Wilkie. 17»8. 
The roaggotty name affumed by this author, in his title-page, led" 
ns to expedl that Mirth was now in the humour '* to admit usof 
his crew," (a favour in which the Jolly Being docs not fo often, 
indulge us as we could wiih); but we were difappointed. Inftead of 
'* Quips, and cranks, and wanton wiles, — Nods, and becks, an! 
wreathed fmiles" — we have, for the moft part, been amufed with 
lovers complaints of the abicnee or cruelty of their adorable nymphs,^ 
and *' woeful ballads made to their miftrefles eyebrows ;** — and thele 
not marlfed with very ftrong traits of p6etic genius. The pieces are 
generally written in cafy verfe ; but niefe ^verfe and r^w^do not*con- 
ftitutc REAL POETRY. The bcft performance is that which 1% en- 
titled Henry %nd Delia ; in which the author difcovers more of 
imagination than in the reftof his'produflions. — If, as we guefV, the 
Fardis inhisyouth, he may,>n time, ipiprbv^f - ^ 

K » F 4 Art, 

j% MoNTHtY Catalogue, Pm/£:«/. 

Art. 30. four Odes, by » GetiKUmtn. 410. i««^ BaMwin. I7tt* . 

In thefe odct^ which are fakl co have been written by a perioD 
lately deceafed^ we perceive the traces of an elegant mind ; but 
they have no great fliare of pofitive merit. The foUowing Uoca 
nay be termed fattj : ' 


< keclinM yon glift*ring mead along. 
The primro(e» and the violet. 
The dafibdil with drooping head. 
The daify ermin'd, /reak'dwthjet •, 
The cowflip fprent with dew-drops cold. 
Her wavy mantle fteepM in gold. 
Shall wreathe for me an od'roas bed 
While the dun Cockow coot his diftant fong, 

• Untutor'd glad*ner of the grove ! ^ 

Kefponiive to thy rafUc note " 

The lark his matin choral rings. 

The blackbird from the plumb-tree itngs. 

And the blithe linnet liraint his tender throat; , 

Plowman hoarfe approach not nigh. 

Nor milkmaid heediefs, rufUing by. 
Scare the blei^ harmony. 

Nor break the general chain of joy and love V 

In one place we m^t with, * Ah, too foon my hUaibing hatrs'^f.#^ 
hairs which make ivhiti^ for hairs which grrw n»hiii : an adttve inftead 
of a paffive £gnification. The fault indeed is common to other poets. 
MUoichening or 'wbitining u here required ; but the former b fome* 
what harfii. 

Pmkhri ^lifmiJ fcripfifti f --' Amici itutmtt.-^^AU^uii fanwfi?^' 
TaciOMt* — Solum mediocritati liieri Ufuautur: fays the Editor's motto. 
And is it even fo f Alas, poor genius, tendered and moil delicate of 
Sowers I how then wouldeft thou dwindle, were it not for the fofter- 
log hand of criticifm, generous, diiintereiled criticiiin ! whofe 
(reateft delight is to awiken thy infant^bods, by placing them in the 
fcnfluae of publk favoor. 

Art. $1. The Fall of the Rohillas. An Hiftorical Poem. In Threo 
Cantos* 4to. is. 6d. Symonds, &c. 
The Hory of this poem is pathetic, and the compofition is, in fe- 
deral parts, not without merit ; but this merit is often obfcured by 
Srofaic and low phrafeolo^, by harlh numbers and careleG rhimes, 
tefbre the Author can claim the praifeof corred poetry, he muft tm^ 
Jirove his ear and tafle, till he cannot bear either co write or read 
uch verfes as the following : . 

' The noble beaft came tumUing to the ground. 

And plung'd, and roll'd, KXk^/plafil*d the gore aroutid.' 

* Send the great fword of righteoufnefs abroad 
And o'er the world make tt^ trm$ b^lUver lord.' 

* Borrowtd from Milioa'i Lycidas. 


MomrHtY Catalogue, P$HUel., %^ 

• That future ages from tby workt may JEr«r«f 
How fortane favours oft a coward's arm.* 

* When round thy eailty oeck the bow-firiog's faft^ 
Thou, like a tbroitMcur^fifoU growl thy laft.' 

Art. 32. J Pntktd Adire/s u th FaJhumaHe hddUs 9fGr€m Brttatm. 
4to. is. E^ercons. 17^8. 
A keen, and not ill-written, iactre, on the folly of encoorasing 
men to encroach on the proper occupations of females, particularlj 
by employments in the fhops of milliners, &c. 

Art. 33. iUgy m/riitem on ibt Author* s rpvijbing the PUu ofhitformiir 
Jttfidenii. \X0, is. Law, &c. 1788. 
There is. a charm in this oenfive kind of poetry that always recon** 
IB«odt it to the admirers or nature; and this is the chara^eritHc of 
the elegy now before n$. Here is no artful play of the fancy with 
imaginary beings. Here are no Lares, Penates, orGenii ; no Dryads^ 
Hamadryads, Nymphs, River Gods, and the reft of that worn-out 
Jbachioery which ofcf n renders modern compo(itions at once artificial 
mnd onioterefting. This bard, with the fimplicity which delights 
OS in Gray's Elegy, expreflfes his ideas like a man of the world io 
ivhich we live, lie fpeaks as we fpeak, and feels as we feel ; an4 
thus he fails not to intereft as in what has interefted hlmfelf. The 
following verfes, which will not prove unacceptable to* 
laeatal reader, are given as a fair fpecimen of the potm : 
< When the laft (beaks of flow receding light» 
Above the duiky hills^ were faintly feen. 
When the pale glow-worm (hone ferenely bright^ 
And gradual darknefs veiPd (he rural fcene; ^ 

When Nature's fofcnels harmopizM my mind. 
How was I charm'd my pleafing home to feek ; 
How charm'd congratulating love to find. 
With fweetnefs unaffected, foft and meek. 

tfow pleasM amid the dark tempeftoous night» 
When in the howling ftorm returning late. 
To fee my windows ihed the taper's light. 
And hear the watch-dog barking at the gate* 
Pleas'd to anticipate with fond defire, 
(Whilikall around was dreary, cold, and wild) 
The circling pleafures of \he ev'ning fire. 
Where friend(hip met, and love connubial fmil'd. 
There oft around our fportive infants play'd. 
There oft we fmil'd their harmlefs arts to fee ; 
There oft with fond exchanging looks funrey'd 
The traits of nature undifgais'd and free. 

Then as I faweach young and budding grace, 
** Shall e'er fucb innocence and truth be loft ?" ^ 

I crjed ; (whilft fearful tears bedewM my face) 
^hau thefe on life'9 tempeftuouB feas be toft f 


74 MoM*rHLY Catalogue, Dramatic. 

Then would I clafp the infants to my arms, 
And with an anxions parent's warmtli exclaim, 
O favc them, gracious Heav'n. from future harm$! - 
O fave them from the fcnfe of guilty pain ! * 
F There is an obfcurity in the 4tli line of page lo, which we coald 
viib to fee removed fhould a future edition be called.for :.. . 

• An incommunicable blifs ye give.* 

Art. 34. The Tears of Loi^aUy^ or Portrait of a Prince. A Poem, in* 
fcribcd to the Prince of Wales. 410. is. 6d. Bell. 17^9. 
Toward the clofe of this poem, the bard wipes away the tears that 
were excited by the dreadful calamity that hath befallen thepATHEiu 
and handfomely pays doe refped to the SIon : on whofe virtues and 
amiable qualities he pours the warmefl drains of panegyric. Thou'g& 
we cannot be equally lavifh of our commendations on this performs 
ance, yet, to give the unknown writer his due, we really think thatj 
on a fubjed not in itfelf very favourable to the poet, perhaps few of 
the prefent** rhyming race*' would have fucceed^d better. 

Arti 35 • Tk^ Prefix a little Poem, for great Folks. 8vo. 6^9 
Buckiand, &c. 17*^8. 
There h/ome poetic merit in this dcfcnptive poem, but more in ilk 
defegm\ which was, to prompt the great and the affluent, who 
enjoy the comforts and blefiings of life, to remember, in feafons of 
natural inclemency, thofe who are in want of not only its conveni- 
encies, but even its nece/Taries. We hope the benevolent and fenOble 
anthor, who ftytei ^\mk\i z Kentijh Freeholder, has neither written nor 
publiihed in vain. 

Art. ^61 J Boci of trvly Chrifian Pfalm^ Jnthem, and a Chant, 
£uing to be joined to all Church Services in the known World: 
and particularly recommended to theUfeofall Private Families, 
^y Lewis Brupn. Chefter: Printed for the Author. i2mo. is. 
bound. 1788. 

♦• Sternhold bimfelf he out-Stcrnholded." Swirr. 


Art. 37. Vimonda, a Tragedy y by A. M*Donald ; performed at thp 
Theatre- Royal, Hay-market. 8vo. is. 6d. Murray, &c. 1788, 

* Beaten by countlcfs feet ih* Aonian field, 

Frc(h walks, and fprings unialled, fcarce tan yield ; 

But o'er its broad highway poor poets plod. 

In the fame Heps their predeccHbrs trod.' 
Poor poets are indeed guilty of the crime here laid to their charge. 
It is caficr for them to trudge on in the tqrttpike-road of imitation, 
to follow one another like fo many geefc train-tro^^ than to llrike 
out into the devious wilds of invention. 

Mr. M'Donald flatters himfelf he ihall not rank with this /r^/V 
tronv trihi^ He aims at originality. So Mr. Prologue is inflrudled 
to fay : 

< Yet to your view to-night our bard has brought 

A tale, he^ hopes, with new ad-rentures fraught ; 

: , Not 

Monthly CATAioecn, Jhamatk. ys 

Not ftokn from Italy, purloinM from France 

Founded on legend, ballad, or romance : 

But in fome filent (f>litary hour, . . 

From ** airy hothTng" rais'd by Fancy's power. 

Which in the poet's bofom holds the throne. 

And ** bodies forth the forms of things unknown." 
In this he has delivered the trath ;— from *' airy nothing*' tH« 
poet has formed a tragedy, and in this tragedy ** bodied forth the 
forms of things unknown." But has Mr. Prologue given in evidence 
the whole truth ? No, he has not told the Court, that thefe things 
finifio^n arc unkno'waMe, things that never have b^en, and never caa 
be fecn. We allow the Author the merit of invention ; bnc it mult 
be the merit of inventing improbabilities. He Ihocks belief, and 
appears to have entirely negledled that rdle for dramatic compofition, 

* * Fida 'voluptatis cau/djsnt proxima *veris, " F5o r . 

Art. 58. Look h^fon you leap : A Comedy; in one A61. As it was 
performed with great Applaufe at the Theatre-Royal in the Hay- 
market. Tranflated from the celebrated La Bonne Mhe of De 
Florian. By Horatio Robfon. 8vo. 1 s. Harrifbn and Co. 178?. 
Scarcely a cock-boat is now launched on the flage, which is not 
built on a French flip. It is no difpraife to fay, that this piece is le/s 
calculated for the clofet than the ftage. The chief merir of a di-a- 
matic production is its a^ing well. The comedy before us has, we 
are told, been performed with great applaufe; the truth of which we 
find no reafon to call in qoeflion. It has the merit of brevity. It 
certainly cannot tire. 

Art. 39. Th€ CbiU 0/ Nature \ a Dramatic. Piece, infourA^s, ^c. 

Performing at the Theatre-Royal, Cjpvent- Garden. By Mrs. 

Inchbald. 8vo. i ^. 6d. Robinfons. 1788. 

Not having by us a copy of Zelie, the French piece from which 
* The Child of Nature' is borrowed, we cannot undertake to 
point out its comparative merit, to (hew where Mrs. Inchbald has 
^en indebted to the Marchhne/s ofSillery, and where ihe has drawn 
from her own fertile imagination. Our high refped for the ge-> 
Qiqs and abilities of this celebrated French authorefs may in-line us 
10 confider this piece, as far as it copies the original, to have mllajn- 
ed fome diminution of excellence from its change of language, aixl 
that a portion of the fpirit may have evaporated in the tranflaiion. 
But (hould (his be the cafe, in its Englifh difhabille it makes no un- 
pleaHng figure. The dialogue is eafy and natural, and the drama 
foon begins, and continues tO the end, to intereft. Amanthls^ the 
Child of Nature J the prominent figure on the canvas, is not ill 
drawn. The fimpiicity of her anAvets is natural and plcafing ; but to 
make her go away with a poormifcrable father, with whofti Ihe never 
lived, ior whom '^z couTd rot have nourifhed any paternal affcrdion, 
and whom, when he introduces himfelf to her, Ihe fcarcely recol- 
kfts,— to confent, with very little reluftance, to go with him to 
nwfery and wretched nefr>, r.t the very moment when file was about to 
be united with the Mar ouis, the objed of her love and warmeft afiec- 
tions, appears to ys ^ntiiciy out of nature. Wc think this is a trial 

13 * of 

76 U6wrHLY Cata&oovc, Bramgiie. 

qf filial daty^ukUr nrhich the'moft amkble and rtitiioas mind moft 

Arc. 40. J Key U the Lock : a Coinedy ; in two hJdti* As it was 

dmmned at the Theatre-Royal in th« Hay-market^ Auguft i8« 

1788. • 8vo. IS. Harrifon and Co. 
FirM that the houfe has damned it, " 'Sdeath, 1*11 print it. 
And Ihame the fools." 

Good Sir, you (hoald have confidered, that there is nd (haming 
the Public, nor even that fmall party of it, the audience of a theatre. 
By making this attempt, an author only runs the rifk of adding one 
mortification and difappointment to another.' You may print, bat 
tht /urlj fo^vereigm »f tht pit, and tbi unfledged firiplings oftbt $oxes (aa 
you call them), will, nocwithlUndiog, perlieverein their opinions, and 
thefentei^ce which they have pronounced, whether juft or unjufl, will 
Operate with the general reader. To have a favourite piece, which 
has cod one much pains, called <* damm'dfluj\** and hi^d off the 
ftaee, is vexatious indeed ; but as there is no appeal from chele con- 
ci£aod arbitrary decifions, it is furely better to bear it with philofophy 
and goo4'humour \ to fay with Francis L after the battle of Pavia, 
•* Tout ift perdu bin rhonneur,^* than to difplay irritability and cha- 
grin from the prefs, which will only ferve to excite the fecret fmile 
of friends, the open ridicule of eneoiies, and the laugh of the Pub* 
lie at large. . 

The Author of ' th^ Key to the Lock' may in fome degree ex- 
perience the truth of theie obfervations. The Public will not efpoaie 
his caufe, nor rever(e the cruel fentence. We cannot wonder that 
]4s play did not fucceed. Prom whatever ibarce it was derived, 
we think it merits the fate it has received ; and the Author would 
kave a^ed much more (^udently, had he locked up his Comedy in 
ibme private drawer, the key to which fhould never have been found « 
or have confighed it emendatut^it ignibut^ than to have fent it abroad 
in the world, with the marH of .damnation on it. 
- Mr. Colman will not think hirofelf much obliged to the Au- 
thor iot infcribing it to him. The dedication of a condemned play 
U like offering money which no one can be perfuaded to take* 

Att. 41. Tbe DoSior and t be Apotbecary, A Mufical Entertain men t. 

in two hdui. As performed ac the Theatre-Royal, Drury Lane* 

Svo. IS, Dilly. 1788. 

•It would be a farce, ferioufly to criticife mufical farces. As in a 
pantomime the grod'eil abfurdities are endured for the fake of a few 
Drilliant fcenes, fo in a mufical entertainment, the mod palpable 
violations of probability are overlooked, provided they contribute to 
ufiier in a it^ goad fongs. The Author of < the Dodor and the 
Apothecary' feems to have been thoroughly apprized of this, an4 
has therefore taken more pains in the com^oiicion of the airs^ than 
In the ftru^ure of the drama. Some of thefe are pretty, and, when 
well fung, muft produce a good elFctl. h^ to the dramatic part, it 
proceeds upon the old llory :— Parents wiQi to marry their daughter 
to an infirm rich old fellow, while the daughter takes the liberty of 
preferring, for her huA)and, a young man, with all his five fences. 
10 perfettion* The former, who abfurdly attempted, like Mez^i^ 


IdoHTULT CATAtOGUI) P^icgk ff 

4t$i 9o tie the livhg to the dead, are to be difap pri iHe d , Bird the 
j0n£ /Ms are to conclude their attachment hi the vulgar cataflroplM 
of a marriage* la a £arce, there is ooc much time to bring ihit 
about; aody io coarfe, ihioga mad be b«rricd. While the yoiHig 
lover is vigilant aod arrfuU the parents mail be made very blind 
and deafy and the old lover pat to flcep. Matters being thus ad«> 
jeHed. Mifs gets rid of the old fellow with one leg and one eye, and 
is Aooa made happy in the arms of her dear Carlos. To funtifli 
a new name to this old bunnefs, the two lovers are the only fon and 
daughter of a DeBor mS Jftbtcary^ who, like the Monugues and 
the Capolets, are morul enemies to each other, as well as to their 
lefpeAive patients. 


Art. 42. Confideratien on the rtlative Situation 9/ France anithe VniteJ 
Staies ofjnarica : (hewing the Importance of the American Revo« 
lotion to the Welfare of France ; giving alfo an Account of their 
P/odudions, and the reciprocal Advantages which may be driawa 
from the commercial Connexions ; and finally, pointing out the 
aXoal Situation of the United States. Tranflated from tl^ French 
of Etienne Claviere and J. P. firilfot de Warville. 8vo. ^s. 
Boards. .RobfoB and Co. ,178s. 

A particular account of the original of this work was ^ven in the 
Appendix to oor /bih vol. p. 595. The tranflation is ^uthfullj 
eiecated, perhaps by the Authors diemTelves, or under their imme- 
diate infpedion \ and fome explanatory notes are added. The worfc 
aborads with political and e^mmerciai luiowlege, pamcuIaHy with 
refped to theinterefta of France. 

Art. 43. Thoughts 9% tht prefint State §f the Apfttcatton fir a Refeal 

ef the Bbef'iax : with Remarks on M. de Lolme*$ Obiervatioaa 

cm Taxes. 8vo. is. Debrett. 1788. 

The Author of thia pamphlet inveighs much againft the fliop- 
tax, ofing nearly the fame arguments that have been employed by 
his numerous predece/Tors. One of his general remarks is fo jtt(t» 
that we believe no reader will controvert it ; 

' While the caufe which is fupported by fophiftry, clamour, or 
mrty, muft in the end (ink under repeated inveftigation, that which 
has truth and found reafoning for its bafis will rife fuperior to mif- 
ftprefetttatioo, and the clouda which ignorance or inteieft aay thro^ 
around it/ 

Art. 44. J /bert. and impartial Political Review rf the Tear 1788* 
8vo. I s. Hookham. 
An enWy on the profperity of the nation ; an elegy on the ^leath 
df the Dnke of Rutland ; a thankigiving that the black defigns o|^ 
Margaret Nicholfon failed ; a lamentation for the King's prefent in- 
difpdfitiofi ; a panegyric on the Prince, with a cenfiire of thcffb 
* who dare to think thenrfelvet at liberty to pronounce ' wr/>/hf ^ 
narong he does, ^ wi<h fome abufe of Mr. Pitt :--thefe '' nottAle rnngs"* 
£arm the contenta of this rhapibdical publication^ A (ingle patch 
out of H arieqo i n's coat cannot comrey a juft idea of the whole, bat 
fhe following /rrr/jr oinaphoc, p. iS, hin man/ equals in the pam- 

7* MoNtHlt CAtALOOtyK, PdUtUt^. 

phlct. • In leraldry, a lion is the fappOrtfer of the Brftifli arftrs | U^ 
Kfd it b the Prince df Wales : and though now he is fccn fuffcrfng 
the rats of the conftitotion to gnaw and vex him, yet (hould the 
teeth of fach vermin awaken him, he would roufe, to the terror and 
difmay of thofe whofe temerity had ltd them too far/ 

Art. 4,5. Thret Litters §n the ^eftion of the Regency, Addreflcd to 
the People of England. By Capel Lofi't. Svo. is. 6d. Stockdale. 

Our Jimits will not permit as to enter minutely into a detail o£ 
the many juil remarks contained in thefe letters; we Jhall therefore- 
only briefly enumerate their contents. In the £r(l letter, Mr. Lofft 
gives a general ilateinent of the quellion, viz. ffuppofing the right., 
of Parliament clear and irrefragable) ; ' In what manner the power of 
Farlia^ment in conflituting a regency may feem moil expedient to be 
cxercifed under all the circumftances.' He then lays before hi« 
readers an hiflorical abdraft of all the regencies on record ; and 
points out the diflinftions between hereditary office and provifional 
appointment. The fecond letter contains feme impartial confidera- 
tions on the do^lrinc of an hereditary right to the Regency, with a 
comparifon between the arguments ufed by Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox.- 
And the third contains fome farther remarks on precedents and par- 
liamentary opinions. 

The authorities which Mr. LofFt has quoted In the Letters, are 
given at full length in an Appendix, at the conclufion of which is 
an abdraft of the proceedings in Patliament Ance December nth, 

Ar-tj. 46. An leaf arJiai Review of the prefent great ^uefihn^ Jan. 3^ 
1789. .8vo. is« Debrett. 
From the violence of .party -fpirit obfervable in this pamphlet^ 
there may be reafon to fufpedl a typographical error in the title, and 
that for //^partial, we fhould read Partial, The afTercion which the 
Author maices in the flrit paragraph, that * in contells of ambition, 
and druggies of political parties, the mind becomes heated, the paf- 
/ions inflamed, and reafOn overpowered by tumult and agitation,* is 
fully verified by the exaggerated language in which he fpeak^ of the 
condudl of Mr. Pitt, * Who,' the Author fays, • with daring ambi- 
tion, tramples on every thing facred in the conftitution, and boldly 
fets the crown on his own head.* p. 26, 27. 

Art. 47- J Letter to the Right Hon, William Pitt^ oa the Reftridion 
of the Regent's Authority. Svo. 6d. Debrett. 4.789. 
HoTMAN * the fecond ! — This letter- writer qppofes the reftri3ions 
with fpiriti vehemence, and energy of language; but i«re cannot 
fay fo much in behalf of his arguments, which, however, deferve to 
be attended to by thofe who arc converfant with the fubjpdl. On 
fo important a queflion^ t^itry voice fhould be heard. 

Art. 48. A Dialogue on the Regency , Svo. 6d. Debrett. 1739, 

Mr. Freeman, in a coffee'houfe converfation with John Bui), en- 

^eavourr to convince honed John (who had for conftitutional reafons 

efpoafed the Opinion that Parliament ought to appoint the Re- 

♦ Tra^y of Orponoko. • ^ ,^ ... 1 
* * » * • . • • getcy). 

. .Monthly Cat AioGus, P<>A'ftV^. 79 

jcy), that * Mr. Pitt*$ plan 1$ either to weaken the Prince of 
,/ales's government, or elfe to be Regent himfclf/ This is not the 
leait entertaining of the tra6b that hare appeared in oppofition to the 
idea of a Regency with reftridioDs. 

Art. 49. Regency ; anJ the U/e and Abuft of tin Great Seal: contain- 
ing a correft Lift of all the Regencies fince the Origin of Parlia- 
nieots to the prefcnt Period ; with an Account of the Caufc, Mode 
. of Appointment LimnitiOM afid Con(equence8 of each Re- 
gency, Sec. &c. 8vo. I s. Ridgway. 1789. 
- The chief intention of this pamphlet is, to guard us againfl the 
attempts of ' corrupt parliaments/ and * parliamentary cabals,' for 
the pnrpofes alloded to in the title-page. Admitting his inftancts to 
be fairly and.faithfuUyextra^ed from the writers to whom this author 
refers, the little colle6lion which he has here laid before the Public 
may poiSbly be found nfcful. . 

Art. 50. Detached Hints upon the ^efiion, in its preftnt Poffurt* 
8vo. 6d. Debreit. 1789. ' 
Tending to (hew that the Heir Apparent, during the King's inca- 
pacity, and no longer,' has a pre-eminent claim to th^ full exercife 
of the royal authority. 

Art. 51. RfJleBions on the Cafe tf a Regency. By a Gentleman of 
Lincoln's Inn. 8vo. is. 6d. *Rrdgwiiy, 1789. 

After recapitulating the proceedings ia Parliament, this Writei; 
examines the feveral precedents that have been mentioned, and con- 
chides his pamphlet with ailerting the right of the Prince, and pro- 
pofing nine qtieftions for the conwderation of the people. 

This Gentleman of Lincoln's Inn is not the who has 
proposed queftions that are, if not totally fbrcign to prefent exigen- 
cies, at leaft fach as have a tfendency to withdraw the attention ef 
the people fi'om fuch material points as merit their utmoft confidera- 
don. What, for inftance, is the intention of his laft queftion, 
• Whether it is fafeft for the people to adhere to the old conftitution, 
or to make a new one, on the occafion of the King's illnefs ?' His 
opponents, if he fhonld have any, might afk him in turn. Who, oa 
the occafion of the King's illnefs, endeavours to make a ne;w confu- 
tation I 

Art. 52« Thoughts on the prefent Proceedings of the Houfe of Commons^ 
8vo. 1 s. Debrett. 
This Aothor thinks, that nothing lefs than the con^efts of party, 
aod the (Irugglea of ambitious (latefmen, could for a moment ob- 
icare fo plain a truth, as the Ample and obvious mode of refloring ' 
the conftitutional government to its full vigour, by addrefTiog the 
Pnnce of Wales, and calling on him to exercife the regal authority in 
the name of his father. ' He offers this opinion, after having figni- 
fied his difapprobation of the parliamentary difcu/Tion p^^ right. The 
idea confutes itfelf. If Parliament have the power to call the Prtnce 
to the exercife of regal authority, they aredoubtlefs at liberty to de- 
bate whether fuch a flep is expedient, and to reflrid their dele-i, 
^ied power in the manner which they, as our national reprefenta- 
tivc5, beft approve. 


8a MowTRLT CATAio«irt, Pikkd. 

Aft. 5}. Tie Dikae m ihi Mff0 tfm Xmiw^» in the Buifi o/Cmtm 
mms,. Du. i6, 1788. Conuioing the ^eochct of Mr. Fiu, Mr* 

. ¥qx, &c Slc Wicli a corred IM of the DiTi^a thereoa. ivo« 
2 1. 6d, Stockdale. 
The title fufficiently expliins thtt conttatsof this pamphlet ; wl^ick 

ought not to be overlooked by thofe who make colieoions of this 


Art. 54* The Pwhts rfa Regmti €tn/titmimMf tH^fidtrU. 8vo. is*. 

TIm Author principally objcfU to any rdlraftioiif bebg laid oa the 
Regent He BMre efpecially con6aet himfrif to the maintenance oC 
the Regent's priti^Ative of creating peen» and of <Hflblving the par* 
liament. His language is nervoas, but for his argumeau> let hit 
readers decide. 

Art. 55. Wing ami no Whig. A poUtUal Paradox. 8vo. I s. 
Stalker. 1789. ' 
A whimiical dialogoe between William and Charles, in which the 
latter is doobtfnl whether the former is, or is npt, a Whig* Wtl* 
Iram't principles are fometimes combated by Charles, who feems to > 
have the word of the argument. 

Art. 56. AJdmn Apptal to ib* Cifisans of Gnat Britaia and InlmdB 
an tb4 prifent Etmrgincy. 8vo. z s. Stockdale. 

This performance is evidently the prcdudioa of a writer who pof- 
fefles a very confiderable (hare of htHorical and political knowlegs. 

He fets out with feveral obfervatioost intended to (hew, that 
where the fpirit of unbridled freedom pnev^ils, and where, the people 
are accuftomed to hear the oatore of lioerty dircu(ied, a (etof defpe* 
tate men, arpiriiig after power which their principles do not deferve, 
or hungry for bread, from which their debts have almoft precluded 
them, may blow up the flame of difcord when it is lead expedqfl« 
and embroil in civil confuiions and animo(iues, a community wiiichr 
but a moment before was in peaceable and happy circumftaaces# 
He proceeds with enumerating the examples which ancient and 
modern hiflory afford of the truth of his remarks % and» fpeakiag of 
our own times, he fays» 

« Let us not, therefore, be fo blind, fo very much (laves to our 
own prejudices, as to fuppofe that ruin, or at l^aft diflradioo, may 
aoc cniue firom men of an unreftained ambition, becaufe they call 
themfelves the men and friends of the people.* 
- He applies to the pre(bnt time what the hiftorian applied to the 
manners of the Roman republic ; and (hews how far Salln(l*s charac- 
ters of the confpirators agree with feveral perfons who now, in oar 
own country, employ much of the pnblic attention. 

The author next defcribes Mr? Pitt, whofe charaAer, finifbed in 
t^ richeft colours, is contrafted with that of his §reat opponent. 

As the prefent fitui|tion of affisiirs renders the times (n for the exe- 
cation of ambitious views, the author exhorts his fellow-cicizens to 
beware of the mifchiefs which muft i^ce(rarily follow the admifion 
if fadioot and profligate men into power. 

The warmth and energy of his expre(fion, which his zeal onljr 

itfms to have infpired, has produced many harfh reflections on the 

12 prefent 

Monthly Gataloove, MsMcaL 8r 

|>fdent teadbg ihembers of o})pOfition9 and the Mghefi panegyric 
eir the mtoifter. On ihe,wholc> howev»i he wntea like a fcholar^ 
Mad a gemienua. 

Alt. 57. J^vici ituiiify offered to the PriHtt of JTales. B7 a weU- 

tneanihi^ Briton. 8vo. 6d. Hookham. 17S9. 
' The main objeft o^ this tvetl-keant letter is, to luggeil to his 
Royal Highnels the propriety and prudence of (h-i^ly obierving the 
maxim feftina lente^ id his condudt, when Regent, toward his fa- 
tiier's confidential fervants and friends, and not to hurry them pre- 
cipitately out of place, in order to make room for thofe who mav be' 
too tk^^f to fiicceed them. — The advice is good, well enforcecl by 
jodicious arguments, and delivered in plain language, but not in 
terms too familiar for the royal ear to which it is addrefljed. 

Art. 53. The Royal DiaUguihtlvittii the P. ofW. and the Right 
Hon. C. J. F. ¥vo. is. 6d. Stalker, \i%(^ 
Low abnfeof the chira^rs alluded to by the initials inferted vb^ 
the dtle-page. 


Art. 59. An Attempt to a/certatn the Cat{fes of the K-^^s ptefent lUntfs ; 
with a new Method of treating it, applicable to all who fn^r ia 
like Manner; mod humbly recommended^ by a dutiful Subjed* 

' 4t6. IS. Robfon and Co. 

' The anonymous author of this well-meant attempt* attributes the 
K — 's illnefs to exceffive exercife and extreme temperance4 Hb 
retfonings on the fubjed, as weU as his ftyle, are not, throughout, fo 
corred as might b^ expc^ed from a Scientific writer; but his defign 
ftems to proceed from a iincere wifli for the fpeedy recovery of his So- 
vereign. The method of cure which he recommends, is fuch as the 
hypotfaefis certainly indicates.' The maxim that omne nimium nocet \% 
incontrovertible^ and in the pfefent cafe, the nimium or nimia with 
ifc^>e€l to the body are eaiily afcertained : but it is not allowable to 
ifl^rt that all mental derangements can be referred to corporeal or 
animal exceiTes. Experience daily (hews them to be folely produced 
by the violence of certain paffions ; and the bodily derangements 
which are concomitant, aremquently the efie^lof the difeafed mind. 
The iovefttgation of the canfes of diieafes is, in general, moftintri- 
rite and dimcuh, but more efpecially fo in thofe cafes where the 
4)tnd is difbrdered ; which require the mof( minute attentk)n to every 
f^mptom, and the moft accurate com parifon of every circumftance. 
^^d dieprefent writer ieen the patient, the canfe of whofe difeafe he 
attempts to expluni he might have been better qualified for the in- 

Art. 60. J DiJUrtntion on the Inflmence of the Pajpons upon the Dif 
fikrsoftheBody. By William Falconer, M. D. F.R. S. Being 
the £&y to which the Fothergillian Medal was adjudged. 8vo. 
|f. Boards. Dilly. 1788. 

fn our account of the Memoirs of the Medical Society *, we men* 

tiooed the inftitu^tioo of the Fothergillian medal, and faid that it 

I I 1 1 ■ i»i ■ ■ I I ■ II I 

. * See Rjcv, vol. Ixxvii, p. jsi, 

R£v, Jan. 1789. G wat 

9t MoKTHLT CATAtoeus, MifiittanntU. 

was adjodged to Dr. Palconer, orBtth, Tor his anfwer to t^e qnef- 
ixon^Jf^luLt- di/eafu may U mtigmtd •p eupid hy txtlHmg pMrtiadae 
mfft&isns or paffions of the mindf Tke Plflertation Is now before 
the Pubilic> who, by its perafa], laoft be coavinced (hat the medal 
was not anwozxhily beAowed. Of its comparative merit with re* 
fpeiSl to the per/brmances of his competitors, if there were any, k is 
smpoffible for us to fpeak, as chey are not pubUibed. 

Before Dr. Falconer offers any argoments on the qneftioo* he 
mentions fome ^ne^l laws by which the haman conllitytion feema 
to be conduced ; and defcribet the apparent effe^ of the paflioos 
jen the frame, and conilitution. Having thus eftabliihed a general 
i^flem, he proceeds to apply yvjiat he has advanced, to particular 
difeafes. . . . * 

He acknowledges that many difficulties muft occur in the manage- 
iaent;of thofe precarious and nice inftnineats, the paffions; be h^ 
neverthelefsy given an excellent view of their efieda on the corpo^ 
real and vital i^ftems ; and has (hewn his intimate acquincaiice with 
the beft writers on metaphyfics and medicine. 


Art. 6i. The pre/tnt State of No^a Sco/ia: With a brief Accdvat 
[ of Canada, and the Britiih Iflands on the Coaft of North America. 

The Second Edition, corredled and enlarged, and illuflrated with 

a Map. 8vo. 4s. Boards. Edinburgh^ Creech; London^ 

Cadell, &c. 1787. 

The lofs which Great Britain faftained, in the difmemberment oif 
lier empire, by the feparation of her American colonies, ieema to 
be, in a very confiderable degree, compeniated by the £ouriihin^ 
ftate of what remains of her former pofleffiont in that part of die 
wprld. — According to all acconntt, as well as to the reprefentationa^ 
cpntained in the volume before ns, Canada, and Nova Scotia, &c» 
bid fair to recompenfe us, in time, for all the damage that we hare 
fuftained by the defe&ion of thoie provincea which now conftitate 
ihf Umte4 States. . . . 

The account here given of the rapid growth of the infant fettle- 
ffient of Nova Scotia, efpedally iince the terminauon of the war 
with our late colonifts> if really aftoniihing ; and leaves us no rooi%* 
to doubt the y^ty great advantages which will, in aU human . pro^ 
bability, accrue to the mother country, from (he welfare and pro- 
fperity of this her youngelt child. 

. Of Canada, Newfoundland, Cape Breton, St. John's, &c the 
accounts here given mud, .undoubtedly, be very acceptable to the. 
public; but, as we have already laid before our readers a review of 
this work, from the firft edition *» it is unneceflary for ns to enlarge 
the prefent article, faiithfer than, briefly, \6 obferve, that thisy^r^^ 
edttion has deceived confiderable improvements ; particularly a ltrge> 
and, to fllUppettrance; accvfrate map of North An^ric^ including^ 
not only the Briiifh colonies, as now limited and defined, butalli^ 
Ac territories of the United States. 

* See &er« voL Izxv. p. tH* 


Aft. 61. Tli Flowers of motftrn' Transit % being elegant and in* 
ftru^Ure Extraas from the Work* of che moft celcbrslted Travel- 
lers. Intended chiefly for Young People. By the Rev. Jahn 
■ Adams^ A. M. \t±6: 2 Volt. 6s. fcwed. Keirflcy. 1788. 
Mr. AdKkns has made a very enceruiniiig feleftion from the books 
that have been pablifhed within our own memory, by travellers of 
diftrent countries ; as Lord Lytteltoni Sir W. Hamilton^ Baron de 
Toit, Dr. Moore, I>t, Von Troil, MeflVs. Brydone, Coxe, Wrax* 
aH, Savary, Swibburne, Lady M. W. Montagu. &c. The work^, 
at large, of all theft writers, have been reviewed by us irt the courf* 
t>f our undertaking ; and we thmk that Mr. Adams bath judiciouny 
extraded th« moft proper paiTages for d mifcellany of this kind} 
w^b» to young readers, who are fond of peruiiog books of authentic 
Uavelt, caniKH-fail of furnilhing this moft proiicable and iiinoceffC 

Art. 63. Mrs, StfOfort^s C^fe,, written by Herfelf, and rcfpeftfoHy 
fubmitted to the enlightened Part of the Public : including 
her Letter to Lor4 Rawdon* 4to. 11. 6 d. Kcrby, &c. 

This Lady fets forth, that fhe is * lineally defcended from Gra- 
ham £arls of Monteich*, and Stewart^ Earli of Qelloway, whofe 
commoa anceftor and mine was Alexander the Sixth, Lord High Ste- 
ward of Scotland^ father to Robert the Second, ^r^ monarch of tha 
name of Stewart.*— She farther ftates, that ftie is in great poverty 
a«fddiftr^»; thatLofd Rawdon has^ on her application^ contributed 
fevera! times to her relief; but that, of late^ he has not only difconti- 
Iroed hirbountyj bat has alfo been inftrumental in preventing others 
f^m relieving her. She, tlnerefore, now puT)licly addrcfTes, aftd re- 
proaches, Hs Lordlhip, in the ftyle of a remonftrant, and with all the 
hauteor and dignity of high defcent and frtmily pridt, — increafed rather 
.than humbled hy adveruty.— It (hodld fcenl, however, as if Lord R., 
had received fome convfftlon that Mrs. S. had frtipofcd ort him, and 
that he no longer confidered her as a proper objc6l of his benevolence : 
and- that he really thinks fo, we are thoroughly convinced from. 
oirciimftances mentioned ih her own account. Beiide which, we 
have obferved a letter, figned Justice, printed in the Morning 
Poft of January 9, 1789, and addreflcd •' To Mrs. Margaret Ca- 
tOLiNB RuDD, /i/r<w Stewart.** Now, if our high fpirited, au- 
thorefs be really the celebrated Mrs..i2Wy, formerly aiTociatcd with 
the unfortunate Perrtaus^ we can ho longer be ai a lofs to account iot 
die change in Lord R.'s condud toward he/. 

* * Thit Peerage is new dormant, by the failure of male heirt • 
The coheirefft daughters were Mary and Helen. Mrs. Stewart is th0, 
grand- daughter of Mary, the elder ; and Lord Rawdon is the great 
grand foB of Helen, the younger. Mary married her coufin, Walter 
Graham of Oartur, firft cadet of the Monteith family ; and Helen 
Harried Sir James Rawdon : confequently, Mrs. Stewart and Lord 
Rawdon ut prWumptive claimants to this dormant peerage.* . 

MV$« ^lewart's noN. 
G z Art. 

84 Monthly CATAf^oouE^ MfitBaimiiii 

Alt. 64. A Staiemfki of Fm^s, occasional of, and relative f^ A0 
late Diftarbances at the Theatre Royal, Edinbtkrgh. By ,^une*^ 
Fennel. 8vo. is. Bell. 17S8. 

Mr. Fennel appeared. Tome time ago, as a young ador, nnder ^ 
^signed name, at one of our London theatres, and was not wholly 
unfuccefsful. Removing to Edinburgh, he there, in Jtuly laft, per- 
formed fome capital characters ; but had the misfortane to incur the* 
difpleafare of certain perfonff^ who, forming a party agaiaft him» 
excited difturbances in the play^hoofe ; till, at laft, the manager was* 
threatened with unpleaiant confequences, which he could only pre* 
vent by difcharging Mr. Fei^nel. The final refolt wat» that Mr.^ 
F. who had too much fpirit to fubmit to fuch treatment at appeared 
to him both oppreifive and unjuft^^ hath bidden a final adieu to the 
Rige ; but hath, at the fame time, thought it expedient to publi(h> 
this narrative of the whole tranfa£lion ; and, as far as w<, at this- 
diftance, can pretend to judge of hb condud, he appears to have 
been< arbitrarily and cruelly treated. Formerly ear players ftyled 
themfelves ** His Majefty's Servants ;" but it has appeared, from (e- 
veral inftances, at difi^erent periods of ftage-hiftory, that they are 
thtjiaves of the Audience. We are forry for it ! Does it feenr 
reafonable, or joft, that any clafs of people among us, fhould for- 
feit their natural rights and privileges, as Free Bui ton 9^, merely: 
becaufe they employ their talents in contributing to our rationu 
smnfement t 

Art, 6^. Oifirvathns $m tin throi laft Folumis tftbt Ranum- W/hfy^' 
by Edward Gibbon, Efq« izmo. is. 6d. Stockdale. 1788. 
TJiu anonymous Obferver critidies Mr. Gibbon's work with fe- 
verity, but not without fome degree of candour* Many of hb 
ftridures are undoubtedly juft ; though a few of them have rather 
an appearance of iiliberality. He charges the celebrated writer 
with a want of that lucidus ,Qrdo which diftinguiihes the hiftorian^ 
from the mere relator of fads ; with a want of perfpicaity of lan- 
guage, and a negled of grammatical accuracy ; with tke unnece^y- 
and wanton introdudion of indecent and profane paflages ; and even. 
with a difplay of ridiculous buffoonery, more worthy of a jeft-bools^ 
than of ferious hiftory. In fome inftances, thefe charges are pret- 
ty well fupported;. in others, we think the objefUons are £rivoloas^ 
and trifling. He allows, however, the genius and abilities of Mr*. 
Gibbon : of whicb, he exprefsly affirms^ ^ there can be but oae- 

Art. (>(d^ The Naval Jtalantis r or,, a Difphy of the Charaden of 

fiich Flag Officers as were diflinguifhed during the la(l Wtf. By 

Nautictts Junior. 8vo. 4 s. Boards. RidgWay. 1788. 

Nauticus Junior is much diQatisfied with the condufi of the noble 

Lord late at the head of the Admiraliy board. He particularly ac- 

cafes him of partiality in the late promotion of officers ; and he haa 

accordingly pourtrayed the charadlers of thofe who are advanced to* 

the mnnade of naval ambition. It is wholly impoffible for us to- 

{peak to the fever^il maritime faSs which are here brought forward to* 

the {public view. Frofeffional men can alone determine on them i 

and yet profcffional men are icar^cly^ to be ^ficd i they cannot di- 

I'l. veft 

MoNTHLT Catalogub, Mfiittaftnta. Vs 

treft Aemfelves-of prcjodices: lor in tbe wock before m, which prt^ 
4aiidA lo the ftrideft impardality, we find ppinhn continaally ob- 
truding iiklf, and fporung wick therepuution of thofe who have 
nnfbrtanacely given o^nce to the Author; while, on the other 
Jiand, he. is eqoaliy fulfome in commendation of his favoarices and 
/riendt. In a word» we cannot better charafterize the prefent 
Writer than in the langoage of Dryden : 

<< Railii^ and praifing are his ufual theme«« 

And both (to uew his jud^meni^ in ejttremes: 

,So over-violent or over-civiU 

That tvcry one^ with him, is god or devil/* 

Art. 67. CbaroBerifttc Antulotest &c. 9f Frtdertc IT. latt King if 
Fru£m. With Explanatory Notes and Obfervations, by B. H. 
LaTrobe. 8vo. 6 s. Boards. Stockdalc. 1788. 
We agree with Mr. La Trobe that the Anecdotes with which lie 
lias bere prefented the world, are charaSiriftic of the great Prince 
with whom lie has made ns intimately acqaaioted. His readers will 
1>e willing to allow the author of thepr^ent publication no incon- 
£derable portion of praife for having related in an agreeable manner 
the mod imporunt and the moft interefting circumlUnces in the life 
•f the King of Pruflia ; and for having in his notes given that in- 
formation which ably illnftrates the nature of the Pruflian govern* 
ment, and thereby difpels the obfcurity in which many of the tranf- 
ia^ons would otherwife be involved. I'his work ii compiled from 
one of much greater bulk» written originally in the German Ian- 
jgnage; and the feleOion of Anecdotes contained in it does credit to 
t^e >udgment^.the editor. We have perufed the book with f^tif* 
£idion, and moft willingly recommend it to the attention of others* 

Art. 68. AnecdoUs and CbmraStrifties i>f Fredtric-tbe Grtat, late King 

9fPru£ia: Telexed and tranilated from eight original Volumes in 

" the German language. By F. A» W. i^mo. % Vols. 68. 

iewcd- Richard &n» &c. 1788. 
* It is out of our power to give {q great a degree of praife to the pre- 
tent as to the preceding publication^ becaufe, from its perufal, we 
luve derived neither the lame pleafure^ nor equal information. This 
work, like the forme.% is a compilation from oiher books on the fame 
fiibjed ; but lefs judgment is Aewn in the feledlion, and there is an 
Inferiority in the maaner of relating tbe fayings and the adlions of 
five great Frederic. When we turned over the la(l page of the former 
work, we felt a fenlible regretj to read the prefent volumes was a 

Art. 69. Tbi Spfich tfM. Nicker^ Director General of the Finances, at 
the Meedog of the AiTembly of the Notables^ held at VerfaiUess 
Nov. 6» 1788. Tp which /V added, the King's and the Keeper'9 
Speeches. 8vo* is. 6d. Debrett. 

An aflembly of the Notables having been called, preparatory to 
that of the States General, to fettle the formation and mode oJFaf- 
fembliog the different orders of which it is to be compofed, under 
the various alterations that have taken place (ince their lad convoca- 
tion in 161^ ; M. Necket explains the points Aibmitted. to their de* 

G 3 liberatiQ 

B6 MoNTHiT Catalqoui^ Mfiglbmml. 

Jib^rttioD, with gnsat clearDefs and precidon. Prom tiie nordty of 
• popular aiTembly in France, compofed of depaties from the difr ' 
/erent orders of the nation, relaflantlj called together^ after an in* 
terval of nearly two cf 9tiine»» in anage tyhea the i;i^lru of homaii 
DQCure are fo well underHood ; ^nd cfpeciaUx after that ^or^ranfiettt 
Jhai taken fo recent and adivc a partin favour of Ameti^ 4tber« 
ty ; we are juflified in forming high espedatioBS, • ' 

An. 70. Tk^ Bfduffa 0/ fio^/fkau, StU^ed by a L^dy. |zmo. 2" Voir, 
5s.' fewed. Hookham. 1783. 
The lady * to,whom we .are obliged for this agreeable ^d moral 
feledlion/ had no occafion, in this mflance, to plead her fex, in or^ 
dcr to obtain the ipdalgenqe of the puUic. Her merit en titles kit 
to their approbation and encpufagement. She has (hewn n)4ch judgi- 
inent in the feledion, and faithfulnefs in tl^e tranflatipa of^he ya4 
rtous parages which compofe thefe volumes. 

Art. 71. f^acmtaliii: Confiftitig of Eflays in Verfe^ on various Sub- 

jefts; with (otAt Tranilations. By the Rev. Edward Davies^ 

Lc£turerof Sodbury, 8vo. 4*. fewed, Robinfons. 17,88. 

As far as natural conceptions, eafy di6ion» harmonious vcrltfica'« 

tion.and moderate powers of defcription^ can go toward forming the 

poet, this writer has fome claim to the kpjJellation. His pieces bc^ 

ine chiefly of the pafloral kind, great originality will not be cxr 

peeled by thofe who are feniible of the narrow limits of this fpecie^ 

pf poetry. 

Among the pieces contained in this volume, are a tolerably fuc- 
cefsfa! verfificition of the Temora of 0Jlja7f. ; an Ode to the Mufi^ 
which, in language, is a pretty clofe imitation of Milton's TI Fen.' 
Jero/h ; and an original defcription of the Comforts of a Jail. Mn 
D^vies, 1)owever, i» not deftitute of defcriptive powers. 

AVt. 72. Report from the Committee appointed to examine tb( Pbjfi^U 
ans'iuho' b^ite' attended his M^fjiJIy, during his Illnefs^ touching th^ 
the prefent State of his Majeity^s Health. 8vq. " 3s. Stockdale. 
Another Edition of the fame Report, printed on a fmaller Letter, bat 
conuining the lame Matter, 8vo. is. 6d. 

Our readers will not exped that we (hould revi(*w this publica- 
tion. They will be fatisfied if We inform them, that it appears IQ 
be an exad copy of the account pHnted in folio, by authority. 
Two or three other editions, publiihed by different bookfellers, have 
appeare;); but we had not feen them, at the time when we were 
obliged to tranfmii this little article' to theprefs. 

Art. 73. ^ralian. Letters, from Abdalla, a Native of Arabia, to hi^ 

Friend at Moca. izmo. 2s. Bladon. 1788. 

** Rei hona *vel vefiigia deleSant*^ is the Author's motto. Witl| 

tVe truth of the fentiment we agree, but we cannot difcover what 

conneflibn it ha^ with the prefent performance, in v>hich We feelittle, 

if any thing, worthy of publication. It is out of our power to feleft 

|ny part of this thread-bare, worn-out nfode of fi^Htious correfpond^ 

' ' ' ' > ' 11^—— III I 

'^ In her preface, t^t iaforms as that her name ii El\»i Roharts. 

AtoKTHtY Catalogue^ N^svtb* 8j 

snce, tiitt would prove (to the AothorX a later of ncommiMdatiom to 
die poblic. 

Alt. 74. A Tourtd the JJkofLiytH\ wricteil by the Author of T^r Caffl- 
nm^ 6cc^ i2ino. 2S. Thornton, in Soathampton Street. iy\i^. 
We are iofoimedy in the preface, that theprefent work was prd- 
dtfced by the Author on a moft difirefiing occa£on,— the de^th of 
his friend's wife. The circunftance that rendered this event lefs to- 
lerable, wai/that it was f«dden and unexpected, and took place but a 
Very few months after their union. 

Inftead of its being a melancholy recital of the feelings of the huf- 
band after this misfortune, as we were prepared to expert, it proves an 
ingenious account of the hopes and the fears which alternately occu- 
pied the mind of the lover, and the' various fUges throoch which he 
pafled before he obtained the undivided afieClions of his miftrefs. 
This water has made an happy ufe of allegory and perfoniiicationr 
by the afliftance of which figures, he has rendered his work not a lit> 
tie entertaiiiing. The verfes, which are interfperfed in the courfe of 
Che narrative, are io fpriffhtly and eafy, as to induce us to wi(h that 
the whole h^d been poetical. We think, in this way of treating it, 
the fubjeCt would have been capable of receiving embellifhmentt 
that would, indeed, be improper in its prefent mvjctA and motle'y 
form. For our account of the Caffina^ ice Review, vol. Ixxvi. p. 178. 

Art. 75, CaiaU^mi tf Fi*ue Hundred celebrated "^ Authors of Qrtat 
Britain^ now living; the whole arranged in AlphabeticalOrder; 
and itkcluding si complete Lift bf their Publications, With occai> 
fional Stridures, and Anecdotes of their Lives. 8vo. 5s. Boar^. 
Faulder, 1788. 

Had this deiign been ably executed, it is probable that the work 
would have been well I'eceived ; but fuch crude and Imper/ed &etcbA 
as thefe, ought not to have been obtruded tfki the public. Some of 
the anecdotes, however, are c^niiderably foperior to the majority of 
ihok nothings that make up the bulk of the volume : which, more- 
over. Teems to conuin as many millakcs as there are article:* : andper- 
haps the omiflions are not fewer in number. Should the Author 
think of publifliing another edition, he ought to take a great deal 
more pains than he appears to have done in compiling this; efpe^ 
dally in the grand arucleof information. 


Art. 76. The Penitent Profitiete : or, the Hiftory of Mifs TuKa Fra»k ; 

written by herfelf. iimo. 2 s. 6d. Scatcherd and Co. 1788. 

In this ihort narrative, which, whether real or fi6Utious, is natu- 
rally told, there is enough to give any female mind, capable of rea- 
foning to confequences, fufKcient caution again ft the firft deviatioiu 
from moral rc£Utude : the only misfbrtone is, that in doing wrong, 
we oftener a& from the impi^fc of the moment than from refledioo ; ^ 

* As to eelihrity^ we moft remark, that many of the authors in-, 
crodnced into this Vftakf are people whofe namei were (barcely ever 
before heasd ofi > 

G 4 whf A 

88 NtfoNTHtY Catalogue, JVJterU? 

when from the Utter » the heert maft be radially bad. Mifs Jolhl 
Frank defcribes herfelf as the undotifal daughter of a northern cler- 
gyman, who ran away with an oftcer ; and after the ufaal viciffi* 
tudes in.fuch cafes, was reduced to walk the flreets of London for 
fubfiflence. Here (he was at length picked up by her own bro- 
tber; to whom making herfelf known, he took her back s and her 
parents having died of grief for her condufl, ihe was placed ander 
the protedion of a ftder who was comfortably married. 

Though the fubjedl of this tale may not be the moft delicate tp 
pnr into a young lady's hand, a novel-reading lady may perafe ic 
with more profit than many of thofe that exhibit vices in too favoar- 
^le a point of view» 

Art. 77. The Exile; Of Memoirs of the Count de Cronfiadt. By 
Clara Reeve, ixmo. 3 Vols. 9 s. fewed. Hookham. 1783. 
An intereding and well conduced ftory. The fatal effedi of 
indulging the tender paffions, at the expence of reafon, and in op- 
pofition to every worldly confideration and advanuge, are (et in a 
particularly (Iriking point of view. ' The principal incidents appear 
to be borrowed from a novel of the juftly admired M. D'Jnumd. 

Art* 79, $ofbiai or, the embarrafled Wife, &c. izmo. 2 Vol8» 
c s. fewed. Allen, 1788. 
Ncli me (Mgere { Touch me not — I (hall be nothing the better for 
handling. Criticifm, too, ihould be otherwife employed*, 

^--. Art. 79. The A^'ventures pf a Watch' umo, ji, fewed. Kearfley* 

Findingit impoflible to convey to our Readers any idea of this very 
domfy piete of workqianOiip, we take the liberty of prefentine them 
yith the repetition of a well-known anecdote;— A fcribbling Frencl^ 
Abbie being afked b^ Co^nt d'Argenfon^, why he hadpubli(he(ra certaia 
•book which had given offence, attempted to juftify himfelf by the 
following anfwer,— Jlftf«/^«r, H faut ^ue j^ nti'vt. On which the 
Count immediately obfcrved,— 7^ *'''' *voi^ pas la necejpte'^. 
. The Writer of the work before us, having a (imilar queftion put to 
him, would probably make a (imilar kind of reply. Suppo6ng this 
to be really the cafe, we will not be fo cruel as to adopt the rejoinder 
of the witty Frenchman, but rather fay to him, in the fpirit of 
Chriilian charity, Li've and mend. 

Art. 80. The Tivin Siflers ; or the ElFefts of Education. A Novel. 
By a Lady. izmo. 3 Vols. 9s. fewed. Hookham. 1788* 
The produ^on of fome young woman freih from the perufal of 
Pamela, and Clari(ra. There is a good deal of fancy, and many in* 
dications of real abilities both in the condufl of the fable and in tho 
drawing of the charade rs. We are forry to obferve, however, th« 
little attention which is paid to the fentiment aod the e^pre^n. 

* What the devil's become of you ? Did you break your neck oil 
your way to town ?* fa^sone of the heroes in his letter to another :— 
A mtghl^ curious qtieftion ! 

■ I I ■ I ■ III I I ■ 

^ Sec our laft Appendix, in D'Alembeit's artide. 

' Sttch 

MoNTHtY CaTALOOUI, Tthwhgf. Sf 

* Sock t pair of angels I never beheld ! their perfons are exadlf 
the iame fiae height add proportion, and thiir fetanra greatfy r#« 

* I have pi^rfaaded Mrs. Townley that a halbaad's being aihamed 
of his aifefUon for a beautifal wife, i« a far greater crione than total 
bliodneis/ ^ • . 

' We knew not, till now» that tUnJmi/s is a critni. .We always con« 
fideied it as a misfortune, a calamity. " But thos do men groar 
wr&r every day," a« Touchftone fays ; and *' wife men," as Solomon 
obferveth, ** liy up knowledge.'' 

To be ierions. The foregoing errors (and fandry of a fimilar 
kind ^ to be found in the book) appear to have arifen either from 
too great hurry in writing, or a want of knowlege of the rbles of 
compofition. Why will not the youthful writer fubmit to the cor« 
ledioos of a judicious friend ? Or if that be confidered as too do* 
gTMJing and mortifying a circumftance, why will hot fudi perfon be 
deliberate in challenging the world's opinion? Why not proceed 
with caution / Why not lludy, in (hort, the art of di/cratlj hUtting^^ 
an art fo very neceflary, fo very eifential to the candidate for fame ? 

As the work is to be continued, we hope to fee this matter attended 
tp. Of adventures *' broke oflF in the middle" we cannot be expeded 
to give an account, 

T H B O L O O Y. 

Art. 8 1 . Letters aJJreJ/id to a young Genttematt, who had early imhlhed 
the Prindplis of Infidelity. Dedicated to the mod virtuous young; 
Man in the Kingdom. 8vo. is. Matthews, iec. 178S. 
This writer might have faved himfelf much trouble, by referring 
|iis young friend to treatifes in defence of Revelation, which would 
have given him more information and fuller fatisfadlion, than he 
would find in thefe Letters. The Author has not faid, who this mojt * 
^rtuous youHg mam in the kingdom is* 

Art* %2,. Confiderations on ancient and modem Creeds ; the Supremacy of 
the Father; the perfonal £xiftence of the Holy Ghoft; the Pre- 
exiilence of Chrift, and his Divinity, &c. By the late Henry 
Taylor, A. M. Re6lor of Crawley, and Vicar of Portfmonth, iq 
Hants; Author of Ben Mordecai's Apology for embracing Chrifti- 
anicy. Publiihed by his Son Henry Taylor, LL. B. Redor of 
Spriidlington in Lincolnihire. With a Treatife on the Exifte'nce, 
Immateriality, and Immortality of the Soul, proving the fame from 
felf-evident Principles* By ■ — j Ef<l« 8vo. 5s; 

Boards. Dilly, ice. 1788. 

Thb poftbnmous publication fupports at large the dodlrine which 
the Author had mentioned in his former wrihngs, concerning the 
Divine nature, and the perfon of Chrift. He expofes the infuperablo 
embarraflment under which the Trinitarian labours, while he attempts 
to avoid Polytheifm on the one hand, acd SabelHanifm on the other* 
He reprefents the divinity of Chriil as iignifying dominion received 
from the Father, and therefore not implying equality ; and afTerts 

♦ '* Authors lofe half the praife they would have got. 
Were it but known what they diicreetly blot." 


9a MoNTHty CATAiooifs^ 7Zm£^« 

tlist Chrift uMft God, as pofefltd of derived dodiiotoir, but oOt su* 
piiBME God, bectufe not poAefled of fnpreibe dominion. In fopporc 
of the dottrines of the pre-exiftence of Chrift, and the perfonality of 
thm Holy' Gboft« kt «Dten into a critical examination of many texts 
ol Scripture, is order to (he v, that the Socinian interpretatioa of tkem 
is forced and anfadsfadory. 

Tbe writer of the fliorc treatife on tlie SoaU annexed to thi« vrark, 
waintaiot tkat the confciournefs of exigence oeceAkrily iaclndea tbe 
confctoofaefs of unity, iadividnaJity, pernaneoc ideatity, and a 
power of beginning motion ; properties of which matter is deftitote j 
and hence he infers the immateriality and immortality of. the foa]. 

Mr. Taylor's is a learned and tngenious performanee, which de^ 
ferves the attention of thoTe who are engageiiin theological inqairkafi 
kmt we very much doabt, whether either the Trinitarians or the So- 
cinians will acknowledge that tbe Author has overturned their re^ 
fpedive fyftems. Di^rent perlbos fet out on theie inqoiries with 
fttch different princifdes, view the fnbjed trader Aich different afpedls« 
and find fo many planfible arguments for their xefpeQive interpzeta^ 
tions of Scripture, that we have little reafoa to hope tkat thu coatro^ 
vorfy will ever terminate in mutjf 0//Mi&. 

Art. %^^ An EJfay en thg Folly of Sceptici/mi the Abfordity of dogma- 
tizing on religious Subjects ; and the proper Medium to be obferved 
. between tbefe two Excfemea. . By W, L. Brown, D. D. Minifter 
of the Englifh Church at Utrecht. 8vo. 2S. 6d. Murray. 1788. 
This effay obtained the gold medal of the Teylerian Sodeqr at 
Haarlem in 1786, and was originally printed in the Memoirs ofjthat 
Society. As we have given an ample account of it in the Appendix 
to our 77th volume, page 571. we mall only congratulate our couot 
trymen. that, by its being Separately publilhed, they have the oppor- 
tunity of eafily procuring a truly ingenious and inllrufUve work* 

Art. 84. A Letter on the Sonjbip of Chrifl^ originally addreiled to 
ibme of the Members of the Baptift Church at Edinburgh. Bjf 
Archibald M'Lean, izmo. is. Edinburgh, printed. Lon^ 
don, fold by Buckland. 1788. 

Some confufton has been occafioned in a ^aptift fociety at Edin- 
burgh, by the fubjed above mentioned. This Author profeffes him- 
felf a firm Trinitarian, and at the fame time pleads that it does not 
appear from Scripture^ that the relationj expreffed by the names 
Father and Son are intended to teach the manner and order of their 
eternal fubfiilence in Godhead : it rather appears, hefays» ' that they 
are names expreflive of the relation which thefe ielf-exiftent and co- 
eternal perfons came under to each other in the oeconomy of re- 
demption.' In other words, that the title Son» or Son of God, is given 
to Chrift merely as relative to his appearance in human nature. 
He produces many arguments to fapport this propofition. But tha 
greater part of the pamphlet is defined to a review of the defenco 
of the contrary opinion, by Dr. Robert Walker. Mr. M'Leaa 
writes like a man of fenfe aiui difcernmenc, and feems, without 
doubt, to have the advantage of his antagoni^ We mull own our- 
felves aftonifhed at thephrafeology fonetimei employed by thofewho 
plead for what it urmed tumal gferuiiom, and can confider it as 


Xcd^ fliprt of prophane. It is jprobable tkat t few years mwf coii« 
vince combataats io this way» of the fatilicy of chcar laboorff ; aiid> 
before they die, they may beperAiaded that nothing is immediately 
rieotial to ChrifUanity bat what regards the ^pin^ ^nd prance of 
piety, truth, and virtue. 

Art. 85. 4' Addrefi io th( ^emhn $f thf (^pttrct of England^ and 
to ProteilantTribitariaos in general, exhorting them to turn from 
the Worfliip of Three Perfons, to the Worlhip of the one true God, 
8vo. 2d. JohnfoQ. 1788. 

This little performance tippears to have been written by W« Frend, 
M* A. of Jefns College, Cainbridge. It may be fuppofed that it 
^an coatain but ^ very general view of the fubjeS. Some argu?- 
meats which are level to the common readers of the Scriptures are 
propofed and urged with fervour ; what is faid under the article 
H^ Ghoft^ is rather perplexed and unintelligible, and may poffibly 
lead fome persons to a dangerous conelufion, however good the 
it>teQtion, and jell the reaioning, as to certain paflkges in our 

Art. 86. A Difertation on the Uejfag$ from St. John the Baftift H 
emr Saviour; St. Luke, vii. 19. with Remarks on the Hiltory of 
his Life and Mtniftry. 8vo. i s. 6d. Cadell. 1788. 
Amid the drudgery of labotmng through frivolous and tedious 
books, it is fome relief to meet with one which, like the prefenc 
Diftrtationt Is rational, ufefnl, and well writteh. Yet we maft 
acknowlega ourfelves fomewhae difappointed, aS to the folution of 
the difficulty, viz. For what reafoa this meiTage was fentby John 
the Baptift. The anfwer given by this Writer fcems greatly to coin^ 
cide with t^t which' has been -before offered, particularly by Dr* 
Macknieht. It is here fuppofed, that the application to jefus was 
purely for the Paptlft's own fatiffa^ion, and arofe from impatience 
and difcontent. Hearing of the miracles of Chrifl, he might eileem 
{limfclf negleded, when nothing was done toreleafe him from inu 
prifonment. This general account is here illuflrated by feyeral 
rem^ks, and particularly by this, that though the tenor of hi^ tifep 
previous to his confineinent, was foretold by ancient prophecy, ao 
fight was held forth fubfequent ^to that event. This little tra^ alio 
pffers fome pertinent reflexions on the miniilry of the fiaptid. 

Art. 87. Jm (xpofiul^tory Addnfs to th$ Reverend DdSor FrieftUy ; 
containing an i^pology for thofe who confcientiouily fubfcribe to 
the Articles of the CnuacH of England \ and, in particular, 
to the Do^ioes of the Trinity ^ &c. By the Rev. John Hawkins-. 
)$vo. IS. 6d. Printed at Worceder, and fold by White, &€. ia 
London. 1788. 

The candour, moderation, and good fenfe, with which thia 
paaphlet is written, entitle its Author to a rcfpei^ful attention from 
nit opponent and the public. After expre^ng his difapprobatioa 
pf the contemptuous and illiberal manner in which Dr. P. is ofcea 
treated, he coolly remon^rates with him on the cenfurea whith be 
has caA on the clergy, as well as the dodrines, of the Chusch of 
^Dgland ; and Dndcrtakes to prove, that (he doctrines of the 'trinity 

i^t MoKitfLY Cataioque^ 9hohgf. 

and ike diTtBity of Jefot ChM involve no. contridifUoA or; afcfT* 
dity, tnd may be conrcientioofl/ fahknbed. 

Mr. H. introdacet bis obfenracions en the do£kiine of the Triaitf 
hj reairktoe, chat the belief of the more moderate Soctniaos, 
when redaced to its moft fimple as well as decent expreffion* J»4 
that of the Chuk-ch of £ngland» as fet forth in a general meeting of 
^er divines at Oxford in 1^95 , dcffer nrach lefs from e^ other 
than is uTaally prefumed. Thu reuMirfc is confirmed by Mr. Haw- 
iuns*s fubfeqoent explanation of the do^rinc of the Trinity, as only 
denoting, that there exifts in the/Ooe Supreme In telUgent Being, >9«i» 
iiW 9faiftin£ii9n. By this diftindtion, he does not nnderdand ths^ 
diiHnd lutilUgenctSt bat fome diverfides in the Divine Nature, * which 
have each their peculiar i^ations, auribiites, and properties ;' and he 
acknowledges /that neither the Son nor the Holy Spint coald have toy 
claim to our worfhip bdt what arifes from their ahfoluu ontmfs with 
the Father, fnim nvhom voitb reff$B to Dtitj tbejf are not in tar^ rejpt^ 
0Upin9> On this ground, he ranks himrelf in the fchool of the No- 
minal Tfinitarians, among w^om he enumerates, Archbrihop Ti!« 
lotion, Biihop Bornet, Bilhop Pearfoa, Dr. Watts« and Dr. Dod- 

With f«ich couceffions as this candid writer (eems inclined \m 
snake, perhaps it would not be dif^cnlt to {hew that the difpote 
iconcernrng the Perfon of Chrift is Uttie more than a verbal con- 
eeft. If fo, how much is it to be regretted that the ball of contention 
Should be kept up, by an authoritative prefcription of Icholaftic 
)tenns, when they might fo eafily be exchanged for fcriptoral lan- 
guage, to which Chnfiians ofevciy defpiptloo Wiapld yield 4 re#dy 
afient ! 

Art. 88. Jf Letter to the Re^. Jofiph Friefttey, I.L. D. F. R. 5. fcc^ 
by a Lover of the whole Truth as it is in Jcfus*. Svo. 6d, 
Trapp, &c. 1788. 

Some good Chriftiati here pours forth vehement exclamationa 
againftthe 'execrable tenets,' an<t piteous lamentations over the 
loft condition, of the arch-heretic to whom his letter is addrefled : 
i>ut as he meets the giant, clad iii the holy armour of the immaculate 
righteoufnefs of his Saviour, and the merits of his infinitely predout 
^eath, it k not for us to queftion his fuccefs in the cooteft. 

Art. 89. The Frohabilttj of the future Hapfhefs of Infants nvbo dif 
in Infancy^ dated and coniidered, ^y Daniel Gillard. 8vo. 6d. 
Buckland, ftco 1787. 

Strange as it may feem, there are, we find, people, even in thtt 
Chriftian country, who entertain Aich abfurd notions of the attri.. 
iMites of the All-merciful Being, that they make themfelves mft^ 
rable about the uncertain future (late (as they conceive) of children 
who die in infancy* — To remove the anxiety of fuch weak brethren 
<or fillers), is the laudable defign of Mr. Gillard, who, if we mif* 
take not, is a preacher among the Baptills. His flyle is well fu!te4 
to the capacities of thofe readers for whom his tra6t is chiefly in* 

» G. Nicholfon. See his Font StUa J>ifcourft4^ Rev. for De- 
ccxnhcr, p. j^flu 


MoNTRtY CATXtdoue, Theology. ^f 

tevAd. Av 10 the Writer's peculiar principles, they mty be fu^ 
iciesitJy inferred ih>fl[t the follqiivin^ fl^brt parage :— < The iden pt>r« 
itted in this treatife is, \ht prohabnity that all who die in a 9am 
of iniaacy, are tbdid; and therefore certainly faved/ 

Alt. 90. Thi CoM^ua, 0/ iii firfi Converts to CbriJtianUj eonfidertd 
4uul applied \ in a Sermon preached at Bridpdrt, Joiy 10, 1788^ 
at the Ordination of the Rev. Thomas Howe. By Jofliua Tonl- 
nia, A. M. Alfo, The Perpetuky of the Qhriftiau Cifurei ; in m 
Sermon preached at Ringwood, July i6» 178$* at the Ordina* 
tioa of the Rev. William GelUbrand. By Abraham Rees, D. D« 
F. R, $. to which are added, the Queftiona^ropofed to Mr« 
How«« with his Aofwers ; and a Charge^divered on both (hefir 
Occa^ons, by Andrew Kippb, D.D. fCr. S. and S. A, Svo* 
2s. Johnfon. 

After having repreftnted the firft Chriftians * in a very yxtt Ught,, 
Mr, Toalmin obferves, that, with a due allowance for difference of 
drcamilances^ the condud of thefe believers furnifhes a model for 
ChrifBair focieties, in all ages : a model jof the fpirit which fliould 
agitate their hearts,, and of the manners which (hould adorn their 
profeffion : panicularty that we, like them, fhould persevere in our 
attendance on the inflStutions of the Gofpel, cultivate the fpirit of 
love, and aim >t a purity of manners that may command rctptdL 
and conciliate favour*. This dircourft abounds with rational re- 
flexions, and excellent advice ;. and is well cftlculated to promote 
the temper and fpirit of the Gofpel. 

The text of Dr. Rees's fermon is from Matt. zvi. 1 7. latter part. 
It is ieriotts aud feniible ; and well adapted to the o^cafion. The 
iotrodoAory difcourfe, and the queilions propofed to Mr. Howe» 
with his anfwers, all breathe a candid, liberal, and tru|.y Chriiliaa 
fpirit. Dr. Kippis's Charge, as a compoficion, is fuperior to moft 
difcoorfesof the kind. As an addrefs to minifters of the Gofpel » 
xtismodeft, tender, and af&dlionate. It is grounded on i Tim. 
chap. tii. verfe ij. We mult do Dr. K. the judice to declare it to 
be oar opinion^ that thofe miniHers who condud them (elves on the 
plan here laid down, cannot fail of obtaining, not only the refpeft 
ef their own congregations, but that of all who know them ; toge- 
ther with (what is of infinitely more importance) the teftimony 
ofconfcience in their favour here, and a ** WTell done gogJ and fait i* 
falfgr*uantj^** hereafter. 

Art. 91. A Letter Jo the Rt. Hon. andHt, Rent. Reilij, iord Bijbop 
tf London, on the Abolition of Slavery. 8vo. 6d. Longman. 

The Harery of which this writer folicits the abolition is not, as the 
reader would exped, African, but Clerical, fiavery. The hardfliips 
of thoic clergy who, on mature examination, become di&tisfied with 
the condition on which they hold (heir ftation in the church, and yec 
are in too dependent a^ilate to leave it without ruin, are ftrongly re* 
presented. This is a grievance, which, in our enlightened and libe- 
xal age, it is furely high time to redrefs. 

• Mr. Toiihnin'j text was Afts li. 4«— 47. 


94 S Eft MOM^ in CimmmorMim •ftU Re^IuilfH. 

^t. 92:. The Vuhfsrfid Rtftorcthm : cxhibiied ia t Seritfs of i)ta« 
. iogiies between a Minifter and his Friend ; comprebesdrng tb6 
• Sobftance of feveral ConverratioDs (bat the Author hath had wkh 
▼arioQs PerfoDs, both in America and Eoro^, od.that iDtereftsjig 
Subjed: wherein the moft formidable Objedions are dated, and 
' fully anfwered. By EllMoan WkckeiUT. 8va. 3 s. fewed. 

Marfoai. 17S8. 
' The dadftne of che final falvation df all men, which h^ latefy^ 
iM well as in former times, had feveral advocates, is here treated in 
ar familiar and popular way, more adapted to engage the attention 
of the generality of readers, than to ai)brd entire fatisfadion to tb^ ' 
aecttrate criti^ in biblical learnings But, whatever becomes of bis 
do^ioe, we cannot but commend the philanthropy of che writer. 

£ £ jt M o N s in dmmemoratm of the Rtwbitim *• 

% Two Sermons^ preached at Mill-hill Chapel, in Leeds> otfr 

the Celebration of the hundredth Anniverikry of the happy Re^ 

volution. By William Wood. 8vo. it. 6d. Johnfoa. 

The text of the firft fermon is from Pfalm cii. 18 — 20, The fub- . 

je£l is the rife and progreG of civil liberty, a fubjed with which 

the Author feems well acquainted, and which he has treated with. 

great judgment. The concluiion of this difcourfe is very animated 

and pathetic. Speaking of our patriotic coiantrymen, who were 

virtuoufly aflive for oor welfare, as well as their own, in 1688, and 

who now are numbered with their fathers, he adds : 

' Though dead, they yet fpeak to us with the impreOive elo- 
quence of their never to be forgotten deeds. Clofed as they arc in 
their honourable tombs, their venerable forms this day prefent tliem-^. 
felves to our eyes^ and conjure us to preferve^ and to improve thd 
rights, for which th*y bravely rifqued their fortunes and their livcs,^ 
and which they happily fecured without the efFufion of human bloqd. 
They charge us to tranfmit what we have received from them, ptire 
and entire to our defcendants, and to fit them for it, by indiUing 
into their minds a love of piety and virtue, a reverence for the laws, 
and a public-fpiriied ambition of ading, in every department of life, 
with the exemplary ufefulnefs of good citizens, — Yes, ye illuflrious 
fhades, we will be faithful to the depofit which you have committed 
to our truft : we liiten with awful refpcd to your facred commands j 
we will not didurb your hallowed fepulchres by our unrighteous ' 
lives. Kefl in peace, till the blifsful refurrefUon of the juil; we 
will then hail you aa our magnanimous fathers, and you ihall not 
fpurn us from yoo as degenerate children.' 

The. text of the fecond (ermon i»Gal. v. 13. The fnbje£l> reli- 
gious liberty, or the purity of religion and the rights of confctence* 
Mr. Wcod informs us, that the juft principles of tolerance wei« 
little known till the fuperior genius of Cromwell difcoVered theilr 
force, and openly profeil'cd, that in mattera of religioii all mea 
have a right to think and 9£t for themfelves, and that while the/ 
lived ip peace with the reft of mankind, they were free to difl*ent 
from the maf^iftrate and the prieft. The author's opinion on this 

■ « * — ■ * ' ■ * ■ ■■* ' ' '» — * • J ■ ■ ■■ -> 

• See the liil in the laft month's Review. 


SsKOI(9 SBltJkl OK 8. 95 

foittirr&y evident from the following quotation^ which breaches 
a tmlj cindid a^d liberal fpirit : 

* JLet as efVeem as a friend a^id a brother every honefl and good 
iMO, b^ wbttever religious (jenominacion he may be diftingujibed ; 
whethet he worihip at the church or the meeting-houfey the mafs* 
houfe or the fynagogue ; whether he uie a pre^ribcd or a difcre* 
tmal form of prayer ; whether he prefers ao eplfcopal, a prefby* 
tsrtao, ao independent^ or any other form of church government. 
In the moft corrupted religious communities, numbers ane to bo 
fbmd who are ornamenu to their own, and would be an honour ta 
any pro^^ffion ; the pureft and the be ft are difgraced by unworthy 
aerobers. Then let us not judge of others by the narrow model of 
oar own c^eed ; but love all who ibve God, and de£re, by a patienc, 
pericverance in well-doing, to obtain eternal life. As we are bleft 
with the enjoyiaent of civil and religioas liberty, let us manifeft our. 
gratitude to the proteAin^ magiftrate by a regular and exemplary 
condnd, by an adive difcharge of oar refpedive duties, and by an 
animated seal for the public good. Let us be at peace with each 
other, and with all mankind, and the God of lovi and peace nvill ht 

As we have been much pleafed with the perufal of the(e ingenious 
difcoarfes, we recommend them to the particular attention of the 

II. A Century Sermon on fife glorious Re<uolution ; preached in' 

I^dbn, Nov. i6, 1788, being juft 100 Years from the landing 

of William, Prince of Orange^ afterwards King of £ngknd. In 

which the Events of 1588, i688» and ly^S, are mentioned, and. 

the Bleffings of civil and religious Liberty confidered. By Elha- 

nan Winchefter (from America). 8vo. gd» Johnfon, &c. 

The text» Exodus, xv. 1 1. We have (and we aHTiire our Readers^ 

with no /mail degree of psLUenct)^ read over this lon^ and tedious 

&rmon. Had the Author clofed it at the 25th page, it might have 

been called a plain pra£lical difcourfe: but, not (o contented, he 

fivoors us with 15 pages more, in order to give us .a panegyric oil 

America — to introduce a cpmparifon between King WiJjiam an<r 

oor Saviour — to tell us that he expe^ed that the lalt century would 

have produced niuch greater events than it has done— and to prq. 

phecy what may be expeded ihortJy to come to pafs. This difcourle, 

feems calculated for the meridian of Tottenham Court Road; and 

will, no doubt, have many admirers. 

SiNGLB Sbrmoits, $n itber Occujtons. 

I. Preached on the Death of the celebrated Mr. J. Henderfon, B. A. 

of Pembroke College, Oxford, at St. George^s, Kingfwood, No-' 

vember 23, and at Temple Church, Briftol, Noveml^r 30, 1788. 

Bjr the Rfv. W. Agutier, M. A. of St. Mary Magdalen College, 

Oxford. 8vo. 60. Rivingtons, icz. 

The deceafedy according to the account here given of his charac-^ 
ter, was a perfon of moft extraordinary endowments and accomplish* 
metru. He excelled in divinity, law, phyfic, and chemiftry ; and 
his knowlcge was ' applied fyt the bent&t of oihers.- He relieved: 



the poor by his alms, and the fiek by his medidnts. He toAUied 
the adlidledt and intruded the ignoraiit. He deftnded the injoted^ 
and extricated the diftrefTedy Sec, Sec* With refped to his notiona 
of religion, feme idea may be formed^ from what is here faid» in 
his own words, on a particular and leading article of ftith. The 
paflage is given us as an extraA from one of his own letters.-**' I 
irmly believe that Jefus is very God of very God | is my God as 
jBuch as the Father, and I adore him and pray to him as fuch. I be* 
lieve that He, as God> in his divine nature, took upon him human 
aature, / . r. the foul and body of man. I believe that the Godhead 
was fully and wholly in his humanity ; and that the Father, whom 
ao one man hath (een, or can fee, in his own perfon, became vifible 
in the perfon of Jefus, &c. Sec. *'*— Mr. H. we find, had been con« 
iieAed with the late pious Mr. Fletcher of Madely, and was with him 
at the college of Treveka, where, * at twelve years of age, he tamgii 
Greek and Latin.' In a word, he feems to have b^n a feoond 
BaratiiT ; and the preacher of his funeral fermon appears to have 
omitted nothing that zeal and aftdton could poffibly luggeft in hia 

* If this be not what feme people call rati(mal, it is what othera 
term oriMox ; and the former, no doubt, will always be out-voted 
by the latter. 

/ II. On tbi African Slanti 7r«//— Preached at the Maze- Pond, Soath« 

wark, Nov. 50, 1788. By James Dore. 8vo. 6d. fincklaad* 


Several very material points of national confideration, relative to 
the crimioallty of the man-trade, are here adduced with force atid 
feeling ; the inhuman treatment of the Negroes, in the tranfporta« 
tion of them from their native foil, is pathetically reprefented, from 
the teflimony of feveral writers on the fubjedl : and we are earneftl/ 
exhorted, as free-born Britons, nurfed in the lap -of Liberty, to pay 
due regard to the natural rights of our fellow- mortals, — and to lend 
our beft affiftance to promote the benevolent defign of freeing the 
poor Africans from the bondage in which they have been fo ]ong» 
unjuilly, and fo cruelly held.—The difcourfe is written with good 
(enfe and animation. 

♦^» For this author's Letters en Faiths fee Review, vol. IxxviL 
p. 33a. 

HI. Preached in Lambeth Chapel, at the Confecration of th^ Right 
Reverend Father in God Samuel Lord Biihop of St. David's, on 
Whitfanday, May 11, 1788. By Charles Peter Layard, D. D. 
F.R. S. F.A.S. 4to. IS. Walter. 

Dr. Layard vtrj briefly, and in general terms, complains of 
the uncandid and violent attacks which have been made on the moft 
important tenets of the Chriftian faith, and on the venerable form of 
ohurch governipent derived from the Apoflles and their immediate 
faccejflbrs; and he exhorts the friends of true religion vigorouil/*co 
defend the faithful word delivered to the faints. 

t^ Anfwers to various Correfpondents will be found in our Ap« 
peodix (p* 702.}, publiihed with this Number. 

f H Is 


For FEBRUARY, 1789* 

Aat. I. Tht Rural OicoMOMff of Yorkjhirt ; comprizing the Maflc^* 
ment of landed Eftates, and the prefent Pradtce of Hafbandry 111 
she aKricuItural Diftrids of that County. By Mr. Marihall. 8¥0. 
2 Vols. I2S. Boards. CadcU. 1788. 

WE congratulate the Public on the early appearance of 
another performance on the rural oeconomy of diftrint 
in England by Mr. Marfliall. In our account of the Rural 
Onmumy tf Norfolk *> we gave a general (ketch of the author's 
plao^ and the manner of his executing his truly interefting 
work } and it is only here neceflary to recall to the Reader's re- 
colleAion, that Mr. MarfhairprofeiTes to give adiftin£t account 
of the practice of agriculture, and the general management of 
)and» in the different provincial difiri£ which he may feleA 
for chat purpofe, rather than a didadic performance on the fub^ 
jeA i— without, however, precluding bimfelf from malting fufcb 
obfervations, tending to improve that praAice, as may occur* 
We think this plan, if executed with due caution, cannot fail 
of proving highly beneficial to the interefts of agriculture, by the 
diflemioation of ufeful knowlege :— which muft, in the natural 
courfe of things, conduce to the general advantage of the king** 

The author has now feleOed the diflrid of fUkirhg^ neac 
Scarborough, in the north'^eaft corner of Yorkihire, as the par« 
ticular fcene of his obfervations. This is a fertile vale, of con- 
derable extent; its largeft diameter being about 35 miles in lengthy 
and its width about 12, including in its area, ahd the culti- 
vated lands on its banks, about 300 fquare miles, or 200,000 
acres. It \% bounded 00 the north by a great extent of hi^h 
ground, called the Eaftirn Morelands ; on the foutbf by a ftill 
more extenfive trad of lower chalky hills» called the JVoldsi on 
the Wift^ by fom/e irregular rifing grounds that feparate it from 
the great vale of York| and on the <«/?, by a narrow ridge of 
high land, between it and the fea, ro the fouthward of Scarbo- 

♦ Sec Review for Augaft 1787. 
Vol. trx;|, H^ rbugh* 

98 MarQiair/ Rural Oawomj of Yorijhlrel 

rough. Mr. M. fays it is ^ a laii left dry by nature : a bafon . 
formed by eminences on every fide, favc one narrow outlet of 
the waters collcded within its area, and upon the adjacent hills* 
Nature, perhaps, never was (o_ near forming a lake without 
JSnifliing the defign. A dam of inconfiderable length acrofs the 
Derwent, near Malton, would^delugeihe entire vale, and the 
firft paflageof ihe^waleis wotild, in a(l probability^ be do^n the 
fea clifFs which are its eafiern boundary/ To render intelli- 
gible the geography of this diftriA, our author, alwap attentive 
to whatever may convey real information, has illuftrated his 
work by two elegant maps : — the firft, a general birdVeye view 
of a)l Yorkfhire; in which the feveral hills and dales, and other 
irregularities of furface,' are diftin^jy delineated :— -the fecood, 
a puio unfhaded outlioe.-map of the vale of Pickering, with its 
feveral towns and villages, and the rivers and rivulets whicli ' 
water the vale, as they defclend from the high grounds that fur- 
round it ; all diftindly marked, and traced through their fmaller 
ramifications. How frequently have we occafion to regret the 
want of fuch aids, when accompanying an entertaining tra- 
veller or inftruAlve hiftorian s many of whofe moft interefting 
defcriptions are rendered, in fome meafure, obfcure and unin- 
telligible to the greateft part of their readers, becaufe of this 
omiffion ! 

The general outlet for the water of this vale is through the 
channel of the Derwent, whofe fiream is augmented by the 
jundion of the Rye, a little before it iflues from ttie vale. Thefc 
two rivers move with a flow and fluggifh courfe along the bot- 
tom of the vale : the Derwent from ea({ to weft, and the Rye 
in an oppofite diredioo, receiving (he fmaller ftreams from either 

' As a proof of the general flatnefs of the vale, the waters of the 
Rye are four or five days in paffing from Henfley to Malton (aboat 
fourteen mites) : and thofe of the Derwent not hefs than a week in 
atoving from Ayton (aboot fifteen miles) to the fame general out- 
let. It 18 highly probable, that in a date of natare a principal part 
0f the vale was fobjed to be overflowed. Even now, iiace rivers 
have been cot» and embankments mad^, extenfive fields of water are 
iHll to be feen in times of floods ; not, however, through natoral 
aeceffity, but for want of farther exertions of art. By increafing 
embankments, and bv removnig ob(lru6lions natoral and artificial ^y 
thfe rivers, in their higheft fwell, might be kept within due bounds.^ 

The acclivity rifes on either fide with a gentle flope, and dif^ 
plays an' ample fcene of banging fields around the flat. Such 

* The cataradi mill-dam acrofs the Derwent at Old Milton- is a 
publjcjiuifapcej which reflets difgrace on every man of property ia 
the Valt, It appears ai if intended to finiih what' nature has left un- 
4lOQe I 

• ' i» 

^arOiair^ Rural Oic9nomy ^ Yorljhirh ^% 

!b general are the outlines of the theatre to which Mr. Marfliairt 
obfervations are principally confined. His remarks are arranged, 
under general heads» nearly the fame with thofe we enumerated 
in the article of the Norfolk ceconoroy, and which it is unne- 
oeflary here to repeat* We mull now content ourfelves with a 
geoeral view of fuch particulars bnly^ as feem requifite to givO 
our readers fome juft notions of the ftaie of agriculcure in that 
part of the country now under confideration^ 

This fequeftred vale, being at a diftance from all thorough«> 
fare roads, and feldom vifited by ftrangers, and being generally 
occupied by fmall proprietors, or yeomanry, has undergone pcr<^ 
baps fewer aUemtions [and the people have preferved more of 
their ancient cuftoms, and primeval fimplicity of manners] than 
moft other diilriAs of the fame extent and fertility. Larg(^ 
cftates, we arc told, are here rare ; extcnfive farms are ftill per- 
haps more feldom to be met with : and We have not heard of the 
(bat of a (ingle perfon of ample fortune within the \^ale. Thefe 
peculiarities, if they tend to give a check to the prevalence of 
diiSpation, and the extravagance of luxury, have, at the fame 
time, a tendency to reprefs a fpirit of general enterprife and pub- 
lie improvement. Though it perhaps may ftimulate to indi-» 
vidual indttftry, itrather difcourages general exertion. A few men 
of influence can be more eafily brought to unite in promoting 
any public meafure, than a great number of individuals^ who^ 
though in independent circumftances, cah feldom be brought to 
judge liberally concerning any general meafure of public utility 
that may be fuggeftcd. Accordingly, in the divifion of com- 
itions, and in fome other public undertakings, where the ime^ 
reft of many was at ftake, our author apfirehends thatt they have 
ilrangety neglefied to attend to it in time, fo that the public in* 
cereft has been facrMiced to private machinations. 

Another confequence of this arrangement {{(ill lefs favour- 
able to Mr. M.'s plan) is, that great exertions in agriculture^ 
and extenfive undertakings by individuals, fimilar to what he 
remarked in Norfolk, have been more rare in this difttid. 
Hence it has happened, that in fpite of his care to avoid if, the 
prefent work is much more of a didaSic, and lefs of a defcriptive^ 
iiature, than the former.**— In furveying the different objedsthat 
come before him, he fo frequently finds that the praQice of the 
diftrid f^lls fo far (bort of his idea of perfe£lion^ that he could 
not avoids in rtgifiering their methods^ to fuggeft improve-* 
ments} the regifter, therefore, is here, in many cafes, little 
more than a text, which furnifhes matter for an ample commen- 

. We do not remark thefe particulars With a view to depreciate 
the work, but to give a juft idea of it. Ih every cafe where an 
Opening occurred^ the ingenious author has done ample juftice 

Ha, te 

ic^ MarihallV Rural Ogcwmj ^fTtriJBirti 

to the exertions and enterprifes of his countrymen ^, and hat 
placed them in the beft point of view. 

In this diftrid, grafting, rather thin the raifing of corn-cropt ^ 
i» the principal objeA of the hufbandman'a attention. It is 
therefore in what relates to the management of grafe* land, rather 
than the culture of gram, that praAical obfervations come to be 
regiftered ; and as iprings are here fcarce, they have adopted 
fome very ingenious devices for making rain-water, alone, an« 
fwer all the purpofet of domeftic ceconomy that deferve to be 
generally known. The following is Mr. Marfliairs account of 
their manner of making ciftern$ : 

* In tkis diftrtd, in which water ciAems are growing into genera) 
ttfe, efpedally in upland /ituation^, I have feen an inibnce where 
the dwelling-houfe alone affords more than a fufficiency of water for 
every ufe of the family. Nor it it the conveniency of having a con- 
Aant Aipply of water always at hand, which conftitutes the utility of 
water cifternj. Rain water, preferved in quantity under ground^ ia 
pare and palatable in a fuperior degree : cool in lummer, and warm 
in winter. It it particularly grateful to cattle ^ efpecially when they 
are ill : and it is highly probable that, as a menftruum of aliment 
in general^ it is the mod nuhoUfime water. 

* The JttuatUn of a water ciAern is generally under the kitchen,, 
or in a vacant comer of the yard, near the kitchen door. 

< The form of water cifte/ns is various. The deeper they are funk, 
the better they preferve the water. The cube is perhaps the molt 
convenient figure ; but a double cube would perhaps keep water bet- 
ter. A cifiem nine feet cubical would contain twenty-feven cubical 
yards, or about iixty f wine hogfheads of water. 

* Tht MuiteriaJj of water cifterns in this diHridl are clay^ bricks^ 
and tarras. 

^ The mtthsJ of mtdking has lately received a conliderable improve- 
Bient. When the art was lefs known than it is at prefent, an irre- 

fular hole was dug ; the determinate figure of the ciftern being given 
y the walls ; behind which the clay was rammed. Now, the intended 
form of the ciliern when fini(hed is given to the excavation ; whofe 
fides arc fquared and pltimmed with the exadlnefs with which a wall 
is carried up. On this wall-like face of the excavation the clay ia 
laid flaper-nuife^ with a trowel, coat over coat, two or three inches 
thick ; and againd this firm even face of plaftering the brick work is 
raifed. The bottom is, or ought to be, in all cafes, bedded with 
three or four inches thick of ilrong clay,, beaten into a fmooth even 
wax- like fubAance. On thu flooring of clay a double floor of brick 
19 laid s and on the margin of this the iide walls are carried up half a 
brick thick* The bricks, 1 believe, are invariably laid in tarras. 

* The co^vering ilmilar to that of a well ; with a pump, or a roller 
and bucket.' 

* It appears by feveral paiTages in this work, that Mr. Marfhalk 
is himf^li ^ native of this vale. 

f Should not tlu»have been mnttjf 


MarlhallV Rural OicoMmj ofT^rk/biru loi 

The fbregoiog is a cheap and excellent method of making cif- 
teros, wherever the fub-foil it fo firm as to admit of being cut 
down perpendicuitrly without falling inwards ; but in loofc 
landS) or incoherent gravely this mode of procedure could not be 
adhered to. 

* But it is not only with reTpe^ to water for the family that the 
ingenuity of the people of this difbidl has been exerted. The fur- 
Aiming of water to cattle in the fields has formerly been the caufe of 
nnch trouble, and has given rife to fome inconvenient euftoms in 
this vale, and (ince inclofures became there jnore common, thefe in* 
conveniencies were fuch as to indace the inhabitants to try to obtain 
watering- pools for their fields to be filled with rain water, and in 
this attempt they hkve happily fucceeded. Thefe watering- pools 
confiil of excavations made in the foil, of a fixe and depth propor* 
tioned to the extent of the field which they are intended to fu^ply* 
The pool is placed fo as to receive if poflible the water that runs 
from fome higher ground during raig. They are made uAially of 
a circular form, deepening towards the middle, in the fafhion of 
a flat cone.* 

But the art of making retentive pools with clay, in loojt ah* 
fsrbtnt fiiU^ the author obferves, is a recent difcovery in 
this diftri^k \ in which it has made a rapid progrcfs, and 
is now in univerfal pradice among farmers of every clafs. 
There is little difficulty in making a pit hold water W4th clay 
aloiie, provided it be kept up full to the brim ^ but when once 
emptied, its retentivenefo is loft. There are two caufes of 
this lofs, — the cracking of the clay by drought ; and its being 
liable, whenever the water fubfidcs, to be f>^f ^orated by worms, 
which prefently convert the bafon into z JUtn. It is therefurc 
necefiary that thofe two enemies fbould be guarded apainft. 

* To guard againft the latter, a coat of lime n fpread under the* 
clay ; a^ve it a coat of earth ; and over all, a Covering of itohe ia 
laid, for the double porpofe of guarding againff drought, and A>r 
preventing the feet of cattle from injuring the clay ; on the proper 
working of which the art principally dependa,' 

Mr. M. then proceeds to defcribe the moft effeAuat mode of 
completing theCe watering pools, and rendering them ftill more 
commodious than they yet have been ; but the account is too 
long for our limits. 

In a note, he preferves the names of Francis and Robert 
Gaivbiner, well-diggers and fiQi-pond nfakefs, of Driflield, as 
the dircovel'ers of this and feveral other improvenoenis ; and we 
are well pleafed to beftow our tribute of iincere applaufe on 
thefe valuable members of foclety. We always confider the in- 
ventors of ufeful arts as the beft benefadors of mankind. The 
method of conducing water, in what Mr. M. calls artificial 
rills^ as praflifcd in this diflriA, is worthy of notice as an im- 
provement of coofiderablc utility. 

H 3 The 

1 09 MaHballV Rural Oiconmy tfYorkftiri. 

The hedges, heobferves, are fQperior to thofe of moft phcesf 
«nd be enters into details on that head : bat all that occurs here^ 
ts uncommon, is a pra£lice of pla|iting the thorns fo deep as to 
have their tops wholly covered by the mold. He thinks this 
makes them (hoot upright, and not laterally \ but he has reafon 
to believe that unlets the covering of mold be very light, dot 
exceeding half an inch above (he top« it rather dt)es harm than 
good. This is only the pradice of an individual, and has not 
yet been generally adopted, 

A Angular natural curiofity in this vale is, the formation of a 
fbSl marie, produced by a fpriog, at a place called Newton 
Dale Well, the waters of which have been long celebrated for 
their medical virtues, and particularly for forming a fine cold* 
bath. The quantity of calcareous matter which is depoHted by 
the flream that iflues from this well, is fo confiderable, as tp 
afford limeftone and marie in abundance to the country around 
it. This is not a very unufual phenomenon, but the circum* 
^ance that appeared to us moft remarkable is, that the water, as 
it iiTues from the fpring, is not only flrongly impregnated wit^ 
calcareous matter, but with iron alfo* This lad is depofited^ ia 
great quantities, in (he form of a rufty ochre, immedi^ely as it 
jJjTues from the fpring; and as the water flows forward in its 
courfe, it becomes gradually depurated from the iroti: fo that, 
not at a great diftance from the fou^ce, it difcovers no traces of 
a chalybeate quality* The calcareous matter, however, being 
more jllrongly fufpended in the water, is depofited only in very 
(mall qtiantities near the fource ; and it is not untrl after the 
iron is alnioft'let go, that the petrifying quality of the flrean;i 
become; remarkable, the wate^ gradually loGng this petrifying 
quality adfo, as it flows on its courfe ; till at length, the whole 
pf the calcareous matter being depolited, it becomes entirely 
pure, without aoy mineral impregnation. 

« Where the rill (fays Mr. Marfhall) meets with no vegetabhs 
matter to petrify (or rather to incruft)^ it forms an incruiUtioo at the 
^ttom of its chaooel, whicb, in time> beiog (lied to the top, thp 
waters overflow, fpread over the flope, and iocrufl every thing which 
/alls in their way, until having found fome channel (or perhaps in a 
^te of nature, having reached the face of the rock) they form, 
a frefh rill ; which bein|r annihilated in the fame manner^ the waters 
proceed or return back along the ^de of the flope ; thus forming, in 
an undiflurbed (late, a natural cone. 

« Where the furfacc has been Ut^ from mofs, or other vegetable 
produflioo, the accumulated matter is wholly calcareous \ of a light 
colour, refembl) ng the marl of Norfolk, except in its being di(co- 
]o^^d, more or Jefs, with a chalybeate tinge. Where mofs, liver- 
wort^ and other vegetables, have been incruded, a Aone-iike fub- 
Aanc^ is (ornjcd : the former is called marl\ the latter /^wf.' 


liwifMYiRurtdO^^nm^tfToriJbirt.' ' 103 

Vegetable matters inreloped in a calcareous cruft, ufually 
called petrifaAions, are found in manf places ; but as nature 
feldom performs ber operations with fo much rapidity as (he 
does here, we thought the dcfcriptioo of this extraordinary pro* 
ceTs night enable the curious ^reader to account for many pber 
nomena of this nature which he may. meet with. We are told, 
that the fpring here defcribed is fituated about two miles from 
Sakir^ait Inn^ on the road between Pickering and Whitby. 

Among the vermin which deftroy the productions of tbis vale, 
the author enumerates doos, which animals he fiigmatifes as 
extremely pernicious to fociety when they over- abound, not only 
by the dreadful diftrefs produced to the human fpecies and other 
animals by dogs when feizcd with the. canim madn^fs *, but alfo 
by the ravages committed by hungry dogs in the (bee pfold. '^ In 
thccourfeof laft winter, he obferves (1786-7}, the value of 
flieep w$rried by dogs^ in this townfbip alone, was calculated 
at near one hundred pounds. A fmall farmer, wbofe entire 
Aock did not amount to more th?n forty, had thirteen (beep and 
eleven lambs worried in one night.' We have known many in- 
ftunces of fimiiar havoc. 

Among the cultivated crops, two are mentioned which are 
not common, vi%. Rape, and Tobacco. The firft feems to have 
been long cultivated in the vale on an exteofiveplan ; but, unlefs 
it be the peculiar pradice of tbrefliing it here in the field (a prac- 
tice that may be confidered rather as a curiofity than as deferving 
imitation), we find nothing new under this head. The culture of 
tobacco was introduced into the vaie about the year 1782, where 
it was brought to great perfection, and properly cund in the Vir- 
ginia method, by a perfon who came from that part of America. 
But in the adjoining vale of York, where we are told greater 
quantities were raifed, ^ the tobacco was feized and burnt. Pe- 
nalties, it is faid, were laid to the amount of thirty thoufand 
pounds.' How often have we occafion to bewail the evils that 
a (hort-fighted attention to finance intails on the country ! Were 
this the only inftance that occurs, it might be tolerated,. though 
it muft be accounted a peculiar hard(bip ; but the attentive bb- 
ferver can fcarcely move a (lep without meeting with flriking 
cafes where the hand of induftry is flopt Oiort, and the profpe- 

* He takes notice^ that fince his obfervations were written, no 
fewer than feven perfons were bitten by one dog, in that fingle town- 
ihip, beiide much live flock. What aggravated the evil was, that 
the owner of the dog knew he had been bic^ and fuffered him to go 
loofe. Mr. MarfhaU feems to have fome confidence in the practice 
of-wormi/ig for preventing the canine madnefs. It is our duty to in- 
form him, and the public, that we ourfelves have had the moft/atif* 
fadlory proof of the abfolate i«efficacy of that practice for preventing 
the diibrdcft 

H 4 »i^y 

104 Marfliitll^ XufvrfOcWMqr rflMfli^^ 

tity of the pouiitry arrtAed b^ tke baneful iittemceef lb%4e^ 
ftrodive principle, that«vtry thing muft be facri&eid t» eke io^ 
terefts of (he revenue ! 

In treating: of the Potatoe, ^r. M. notices the difeafe 
called €urlid topij and though, like all who have wt irritcen oa 
that fttbjed^ he^h iniable te aecountfortbe malaay^ or tO pre* 
foribe a particular remedy, yet as he hazards feme remarks on 
the fubjed, we will mention them, for tbeobfcrvation of others^ 
For as we confider the general introduAion of the potatoe cul* 
ture as one of the greateft modern improveiiients in agriculture^ 
and capable of being much extended, could this diforder be ch* 
viated^ every thipg that tends toward that point is doubtlefs of 
great national importance. 

The author is inclined to believe * that this diieafe has tifcn 
from too long a continuance of dHUninf varietm.* We do not 
fully underftand what is meant by declining varieties; but we 
know, that In many diftrids, where a new kind was never reared 
from feeds, and where few new forts have been at all introdnced^ 
the diforder of curled tops has never been known. He adds, ^ it 
appears to be an eftabliihed opinion here, by Ibme years expert* 
ence, that frejh variiiiis raifed from feed, are not liable to that 
difeafe/ This opinion too, vre have good reafon to believe, ia 
not well founded i as we have known potatoes very unich af» 
fefied by that difeafe in the third, if not the fccond, year after 
they were raifed from the feeds. 

* This difeafe made its appearance fome yeati ago, vrith mof% 
or lefs effed, in, I believe, every part of the kingdom/ We 
have juft fatd, that, in fome parts of the kingdom, the difeafe is 
not yet known. ^ In fome parts its continuance was fliorr ; its 
effeds have ceafed ; and are nowalmoft forgotten.* This is, to 
us, a new fad. Is it certain ? Where are the diftrids that arc 
in this predicament ? It would be of great confequence to be 
informed of the fteps that were taken to eradicate the difeafe | 
for the following inftaiKes do not appear fatisfadory : < In one 
inftance, which I may have occaiion to mention hereafter' [but 
which we have not been able to find] ^ its removal was, in^all 
probability, owing to the introdudion of new varieties,* We 
regret that-this cafe was not more particularly noticed. * The 
diftrid under furvey furnifhes a remarkable inftance refjpeding 
this difeafe. The Mtrelands are at prefent in a tnanmr free from 
it j' — Were thcfe Morclands ever much infefted with it ?— * while 
the vale is ftill in fome degree iofe£led with it. Plants procured 
from the Morelands remain free from it in the vale the firfi^tar^ 
but being continued, become liable to the diCrafe.' From the 
loofe manner in which this p^iLge is worded, we ihould fufped 
Mr. M. depended on the information of others for the fads, ri*> 
thcr th^n on bis own obfcifstioo. We ne^d fcarceJy remind a 

nuiAof kitcspcfittioey of tb« inaceiirate minneff in Which peopler 
im gcaenl attcfid to faArof chit kind, and of the decifive cer-> 
tmnij with which they fomctiaiei fpeak about matters tbcy do 
oot knoWk 

< The difeafe of curled tops is feldom otvioos at the £rii: coming 
vp of the plants it hot attacks them a» they advance in fize s the en. 
tire top becoming dwar^ and ihrlvelled, as if alFedled by droughty 
or loaded with iniedls.' 

Our obfervations do not entirely accord with thofe of Mr. M. 
in this infiance. Curled potatoes have difcovercd theoifelve^ to 
ut as foon as they appeared above ground ; and though they do 
indeed fooner decay than others, and are more dwarfifh, they are 
from the beginning readily difcernable. 

• They neverthelefs live •, and incrcafc, though flowly, in iize f ; 
bot the roots are unprodudivet. Some crops have been almoft 
wholly deftroyed by this difeafb. 

* Where the attack has been partial §, ^teding wit the ^fiafed 
fhm$i^ as they fSnled, is ftdd to have had a goori etfe^t. And» it ii 
/md^ the |ylor«landers got rid of the difeafe through this means.' 

We regret that, in a matter of fo much confequence, our 
a<ithbr has not been at more pains to afcertain this fad : * // is 
JaidC is but a very flender authority. 

The people in this diAriA cultivate this crop with fome de«« 
gree of fuccofs ; but their pradice' has nothing in it very re* 
markable. Mr, M. with great propriety, recommends it as a 
crop peculiarly valuable on dtau rich foils. 

Hit obfervations on t))e liming of grafsland— on the ma- 
nagement of after* grafs—KMi the turning out horfes to ^rafs-— on 
the choice and management of mares*— ?n the fointi of cattle 
(r. /. the marks by which their valuable qualities can be diftin- 
\gwiflied)*-ron hotter-— on the rearing of calves — dn the care of 
ewes and lambs*-on the management of bees, &c. though they 
are for the moft part dtdaAic hints, rather than a regifter of the 
experience of the country; and though they will not afford 
much information to thofe who have made any confiderable pro* 
gre<s in tbefe particular departments of rural oeconomics, will 
yet be read with pleafure by thofe who are not io far advanced, 
and afibrd rbem much ufeful information. The fame may be 

♦ Yes, for a fliort time. 

f The bulbs increare at the beginning of the feafon as fall as 
others, aad perhaps fafter, bot they ^o^ mach (ooner in their pro- 
grefs than thofe that are not afPeded by the difeafe. 

I Here the meaning is not obvious. We believe the potatoes pror 
doced from burled plants always vegetate in the next year, and pro* 
dnce fruit of their own kind. Probably the author meant to fay^ that 
curled plants generally yield a fmall produce, which certainly is the 

f U \X jm iiich jn altaioft every cafe ? 

10 faid 

io6 Sbaw'i Hifiory and Philofipbf ofjuinfm. 

faid of his account of the Morelands, aod fait hints for thefr 
improvement, which- are ingenious (ketches, when confidered 
as written by a man who has hid little experience in that line 
of agriculture ; but not to be relied on as the rcfult of experi- 
mental knowlege. 

On the wholf^ though this work difcover^' great abilities, 
acutenef?, and ingenuity, accompanied with becoming modefty, 
yet, as it contains a more fcaiUy regiftcr of fads, the rcfult of 
eftabliflied pradjce in agriculture, than is to be met with in the 
author's Oeconpmy ef^orfolk^ it will not, we fear, be accounted 
fo generally intersfting ; yet that it is a valuable addition to our 
jftock of agricultural knowlege, no candid perfon, who has 
p^rufed it with attention, will deny. 

The work concludes with a GlolTary of provincial words and 
phrafes, which is much fuller than that for Norfolk j this, we 
thiok, conftituteft a valuable part of the performance* There 
is alfo a General Index ; an appendage, without which, no work, 
that M not calpuiated merely for amufement, can ever be reckoned 

/iar. JI. The Uijlory (ind Philofophy rf Judaijm^ or a critical aDd 
philorophicat Analyfis of the Jewifh Religion. £y Duncan Shaw^ 
*I>. D. one of the Miniilers of Aberdeen, ^v6, $s. Boards, 
Elliot and Co. 1787. 

IT ii obferved by I<ord Harrington, in his Mlfiillama Sacra^ 
that ^' Cbriftianity is but the iafli link in a chain of truth, 
which confifts^f feveral others; and he that would pretend tQ 
fbew a chain of truth, mud (hew not one linkonly, but feve* 
ral; and (hew .that they are linked with the firft, ^nd with one 
another." A fentimen^ like this is faid to have fuggefied the 
defign of the prefent performance ; for, fays this author, { have 
often thought that in the msny defences which have been 9f^ 
fered of Cbriftianity, too little attention has been paid to the 
doQrines and religion of the Oid Teltament. He was alfo 
farther prompted to this undertaking by obfcrving the AiUeCpeSt^ 
ful manner in which Divid Hame bad fpoken of the Jewim re«r 
ligion. Confid^ring the copfequences to which an attack oa 
Judaifm leads, Dr. Snaw cxprtffss his aftoniflimeat that there 
have not been greater exenions to expofe the unfair meafurca 
employed by its adverfaries. Together with Hume, l^ndal 
alfo, and Voltaire, and H jlinghroke efpecially (ftom whofe workf 
there are feveral quotations), fall under this writer's examina* 

Dr. Shaw'tf a(loni(h?nent arifcs from a worthy fcntiment,'and 
may not be wholly without juft rcafon ; yet we muft remark, that 
w^Ue the caqfe of Chriili^nity has been ably fuA4ined aga^nft 

SbawV Hlftorjf and Phihfophy of Judaifin. 107 

its opponent^ that of Judaifm, to nearly and necefiarily con- 
DcAed with it, has not by any means been negleded. In proof 
of which, we might in general refer to Dr. Leland's View of 
Dii/Hcal IVrkers^ or, more particularly, among other works of ttic 
kind, to Litters of certain Jews to monfuur de Vohairi\ tranf- 
lated by the Rev, Philip Ltfanu *• It is true, that the innuen- 
dot and reflexions occafionally and freely difperfed by Mr, Hume 
on the fubjed, may not, all of them, hav« obtained a diftind 
animadverfion ; but when it is confidercd that writers ^f thb 
ftamp do little more than revive that kind of objedioo and far«- 
cafm which has already received a fuflicient reply, it will not 
be thought wonderful that filence has been {o much obferved. 

There is alfo a volume^ that was publi(hed near forty years 
ago, ** On the Ritual of the Hebrew tVorflnp^* by the late Dr, 
Lowmao, which very much coincides in its defign and tendency 
with that whith is now before ur. Of this work, wfiich has 
been well received, and juftly held in repute, our author takes 
notice ; informing us that it did nor fall into his hands until he 
had almoft filled up the plan on which his own ireatife as 
written^ He acknowleges the merit of Dr. Lowman*s per- 
formance, a perfuafion of which, at firft, almoft induced him to 
defift from the prefent publication. But confidering that his 
own plan was rather more comprehenfive than the former, and 
that fome important fubje£ls are here placed in a different light, 
he determined to profecute his fir ft intention* And we appre- 
hend that both on tbefe, and on other accounts, his determina- 
tioD was right. 

The work confifts of four parts t the defrgn of the firft is to. 
vindicate the Jewifh religion, a^ainft thofe, who by attempting 
toexpofe it, would in an indirect manner make an attack ^>n the 
Chriftiao faith. This is divided into two chapters: one of which 
confiders the conftitution of the Jewifti church, under feveral 
fcdiona which treat of the charaStr of the Deity ; the worfhip 
required ; the times, the places, the offices of religion ; the pre- 
paration for its fervices, &c. The other reprefent9 the puliiicdl 
^teof Ifrael, as interwoven or conne^ed with their religion. 

The duration of the Mofaic oeconomy conftitutes the fecond 
Part} (hewing, that it was deii^^ned to be only temporary ; and, 
that this oifpenfation was intended to prepare the world for the 
reception of Chriflianicy. 

* The Jcwifli difpenfation havings according to the primary 
defign of God, given way to the Chriftian, it is propofed in Part 
III. to fliew, chat this (the Chriftian) ,is the laft dirpenfat'ori of 
divine grace to mankind, in the way of religious difcovery \ and 
that no other can reafonably be looked for.' 
• ' I ■ ■■■■■■ ■ ■ • II ■ 

♦ Sec B;cy. for Sept. 4778, vol. lix. p. 177. 

«c8 Shiw'i Hjfl^ry and PhlUfophj rfjuiaifin. 

Tb« foorth Part is intended to bring into view fooie of tbe 

cor<»llaries fairly deducibk from the preceding enquirj. 

Soch J9 Dr. Shaw*s plan, which he appears to have pmfe* 
cuccd iirith attention and care. His Ayle it not tbe moft elt- 
^ant| nor alwaya perft^iy accurate; but it is, io general, 
plain, and, on (he whole, not ill adapted to performances of 
this kind. If, in fome inda^ces. Dr. Lawman may have the 
advanuge of this writer, there are others in which the latter 
will have the preference; particularly as drawing into bis fcheme 
objeds which the former did not fo immediately difcufs, or 
which may have fallen more dirediy under notice Unce the date 
oi hit volume. Each of them has his merit; and neither of 
their performance*, though in feme refpedls fimilar, are iherc- 
Ibre unneccflary. Dr. Shaw*s is both ufeful and feafonablei 
l>crbaps he may, in an inftance or two, have dwelt longer than 
was requifite on a particular fubje^ and have paiTed by another, 
on which farther remtrks might have been acceptable: but much 
'Of this. may depend on the particular tafte or temper of the en- 
quirer* His lefledions will no doubt prove very fervice* 
able CO an attentive reader, iqx abating, if not entirely obviat- 
fing« feveral difficulties that may occur in perufing the JewlQi 
hiitory and ritual. It ftjfficiently appears that the belief of the 
.New Tefiamsot includes that of tbe Old, or that the Jewi(b and 
Chridian (yftem mutually aifift and fupport each other. 

This publication afibrds feveral opportunities for remarks, 
-and would alfo furnifli fome acceptable extradh ; bu% confined 
as we are, we muft add but little to what we have written. The 
ibilowing paflfage is taken from the account of \\it Fioft nfT^htr^ 
nocks : 

^* It does not fall witbia my defign to notice the many dories of 
the Rabbis, with refpedt co the manner of celebrating this fellive ftr- 
▼ice. 1 am ccncerDed with no more than what received a fan£lion 
from the law of Mofes. Permit me, however, to take notice of one 
thing, — that, as the beft indications may be corrupted, this ieemi to 
J»avc been fo, in fome of the later periods of the Jewifli ftatc. for, 
according to the beft information, in -place of remaining facred to a 
grateful and devoot fervice of God, it became pro^titt^ to a frothy 
and giddy levity, and prefented fcenes of the moft indecent merri- 
.ment. Thin I take notice of, becaufe it may account for ^ hat Plu- 
tarch fays (in his Sympof.) concerning the Jews, — that they cele- 
brated this feflival in honour of Bacchus*: — this ihews how little, 
even men of learning among the heathens were acquainted with the 
yeligton of the Jews, and how little regard is to be paid to the re* 
fieduoDS they often throw out againll it. Had Plutarch been as well 
acquainted with the genius of the dilTerent (modts of), religions that 
then obtained, as might have been expeded from his charafler (cfict)^ 
as a prieil of Apollo, he might have eafiiy avoided this error. He 

♦ Vide Jcoaings's Jcwilb Aniiq. vol, ii. p. ^32. 


Shaw*i Hifl9ry and Pbihfipby rfjuialfm. 109 

siglit hare IcBOwb that the religion of the Jews did admit of diFioe 
lioooiirs to none bat their own God. fiut Ignorant, in a great mem- 
Aue, of the ttatare -of their reHgion» and not giving himielf the 
troi^le to examine whether the tumult that attended this, one of the 
itrvices of it^ was enjoined by the ritaal, or foperindoced by the fii- 
perftitioo of its votaries, he raihly conclades their Feaft of Taber- 
nacles to have been inftituted and obferved in honour of fiacchos^ 
froflA the refemblance which he imagined the one bore to the •chery 
in the tine and manner of their celebration.* 

Confidering the fpirit of enquiry which was awakened aai 
prevailed among many both of the Greeks and of the Romans^ a 
icfleAing mind is rather furprifed, that the nature and prin<* 
dplea of the Jewifh rehgion fhould not have been more atteo* 
tively examined and obferved, by the more learned and pbiiofo- 
phical part of (hofe people, than appears to have been the cafe 
by what can be gathered from their remaining writings. It 
feems wonderful, for inftance, that fuch a man as Cicero^ who 
appears, occafionatty at leaf^, to have a mind defirous of an4 
open to evidence and conviflion, (hould not have been induced^ 
even from curiofity, to have made fome feareh into the cuftooia 
and principUs of a people fo remarkable : bot^ probably, the 
negleA or contempt with which the Jews were regarded^ to- 
ffether with the pride and haughtinefs which attended the rea*- 
Kmings and fophifms of the Gentile phiiofophy, may in a great 
degree account for this negle6}» The jewifli oeconomy, hoW- 
ever» was, without doubt, defigned^ and had in itfelf a.irji^km)^ 
to prepare the world for the reception of Chrifiianity. Dr. Shaw 
adverts to this^ and among other remarks on the time which 
eUpfed from the ceafing of the prophetic fpirit to the advent of 
the Mefliab, and on the circumAances whrch were favourable to 
his manifeftation, we have the following: 

— * During this period it wa9, that firft the Grecian^ and then the 
Roman empires ^^/^^ up ; and who, that knows the leaft of them» 
can be ignorant of that extenfion of knowledge, that was the happy 
cnnfequence of the'extenfion of both, and of fome lucfy events that 
fell out uiider them ? —Alexander the Greats having in the courie of 
Vu conqoeflftfubdacd £gypt, builc a city there, which he hoaoaied 
u-ith his own name»— ieot many of the Jews from their own country 
to it, ai^d to encourage their fettling in it, he, befides many, other 
advanuges, continued the free ofe of their own laws and religion. 

* Soon after Ptolemy ScHr brought many more, and fettled them 
in Egypt and the adjacent coufttries. The Kings of Egypt, finding 
Alexandria, from tts 6tu2tion and other circumftances, like to be- ' 
come a place of great importance, v,ere willing to aggrandize it aa 
aittch as they could. For this porpofe, they thought it would be 
proper to make it a feat of learning, a9 well afi a mart for trade and 
commerce. ' And accordingly Ptolemy Philadilphus laid the fouoda- 
lion of a Mofeum or Library, which afterwards became famous, «11 
the world over, for rfae number and value of its books. Such an in- 
flation could not be fappt)&d long to want a copy of that boolc 


which cbBtained an accoont of the Jewifli religion. A faithral cdpjf 
of it was applied for, and obtained from the JewUh High PricSft* 
And that it might be the better nnderftood, not only by the inhabit- 
ants of the coontry into which it was brought, bat alfo by the Jews 
themfelves, who now, like the other ibhabitanti, fpoke the Greeks 
it wai tranflated into that language. — This circumftance became ot 
thcjgreateft fervice^ in making many acquainted with this religioo» 
who would otherwife have remained (Irangers co it. 

— * About the time that Alexandria was built, it deferves to be 
remarked, that the Egyptian papyrus began to be ufed for writing : 
and by this meant many of the copies of the Sacred Bo^ks coald be 
procured at an eafy rate.' 

Tbefe are fome of our author's obfenrations, wbiph we have 
introduced merely on account of the reflexions naturally fuggefted 
by the abaye quotation from Plutarch.—* We (hall juft add bia 
Gonclufioo, that fuch fads as thofe which he has i^entloned had 
not only a uniform tendency to fpread the knowl^ge of the Jew* 
lib religion^ and prepare the way for the C|}fiitian, but that 
they adually produced this efied : * For,' fay;r4)c, * from the moft 
authentic vouchers, we well know,-lhat t)re great empires of the 
Afiyriansy Medes, and Perfians, were early acquainted with the 
Tews. And the E^angelift LukeJnforms Xs> th^t there were 
dwelling in Jerufalem devout men of every nation under heaven, 
Partbians,, Medes *, &c. Thus tht fall of the Jews becami tb^ 
riches of the ivorld, and the eUminiJhing ofthesn the riches of the Geri^ 

We (hall conclude with juft mentioning the two corollaries 
with which the DoSor finiOies his work.*~* That the Jewifli 
leligion it worthy of God'— and farther, ' That a ferious leview 
of the fubjed will furnifh a proof of the Dtvine origin both of 
the Jewim religion and of the Chriftian ;* which conclufions be 
Aipporta with ftrength and vigour. 

• Ads, ii. 5. ' 

Art. III. Morfih of Criticifm, ttnding to illmftrate fomefpw Paffagoi 
in the Holy Scriptures upon phiUfophical Principles and an enlarged 
View of Things*. 410. 1 1. is. Boards. Nichols. 1788. 

THE idea which appears to have given rife to this work is, 
that OMxiern improvements in knowlege may be advan* 
tageoufly applied to the elucidation of the facrtrd Scriptures. At 
the firft view, this application may fcem to promife much. And 
with refpeft to thofe branches of knowlege, which may ferve tor 
caft new light on ancient hiftory, geography, or chronology, or 
to improve the art of criticifm, there can be no doubt, that tbey 

♦ The author is Edward King, Efquire j a gentleman well known^ 
and juflly elleemcd, in the learned world. 

Kiog'i Morfilt of Crkicffmi 1 1 1 

art capable of being rcndt^ed fiibftnrient to biblioal learniog. 
Much has, of lace years, beeo by thefe ineana adually dfxie, co 
clear «p the meaaing of difficult paflUges, and to explain th^ 
leading defign of particular books, with the conocdioa of Ihecr 
feveral parts. But it may be qu^ftibned, whether' there is a 
probability of equal fuccefs, in attempting a fimilar application 
of modern improvements in natural philofophy. Thofe who are 
fenfible, how much the language of Scripture is adapted to po« 
polar ideas, and who recoiled the ftate of natural knowlcge ia 
the ieveral periods when the Sacred Books were written, will 
not eafily be perfuaded to thinir, that they contain frequent al* 
lufions to the moft recondite do£trinfs of Chemical Pbibfophy« 
Such, however, is the opinion of Mr. £dward King, the learned 
author of the work before us. 

Ic is evident, that, on this plan, there is, at leaft, fafficient 
fcope for fanciful conjedures. ' Whether our author has ia* 
dulged his imagination in excurfions of this nature, or has cott« 
fined himfelf to the &nA rules of found fenfe and fober critic* 
ci&ii, will appear in the fequel. 

The ufe which Mr. King makes of the modern doctrines of 
chemiftry in the firft feftion of his work, is, to corrc£l ihe com* 
iBon veriian of the Lord's Prayer, and other pafDgcs of Scrip- 
ture, in which the term heavin occurs. The. fum of his criti- 
cifm is this : 

It appears from the experiments of Sir Ifaac Newton, that 
the (bhr ray is compounded of different emanations of light, 
which form the feven primary colours ^ and that the different 
colours of bodies are owing to the different combination of the 
primary colours with the component parts of bodies. From 
modem experiments [feveral of which Mr* K. relates} it ap- 
pears probable, that the heat pioduced by the rays of the fun, h 
not in the rays themfclvei, but in another diflin£i fluid, upon 
which they ad, which may be called the elementary fluid of 
heat I and that this fluid is even capable of being reduced to a 
fixed and folid flate. From comparing thefe fafis, it may be 
corjedured, that the fun is not a mifs of fiic, according to the 
vulgar notion, but a glorious manfion, whofe furface is covered 
with a vail variety of fplendid objeds, of different cdours, (hin- 
ing and becoming viflble by their own emitted light : whence it 
may'feem reafonable to conclude, that the fun is an hi*bicatioa 
of happy beings, and becaufe of its connedibn with the eacxh, 
that it is 0§dr heaven. This conjedure may ferve to explain, and 
is at the fame time confirmed by, many paiTages of Scripture* 
In the Lord's Prayer, thcie is a manifeft diftindtlon between she 
hiovtnt and heaven. The former, in which God is faid to re* 
fide [Our Father, who art in the heavens]^ includes the nume> 
foos worlds in which he manifefls his glory ; the lafttr [thy will 
13 be 

til Kiog^i Msrfeb ^f Critidfiiu 

be done on earth at it is iu heaoin] denofet our peculiar hea r i i ^ 
the fbn. In the precept, ^^ I fay unto you, fwear net at all, oei* 
iber iy heaven^ ior it is a thrcme of Gid^** the article before tbt 
word tpoMK is carefully omitted, as peculiarly applicable to foam 
«»ne heaven, or manfioa of blifs. The vifion, of the glory of 
God which Mofes bad, in the bufli and on the mqunt, the vl* 
fions oC EzekicI, the appearance of the angel to Daniel, our 
Saviour's transfiguration, his appearance to John i^ the ifland of 
Pataos, the defcent of angels on various occafion^ and the de* 
icription of the hely city in the book of Revelation, all repre-» 
fent heavenly objeds and beings as vifible from rays of emitted 
light, and refplcndent wiih the moft glorious emanations of co- 
knirs. If we compare the account which is given in Scripture 
of the future date of good men, with the notiom which philo* 
fcphy leads us to entertain concerning the fun, it will appear 
exceedingly probable, that its inhabitants are angels and good 
men ; and that they have fome kind of bodies, properly ib called, 
or * which are a real fpecics of confolidatioo,' and < that there is 
a provifion even of raiment, and of glorified adornments,* for 
thefe cekftial bodies. All this is confirmed by our Saviour'a 
expreffion. Thin Jball tbi rigbtetus Jbim forth Bhtbi fim^ that \ti 
to tranflate the words phiiifrpbicaUy^ ihall fliine forth mpm idntti* 
$fjly tbifami prittcifUs as tbe fun Jbimtb. 

What efieA the above reafoning (which we have endeavoured 
to ftate fairly, though briefly) will have, toward producing con* 
viAion in the mind of the reader, we cannot tell : for our parts^ 
we muft own, that the argument appears to us to fall confi«* 
derably Ihort of demonftration. 

Whether Mr. King has fucceeded better, in his attempt to 
apply the dodrine of modern philofophy to the elucidation of 
the Mofaic account of the creation, we pretend not to determine i 
but the reader will be able to form fome judgment on this head, 
from the following paraphraftic verfion of the firft fix verfes of 

* In the beginning (or priginally) God made the btaven and the 
earth. But the earth was no objed of fight^ and not yet built ap 
hito any beautiful form [or wa$ without adornment], and darkneis 
was npon the mafs that was fo without folid bottom [or foundation] • 
And the Spirit of God was borne [high] above the water. And 
God faid, let there be light [a fluid enable of colbmunicatiog light 
and heat]» and it was fo. And God faw this fluid of light [or this 
elementary fluid of £re] that it was good [or AifHcient for the pur- 
pofe] : and God feparated [or made a divifion] through the roidft of 
the light, and through che midil of [and between] the darkuefi* 
And God called the light [or the elementary fluid of heat and 6re. 
when it produced the effect of making the rays of the fun vifible and 
vfeful on earth] dayi and darknefs [where the fuo did not ib a^ 
spoa it] he caiicd night : and \iicft was an evening, and there was 

a morning 

Jtm'^ forfeit of Critici/hi. il| 

I iiorning [makihg one day, or] the firfl day. And God faid. Let 
Ihere be formed a'sTRBNCTHENiNc [or consolidating] sub- 
Irr ANCE, or atmofpherical aih in the midil of the water : and let it 
^e a ineans of feparating through the midll [dr of dividing] betweea 
Water and water. And it was fo.* 

As a fpecimen of the mode of reafoning by which Mr. King 
Supports his explanation of thit chapter, ^e Ihall give the foU 
lowing extrad from hia note on the 6th ver fe. After a fum« 
mary accouoc of the principal difcoveries concerning fixed air^ 
from the time of Dr. Stephen Halea, he adds : 
/> * It has been obferved, and clearly fhewn by M. Lsvoifier*^ 
tiiat all irnnbuftihlt bodies whatever, do actually increafe in weights 
whilft they are burning, and calcining ; by means o£ the air which is^ 
from the atmofphere, consolidated, and fixed in them. 

' Iron, for inftance, increafes its weight even one third f by caU 
cination ; fo much being added to the folid /ubftance even of thie 
hard body, from the air which is abforbed, and becomes fixed, anct 
coniblidated,' by the operation » All other metals alfo increafe in 
weight> by the fame operation, and the white afhes to which tin 
may be redaced by calcination are one quarter heavier than tin it- 

' And thofe fubfUnces which^ on homing, are iiij^nftd in^air^ 
have yet the fixed air which is let loofe, incr^ed in weight, by iho 
abfbrption of common air. 

' And with regard to thofe fobftances which are not| at firfl> JM^ 
perly comhuftibh ; as for inftance, limtftmi. Yet even here, if thejf 
can once be made to become combuftihle^ by calcination, (as is tlKl 
cafe with all calcareous bodies,) there is afttrwaris an Increafe of 
weight. For Hmcftone, and foch calcareous bodies by the operatidil 
of fire in the kiln, have the fixed air difcharged, and let loofe, and 
have the fluid of fire, at the fame time, fixUtbtrtini and the Hnvo 
xiade, does by this mefins become lighter than the lime flone §, or 
chalk, or marble (out of which it is prodaced)* But aa it is. after 
that capable of beinj^ fet on fire ; lo, if it be only expofed to the 
open air, it foon abtorbs and fixes the air again; infomuch, that 
rvery ton of lime, will acquire about half a ton || of fixed air; which, 
is nearly the weight it loft in the kiln. And at laft, by long expo-, 
fore to the air, it h perfedlly recovered, and becomes limeftone as ^t 
was at ^^%> In which cafe, like every^other calcareous fubftance, 
about one half of its folid contents is mere iixed air** : or air trni/ 
€mf9Udaitd\ and cMfilidating the whole mafs as before. 

* Moreover, this increafe of folid fubfiauct^ from the air, is ex- 
tended even to the very foil of the earth, and to the ground on which 
we tread. For lime will not only acquire, in the fpace of three 
quarters of a year, a great addition of weight from the air, in the pro* 
portion of half a ton, or even of thfee quarters of a ton, to every ton 

* Memoires de TAcademie Royale, for 1783, p. 508, 51a, 529. 
+ Ibid. p. 509. . X Cronftedt's Mineralogy, p. 180. 

i Watfbf*s Chemical EfTays, vol. ii. p« 185. i| Ibid. p. 2io« 

ai8, 220. ^ Ibid, p. 248. «♦ Ibid, p. 236. 

R£ v. Feb. 1789. ^ I weight:. 

3f^ King'i JH^t/eb of CtitUtJm. 

wcijght : bat vlsen it has at ]ail acquired this addfcional folid increaic 
of Aibftance and ponderoiity from the air, it wiJl^DOt lofe any part 
; of i^ again *. It follows, therefore, that when lime is fpread, 
any where, as nnanare, chat every ton of it attracts above half a ton 
Of fome fort of folld matter <^ other, from the air, and adds it to 
the earth. There are alfo many other modes, by which a like in. 
creafe if made« and added to the folid fubflance of the earth daily, 
from the uir. And although it may appear, at firft light, incre- 
dible; yet it is nevertheleA true; that, in fome indances, this in-- 
treafe may be, even in one year, to the amount of above 30 tons ia 
height apon a fingle acre f i 

^-Can any one doubt then, henceforth, of the profHety of callrog 
•ir (according to the interpretation given by the LXX to the words 
of Mofes, the Man of God,) n^iuf^t ok the <ti/oliJaiini, or com/oU-^ 
dated fubftantet 

* And'how frivolous do the obje£tions /» his tu^rds appear, vhen 
they are viewed by the affiftance oi pbilofophical light, and know- 
ledge, and are weighed in the balance of truth ? 

' Ood, fpakt tbi Wprd, aad all things were made. He hath 
MtsHoIed His Hoij fFgrdf and all things bear teilimony snto it. 

* With the ntmoft accuracy, moil furely, is the atmofpbere, tlid 
thejimd of air it/elf (if we confider it in all its feveral fiates and rt^ 
lations), defcribed by the word rt^UifAa. 

'i ^/^f^ is (o uuly /oUdkf, that even the mathematical definition 
of z/olidjigmrt by the ancients, is a^'iput ri^ioy J. And r'te^ov h/oirdo, 
ot foramnijfclidamqut rtddo^ I' rmdir, or makt firm and folid: and 
therefore n^iufMi in its troeft etymological fi^nfe, is a c^fdidatin^ or 
Jirmgthminz/uhftance-^ot t\{n aconfolidated fubftanci i but with much 
greater prc^rtety the/W-awr, than the latter. 

* And if we take it in ibis fenfe, it is really moft deferving of ad- 
miration, how the LXX eould hit upon em fiagle tuord^ fo exadljr 
expreffive 4)f oH the real prQpcf6t$pf diat wonderful fluid whofe cren- 
don they were giving a» account of ; and that, fo long before aiiy. 
philoibphical difcovcries were made concerning ibo/e properties. 
And* it cannot but afford pleafure to eyery contemplative mind, to 
perteive kow completely, l>y means of this Ample interpretatioa 
alone, all the difficulties which arofe from the ufe of the wohi Jirma^ 
mna, vanifh away. 

* Had the LXX ufed the wordaV^, air, it would have defcribed 
the fluid, only in -ok'e of its Jiatei ; and as compounded with many 
other heterogeneous flutdt, which float in^it: and would have been 
a very defe^ve defcr*ptk>n of this wonderful element ; more liable « 
by far to Obje£Hon, as containing an imperfed and unintelligible ac- 

. count, than even the- word firmamtnt. But now, having ufed the 
word rtff'vfMe, tbi cetsfolidating, of- emfoU dated fosbfiaact, they defcribe 
it fully with all its properties : as being, when mere «/>, according 
to the eommon idea, and when in the atmofpherci the csofe of 
iUengtheniog.and invigorating.all animals and pJaau ; and as beings 

* Watfon's Chemiftry, vol. ii. p. 216, 217, 218. 

\ ibid. p. 219. t Cell. lib. i. cap. 20* 


^ingV MorfeU 0f Critid/mk try 

{ft fi)l!d bocliest a^reat part of their folid fabfUnce, and even tlie 
ftioft immediate means, and caufe of rendering them foltd. 

* And, perhaps, I might venture to add ; that, bv dividing hi^ 
hvitn waier and twater, (or as oar tranflation has it) ly dividing tin 
vmiiri/rom tht Rvatin, is meadt not merely the feparating thofe that 
float lo the atmofphere, from thofe that flow in the fea ; bat alfo th» 
ieparatiog that part of the waters which is ^xfd, with air, and bx> 
means of air, in all folid bodies, from that pare wbicl^ is \titflo4iting 
in a Hold ftate. There is fuffident reafon to fafpedl *, that the. 
quantity of water which reallv exifts fo fixed in t^fdid fiaU4 beara 
no fmill proportion to that which is left in a fluid (late/ 

Thofe who can perfuade theoifelves, that thifi authors of the 
Septnagiat verfion of the Hebrew Bible were fo accoratdy ac«« 
quainced^ with the doArine of fixed ajr, aa to annex the idea» 
which this writer fuppofes, to the word npiufjLm, will doubtl^fa* 
perofe, with great fatisfadion, the remainder of bis critique Oil' 
the firft chapter of Genefis. As we muft confefs fuch m$r/il$ of 
criticifm «re not perfeSly fuited to our palate, and at we appre*' 
heod it-ronft require fonve peculiarity of tafte to relilh them^ ws^ 
Iball not trouble our guefls with the prefent courfe longer tbaa 
' while we requeft them to give their opinion of the IbUowing 

On the 9th chapter of Revelations^ ytx. 15, Mr. King wriM 

- * We have btre an cxa6i dcfcription of the breaking firtb of tl«' 
fimr Snitanies of the Turks, and of their fgbiequcnt. conqtiefts ; and 
of^heir founding the Turkifli empire in Europe. And yet, at the 
fame time, a fair account of their having made tbets im^ofl'lrtmi 
Scythia, and of their having broken into fome parts of Afia, and' 
gained flrength be/ore this time : onlj they remained i^maf and con* 
aned, by means of the river Euphrates. 

• We have here even their warlike drefi exaAly defcribed ; wlsidi' ' 
was fcarlet, blue, and yellow: for the jacinth is red- and yellowy and 
fidfbur when it burns, is of the fineft blue colour |* 


♦ See Dr. Horfley's edition of Sir Ifaac Newton'a Works^ Vofc ill. 
p. 158, aild Pemberton*s Newton, p. 245. 

t The worthy author will forgite os this btdffmiU. Oor refpe^ 
for hia excellent charader will cffeaually protect him from any grofllbf 
appearance of levity on our pafi,— how widely (bever we may happen 
to differ from him, in any matter of fpecolative opinion. But it not' 
nnfrequently happens, in the courfe of our critical labours, that we 
meet jvitb. paflages in the works of the moH pione and weU-ineaning 
writert* which £>rcibly involve us in the iitnatioa d ef c r i bed by the 
moral fatirift : 

** To laugh^ were 'want of decency, or mce, 
" But to be grave, exceeds all power of face.** 
t ' In this account of the colours, I cannot but adopt a dUFereot* 
Bode of explaining them from Bifhop Newton, although the ii^iercnoo 

I z aa 

ii6 KiDg'x M$rfeU of Criticifm.^ 

* And we have hire (long before any fiich thing was intrbdaced 
into Europe^ or heard of in the ChriiUan world) an account of the 
introdudion of^r# arms, and ordnance^ which were firfl ufed and in- 
trodnced by the Turks ; and were the principal means of their mak- 
ing their conquefts, and of their deilroying what remained of the 
Baftern empire ; which might well be defcribed as the third fart of 

' And it is moft remarkable, concerning the prophecy under this 
trmmfet, as it was alfo concerning that onder the preceding trumpet, 
that the 'oery feriod of their conquefls is limited exadly right. 

* For the Turks, in' reality, made all their conquefls in 391 years/ 
or a little more, 1. #. in a common prophetical hour, and day, and 
month, and year (or 360 + 30 + 1 = 391) namely from 1 281 to 

« They alio moft truly, left the bite and poifbn of the falfe Ma* 
hometan dodtrine behind them, every where ; ana thaty mixed with 
Vi^(^ mart oi ferpentine fubtlety, and mifchief, than it was in the 
time of the Saracens. The taiU of this dreadful cavalry, might now 
there^ojre with great propriety be faid not merely to have flings^ but 
even to be likeferpentsy and to have heads* 

On Rev. xvi. 2. [And there came an evil and foul fire upon tbi 
pun who have the mart of the wild bea/i] he remarks : 

< That no concomitant, or cotrefpondent, and more truly typicat 
Jignt of the times might be wanting ; real plague fires exifted alfo. 

* For about 746 was a dreadful peiUIence all over Eufope for three 

* And another peftilence raged all over Europe about 1006 for 
tliree years. 

< And about this time the leprefy al(b was firfl brought into £a« 
rope, and began torage, with great fury. 

* And there are not wanting reaibns, that may lead us to conclude, 
that the firftintrodudion of another ignominious difiafi was about this 

' The mention, indeed, and inveftigation of this matter, are per- 
haps beneath the dignity of this fubjed ; but yet, if the fa^ be, that 
fndi difeafe now hx^L appeared, it ought not to be paiTed by quite 

* The difeafe in queition feems clearly from moft authentic re- 
cords, of the year 1 162, to have been then long iotrbduced, and njoell 
kuewn in England. And yet it cannot be difcovered, by any fair 
proofs, to have exiiled at all, in this country, before the years 800 
or 900. It had its £rA beginning and introdudtion, therefore* at 
fome time between 713 and 1000.' 

For the fake of tbofe who may wi£b for farther entertaiaroent 
of the fame kindy we (hall add, that in thefe difquifitions, the 

as to what the three colours were, is exaflly the fame; for I cannot 
hut apprehend that xht' jacinth coloured (t)a«iv&'»p»{) means, b^ing of 
the colour of the precious ftone fo called ; and not of the flower the 
hyacinth. And thzt /ulphureout means brimfione burnings and not as 


Trai^lkticH ^ Abbe Grofier'i DifcriptUn ifOAuu i 17 

tttthor, befide the points already menrioned, undertakes to 
prore. That John the Baptift was an angel from heaven, the 
Itime who had formerly appeared in the perfon of Elijah ; that 
there will be a fecond perfonal reign of Jefus Chrift upon earth; 
that this globe is a kind of comet, which is continually tending 
toward the f(in, and will at length approach fo near, as to be 
ignited by the adion of the folar rays upon the elementary fluid 
of fire; and that the place of punifliment allotted for wicked 
men is in the center of the earth, which is the bottomlifs pit. 

For the demonilratioo of tbefe propofitions, and others equally 
curious and important, we muft refer to the work at large. 

Perhaps after his next vifit to the beavgns^ Mr. King will have 
the goodnefs to inform us, what clafs of human beings are to 
become inhabitants of the M^cny and whether it be intended for 
a paradife or a purgatory. 

AaT. IV. J general Defcripticn 0/ China: containiDg the Topo- 
graphy of the Fifteen Provinces which compofe this vaft Empire ; 
that of Tartary, the Ifles, and other tributary Countriea ; the 
Number and Situation of its Cities, the State of its Population, the 
Natural Hiftoryof its Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals/ To- 
gether with the latefl Accounts that have reached Europe, of the 
Oovernment, Religion, Manners, Cuftbms, Arts, and Sciences of 
the Chinese. Illuftrated by a new and correct Map of China, ami 
other Copper-plates. Translated from the French of the Abb6 
Groiier. 8vo. 2 Vols. 16 s. Boards. Robinfons. 1788. 

IN the defcriptions of China, the country, the produAions^ 
the inhabitants, their government, and manners, we find fo 
much diverfity, on comparifon with the fame objeds in this part 
of the globe, that we almoft feem to be tranfpprted to another 
planet? The foil and climate influence peculiar produ6Hon9 ; 
the natives are a peculiar fpecies of the human genus ; and in 
this fecluded nation, we fee peculiar modes of domeftic policy, 
matured through a long fuccei&on of ages, without deriving any 
known affiftance from the principles of fociety cultivated by 
thofe nations from whom European knowlege has defcended. 
When therefore the wonder of travellers has been excited by 
Chinefe novelties, the ftrangenefs of circumftances has under- 
tone a degree of exaggeration, very naturally to be accounted, 
for, from a defire in the writers to imprefs their own feelings 01^ 
their readers. . , 

The traffic which we carry on at the port of Canton, is neither 
fiifficient to give us a competent knowlege of the Chinefe, nor 
are the parties who meet there either qualified or foltcitous ta 
improve the iatercourfe beyond the dired occafion that bringg^ 
them together* We muft then colled our knowlege from the 
CQOuauiucatioas of the iniffionaries^ aa/d> tb^ information? th^y 

I 5 bring 

1 18 fran/a$m rf Abbe G/ofier'i Difir^m rf Cbimu 

bring home, is, when we can fcreen it from the chaff, peihapt 
the moft ufeful refulc of their labours. • • 

' It feem?,' fays the Tranilacor, * to have been an eftablifiied-inanai 
of the Chinefe to have as little intercourfe as poflible with their neigh* 
Bours, and to admit no foreigners among them. The fituation of theif 
country, placed in the remoteft corner of Ada, feparated from th« 
nations on the north and weft by inaccefiible mountains* and frightful 
deferts ; and from thofe on the fouth and eaft by the pcean, was, in- 
deed, particufarly ftvourable to this political jealoufy. To the zeal an4 
perfeveraiTce of the miffionaries are we therefore indebted for ever/ 
thing that we know of this vaft empire : and, if the-teftimony of a * 
late celebrated writer *, whofe leaft fault was credulity, ean have 
Any weight, their relations may be confidered as the produdions of 
the mo£ intelligent travellers that ever enriched literature by tbetr 

The general Hiftory o( China, completed, by the Abbe Gr<hv 
fier, Jias already been notified to our readers f , as well as the 
original of the prefent tranflation % ; a principal obfeft of which 
latter was to refcue the national charadler of the Chinefe froth 
the mifreprefentations of two late writers, McflTrs. Sonnerat 
and de Pauw^ But, without undertaking to juftify^invedive, we 
may be allowed to' declare an opinion, that it has long been the 
fafhion to eatol the inftitutions of the Chinefe, beyond the 
bounds even of credibility ! We are told that no potentate oa 
earth pofTefles fo unlimited a power as the fovereign of Cbina^ 
all authority is vefled in him alone ; he is the undifputed mafter 
of the lives of his fubjeds | and all ediAs iflued from the throne 
are at much refpedled throughout the whole empire, as if thejf 
proceeded from a divinity. It is added, that he finds even in 
this extent of power, the ftrongeft motives for not abufing it; 
bis priva^ interefl and that of the nation are infeparably united ^ 
he cannot confuh the one, without confulting the other. Nqi 
employment is purchafed in China ; merit, for the mofi part, raifta 
to place, and rank is attached to place only ^ Abfolute power 
inviolably direded to the public ^ood is, we fear, the peculiar 
boafl of China ; yet the fame penman, after defcribing the affi«« 
.duous culiivation, and amazing fertility, of this country, thua 
accQu*nts for the dreadful famines to which it is occafionallr 

* What prevents /amines in Europe is freedom of commerce, and 
the facility with which one country may be fupplied from another: 
China is deftitote of this advantage.— Placed by itfelf in the ex« 
tremity of Afia, and furro'unded by barbarous nations, it mull nou- 
rifh itielf, and procure from its own foil whatever is necefiary fot 
tiie fubfiftence of that immenie number of inhabitants which is con- 
isuned in ks provinces. This, therefore-, at all times* has beett the 

— ' ■ u "W ' « ■ 11 1 I ■' .1 I ■! I I II I ■ I III 1111 ■ I i p m^0^^m^ 

• Voluire. f See Revt Tol. liv, p, 394J 549. 

% Rev. ToL tov. p. 5i4« \ A. v. ch, u - - 


Tfanfiathfr ^ ABbI GrofiCT*/ Difinption ofCbindn 1 19 

frsmd objeft of the care of the ftublic minifteri. ' China has always 
Sad grananet and magaztnes ereded in- every proYince, and in noft 
ef ihc principal cities, for the relief 6f«the people in times of fear* 
city. We ftill read orders and edi^s of the ancient Emperors, whtcli 
are full of the tendereft expreifions towards their fafferiog fubje£U« 
Wi eom^ fay they, nehbir tat, drinks nw Mt^vf rif^e» until 'wt havi 
ulievtd the public mi/try, 

* Thefe fatherly expreffions. If taken literaltyy moft be nnder« 
fiood as rafpe£Hng the time when the Chinefe were governed by £m« 
perors of their own nation^ who confidered their fubjedb as thAc 
ehildren. fit preient, the theory k flill the fame ; orders are liTueil 
in ibe like manner; and, in the provinces, they eafily impofe upoa 
thofe who hear them piibli(hed ; but, at court, all chefe fine words^ 
which pradlice belies, are reduced to their proper value. The fidi*' 
peror perhaps may Aill have the Aime aiFefHon for his fnbjedis; butf 
the officers who are entrufted with his orders, are far from executing 
chem with equal zeal. The delays and impediments that keep back 
iuceoar, for the mod part prevent it from arriving feafonably. Wherr 
the crop bat £iiled in any of the provinces, before the Mandarins/ 
who have the government of it, can fend their memorials to courts 
before thefe raemorialt hate paiTed throi^h all the hands neeeflaryr 
CO convey them to the Emperor ;4)c fore this prince has aBembied tU 
grandees and different^ tribunals; atid before c^mmiflkries are ap^ 
pointed and fet oat, the fufiering people are reduced to the grea^eft 
tJNremities^ and a thpufand unhappy wretches peri(h before any afiift* 
anoe ainves. 

* Another caufeof the fcarcity of gram in China, is the prodidous 
confumption which is occafioned daily by the compofition of wines» 
and of a kind of fpirituous liquor called rack. This is one 6f the 
grand fources of the evil, both in the northern and fouthem pro- 
tinces ; government is not ignorant of it ; but it employs too weak 
means to prevent it. Proclamations have ofttfii heed publifbed, for*' 
bidding the diftillation of rack. The orders <^ the court are crerys 
where pofted np, and announced in all the cities by the governors. 
Officers, appointed «for the porpofe, vifit the Hill houfes, and deftrojT 
the Ibrnaces if nothing is given them ; but if the owner flips into 
their hand a few pieces of Alver, they, (hut their eyes% and go fbrne.* 
where elfe to a& the fame farce. The mandarin fometimes goes- 
round himfelf ; the workmen are then feized and thrown intopdfon f 
after which, they are condemned to be whij^ped, or to carry what is 
called the cangm ; but they are never ponifhed with death. Th^ 
nakers of wine then change their habitations^ oonceal themfelvea 
Ak a ihort while, and again begin their operations.' 

Will thefe acknowtegemcnta, eittorted by the obftinacy tit 
fads^ juftify the encomiums fo cominuotly beftowed b/ wriiciS' 
on the government of China \ 

Moil of our infornaatioa refpoAing the Chineie comet from' 
Ffmcfa writers^ who are apt to nfe a great difplay of words^ thtf 
meaiMngof whichy if it does not clalh in different places,* likv 
tbe infiaocsea already produced, amoontf to very little upon ex« 
amtiuuioiu Wbea the Abb6 Groficr attemptt to Turn uptheir 

X 4 general 

X2Q firwfJJatiM 6/A\A6 Grofier*/ Defcripikn 9fGhin£ 

genertl charader, he obfervev, ^ One muft have been cotetnpcH 
my with the andcot Cbtnefe^ to be able to fpeak with any ceruinty 
of their primitive charader. « That which they have at prefent, has 
been acquirtdy it is the fruit of long difcipline, and oifour thwfani 
jiors bahifudt. Mwtaigni has faid, that cuftom becomes a fecond 
saturc ; it is at leaft certain^ that it impairs and greatly corropts the 
firft. The following we confider as a ftriking example. If we take 
a forvey of ail the different provinces of France, we ihall find in 
each particular features and marks of charader^ which diftingoifli 
fheir various inhabitants, and which even point oat their difference 
of origin. It woulfi be in vain to expe^ any information of this 
(ind.frbm rank or dignity. If, in the like manner, we' caff oar eye 
over the Chinefe empire, a perfed uniformity will be obferved in the 
^hole, and all will appear to have been caff in the fame mould* 
lience it haj^ns that the Chinefe, in general, are a mild and af« 
fible people ; polite even to excefs ; circumfpe^ in all their a6Uon8|» 
and always attentive to weigh the confeqnences of tvtry thing theji 
are about to attempt ; more carefbl not to expofe their prudence ta 
danger, than to preferve their reputation ; as fufpicious of ffrangers« 
as they areYeady to take advantage of them ; too much prepo^fled 
widi a nation of their own importance^ to be fenfible of their de* 
S^tsi and entertaining too high ideas of their own knowledge, to 
feek for inftrudion from others.* 

* What does the author mean by their primitive M diftiDgui(hc4 
from their pnjtnt charader ? Their prefent charaAcr is faid to 
have been acquired ; yet, if it is the refult * of four thoi^fand 
years habitude/ we find fome difficulty in admitting the change 
he fuppofes \ but rather imagine, that, in their prefent charader, 
we difcover the permanency of native diftindions* The out^* 
lines he gives of the pbinefe cbarafier are thofe of a narrow un- 
derftanding, confined by that prejudice which has prevented 
them from profiting by a free intercourfe with other nations. 

Of that propenuty to tricking, from which the Abbe Gro« 
fier does not attempt to free the Chinefe, the writer of Anfon'a 
voyage gives fome diverting inftances, that took place while the 
Centurion renfained in the harbour of Canton. It has indeed 
been pleaded in extenuation of fuch pradice, vrell known to all 
£aft India failor^, that our intercourfe with the Chinefe is only 
at a fea-port town, whence we ought not to form our ideas of 
national charaders : but a better anfwer is, that as China is 
univerfally allowed to be extremely populous, and great part oC 
the people wretchedly poor, hunger cannot afford to be honeft^ 
in a ravenous ^mpetition. 

. \ti the ufual panegyrical ilyl^, we are toM that ^ filial pietjr 
svgulates in China the duties of fathers, as well as of children| 
and thofe too of the Emperor, confid^red as the father or patri* 
arch of all :' and that ^filial piety is fo much honoured and re- 
dded in China, that noinftanci is known of a legiflator's having 
^H under the neceffit; of enforcing it by ena^iog laws in \t% 

, - favo\ir^ 

% Tranjhtm p/Ahhi GrofierV Difirtptm of Cbin^. lay 

^oun In Chiot, it is not conGdered as a ficnple rule of de- 
cciicy, or duty purely natural : it is a point of religion — and a 
point of religion (bat is obferved with the greateft £:idners and 
attention.' Yet witbin tbree pages afterward, we have a long 
quoution from the Li^ki^ * a kind of code refpeding filial piety/ 
^ooi which we (hall extraA a few lineS| that may appear ftrange 
^fter the preceding affertions : 

* If a Ton makes any attempt ^gainft the life of his father or mor 
ther, every officer and domeftic belonging to the family is aothoriied 
to kill the parricide. The houfe fhall be demoKihedy and rafed froaa 
the foundation ; and the place on which it ftood fliall be changed 
into a common fewer.' 

The Abbe gives us feveral articles on the natural hiftory of 
this remote country, in which, as on all other occafions, we cre- 
dit bim with fidelity to his authorities. He treats of the Chi- 
jiefe religion, and, in conjunction with father Amiot, difcovers a 
iymbol of the Trinity in an ancient Chinefe chara£ler, which is 
corroborated by paflages from their books, to fhew them * to 
have been poflefled of fome knowlege of this fublime myftery/ 
He alfo treats of their language, their literature, their printings 
the procefles in the man ufafture of porcelain, their mufic, me- 
dicine, &c« An inftance or two will enable us to make a to- 
lerable eftimate of Chinefe capacities : 

* Such, for example^ is part of a canal which coirdq£ls from Cia0» 
ting to Ning'po, Near thele cities, there are two canals, the waters 
of which do not communicate, and which differ ten or twelve feet in 
their level. To render this place . pafTable for boats, the Chinefe 
ftave conftro^ed a double glacis of large Hones, or rather two in- 
clined planes, which unite in an acut$ angle at their upper extremity^ 
and extend on each fide to the furface of the water. If the bark is 
in the lower canal, they polh it up the plane of the firft glacis, by 
means of feveral capftans, until it is raifcd to the angle, when, by its 
own weighty it glides down the fecond glacis, and precipitates itfelf 
into the water of the higher canal, with the velocity of an ar^ow. It 
is aftoniihing, that thefe barks, which are generally very long and 
beavily laden, never bnr^ afunder when they are balanced in the air 
upon this acute angle. However, we never hear that any accident 
happens in this paSage. It is true, they take the precaution of ufing 
for the keels of thefe barks a kind of wood which is exceedingly hard 
and proper for refiiUng the violence of fuch an eiFort.' 

This acuti muft certainly be a miftake for an ^tufe angle ; 
but after hearini^ fo much of their inland navigations, is it pof- 
fible the Chinefe (hould be ignorant of the conftruSion of locks, 
and have a laborious recourfe tq fuch clumfy expedients } 
Their method of difcovering murders is very curious : 
^ We have already given a hint of the great fagacity difplayed by 
|he Chinefe tribunals in difcovering whether a perfon has died a na- 
tural death, or in confequence of feme violence, and even after the 
body ha» begun tQ cotrupc. Aft the importance pf this fubjea re-r 
^ • qqirc4 

I2t TranflatUn ^Abbc GfoCcr*i Dtfcription $f China. 

quires a fuller detail, we fhill here give ir, to terminste the cfaipter » 
The body is £rll taken from the earth, and wafhed in vinegar. Aftet 
thif, a large /ire is kindled in a pit dug o« purpofe, fix feet loQg^ 
three vride, and the fame in depth ; and this hrt is cootidnalljr ang^ 
jnented» until the furronndiog earth becomes as hot as an oven. 
The remaining £re is then taken from the pit; a large quantity of 
wine is poured into it» and it is covered with a hurdle, madeof ofier* 
twigs» upon which the body is ftretched out at fall length. A cloth 
is thrown over both, in the form of an arch, in order that the fteam 
of the wine may ad upon it in every dire^lion. At the end of two 
hours, this cloth is taken off, and if any blows have been given, they 
then appear upon the body, in whatever flate it may be. 

* The fame experiment is even extended to bones, ilripped of their 
. Hefh. The Chinefe aifures us, that, if the blows given have been fo 

fevere as to occafion death, this trial makes che marks appear upon 
the hones, although none of them may be broken, or injured. Wc 
mud here remark, that the wine, of which we have fpoken, is no* 
thing but a kind of beer, m^uie from rice and honey. This obferva* 
tion we cenfider to be of mporunce, (hould any attempt ever bo 
made in Europe, to prove the truth of this expedient, which defervea 
Jo much to be verified.' 

If "the decifions of their criminal courts are- governed by fuch 
procelKs of baking or flewing dead bodies, and the learned Abbe 
can hope to introduce the expedient into Europe, ourBiiti(h So* 
lomon's rules for che difcovery of witches and wizarda dcferve- 
to be viewed with e^ual degrees of refped ! 

Their phyiiciani are not lefii profound than (heif lawyers ai^ 
magiftrates : 

* When a Chinefe phyiician is called to vifit a iick perfori, be firft. 
places the patient's arm upon a pillow, after which, he applies hit 
four fingers along the artery, fometimes foftly, and fometsmea with 
force. He employa a confiderable time in examining che beats of 
his pulfe, and in comparing their difference, for it is by a qaicker 
or flower, a (Ironger or weaker pulfe, and its regular or irregular 
notion, that he difcovers the fource of the difbrder, and, withont 
aiking any queftions, informs the patient where he i^els pain, what 
parts are attacked, and what are mod expofed' to danger ; he alio 
tells him in what manner, and in what time, his diforder will ter« 

* From this precifion, one would be apt to conclude that the Chi* 
nefe arc .much better acquainted with anatomy than is generally fop* 
pofed in Europe. It is true, they never ufe diffcAion, and that they 
do not even open the bodies of their dead ; but if th^y negledl to 
fiudy nature in dead fubjeds, which always leave much t6 be guefledj, 
it appears that they have long iludied living nature with profound 
attention, and with advantage. Living nature may, perhaps, not be 
impenetrable to an obfervation of three thoufand years.* ' 

The obvious credulity of thefe miffionaries wiU juftify octc 
receiving with fuicable diftruft any thing they may affirm, and 
which wc do not poflfefi the meant of briiigM^g to an adequate 
tcft. 12 


Tranjlatm ^ Abb€ GroRtt^s J^ffcriptton of China. laj 

We tfaerefofe beg leave to doubt the exrft^nce of thofe ftonet, 
did to cootain natural rrprefeotations of landfcapes, rivers, 
piountains, and trees, which are cut into flabs ; and tbofe crabs 
that petrify on being taken out of the water *• 

We doubt alfo, the Tartars on the river Oufouri being ob- 
liged to fubfift wholly on fi(b, becaufe all their land animals 
have an infupportable tafte f . 

We doubty the droves of wild muUsy in Tartary, that caii 
never be tamed ; becaufe the produdion oi*'a mule is a deviatioa 
from the natural courfe of inflind, under human influence ^l* 

We doubt, that every kind of water in the ifland of Formofa 
il a deadly poifon to flrangers §. 

We doubt the ftory of that fpecies of purple fever, among the 
Tonquinefe, the cure of which is fatd to be perform<id by taking 
the pith of a certain reed, dipping it in oil, and which, on being 
fucceffively applied io all the purple fpots on the body, caufes 
the flefh to burft with a report as loud as that of a piftol ! And 
tbat the cure is to be £m(hed by rubbing the wounds witfa gia« 

We dottfat the 'population of China amounting to aoo tmU 

We doubt tbat convgniint m/fW of. gathering olives, by boring 
a hole in the trunk of the tree, putting fait into it, ind theiv 
flopping it up: by which means it is affirmed that all the fruit 
will drop of itielf in the courfe of a few days ^*. That fo vb- 
knt an operation may have an efFed on the tree, is noC 
queftfoned ; hut the fubfequent health of the tree, which is cer- 
tainly implied, is the problematical part of the ftory. 

We doubt there being a fpecies of pine, whofe fap is poifon« 
out, and whofe root, put into the earth or water, foon petrifies, 
fo as to be lifed for ftarpening tne beft tempered tools f f ^ 

Laftly, for we wifh to ftop fomewhat (hort of Pyrrhonifai, we 
doubt what we are told of a flat fi(h, with one eye, and with 
fios and fcales on one fide only ; fo that a Junction of two is re^ 
quired^ to be able to fwim as one eflFcAtve fi(h Xt- ^^ m^tt, 
TOubt once more whether the Abbe is juftified in terming this 
dooble lUh the moft fingular of the Chinefe fifli ! 
. After ail otrr doubts, we reft in the firm perfuafion, tbat there 
is no prodttdton of any country whatever^ that, when divefied of 
ignorant and fuperftitious defcription,,thoroughly examined, and 
well underftood, will be found to violate the general knowa 
taws of nature. 

m i,» m . % n ut II ■ II II ■iiii. ■ I I I ^— ^ 

♦ Vol. i. p. io6. t Id, p. 130. J Jd. p. 19a, 

J Id. p. 226. U Id. p. 278* % Id. P; 3^5. . 

* Xd, p. 4*3. ' tt !<!• P- +55- U W- P« S74' 


( "4 > 

AitT. V. nt BattU of Bofiworih Field, between Rtchard the ThinJ 
and Henry Earl of Richmond^ Aogoft 22» H^S* Whereiil h 
defcribed the Approach of both Al-mies, with a Plan of the Bttttev 
its Confequences, the Folly, Treatment, and Chara£ler of Richard; 
To which is prefixed, by way of Introdudion, a Hiftory of his 
Life, uU he aflumed the regal Power. By W* Hutton, F. A. S. S; 
8vo. 5 s. Boards. Baldwin* 1788. 

NO part of the EngUfli hiftory^ fince the conqueft, is fo 
Obfcure and ^mcertain, as that of the long-fubfifting 
quarrel between the houfes of.Lancafier and York.«— << And ic 
is the more remarkable/' fays Mr. Hume, *^ that this profound 
darknefs falls upon us juft on the eve of the reftoratioo of letters^ 
and wbeif the art of printing was already known in Europe.'^ 
But this latter circumftance, this recent and great acquirement, 
and which, in the opinion of that writer, might be expeded ta 
bave diffufed a knowlege of the fevera) occurrences at the period 
in queftiofl, bad a totally contrary tScQi ; which efitA is thus 
judicioufly accounted for by Sir John Fenn, who obfcrvea, 
*< that the art of printing being newly difcovered, people ne* 
gleded to multiply their manufcripts, and being anxious to pre* 
^rve the hifiory of paft times, forgot the prefent.'' 

Mr. Button, equally fenfible of the defe^venefs of our 
cbronfcles, in recording a particular incident of the times, hat 
vealoufly undertaken to give it theclearnefs it manifeftly wants. 
. < Perfoadcd' (fays he, in \m preface), * that the lauer part of 
this important quarrel, the battle of Bofworth, is fqpcrficially xt^firt* 
Rented, I have taken fome pains in a minute refearch. This litti^ 
work will nearly compreheod the bi^ory of Richard's ihort reign/ 

He has colle^ed a multiplicity of circumftances relative to the 
battle, and defcribed it with an exa£lnefs, which will be acceptable 
to the antiquary, and ufeful to tbehiftorian in his fearch after truth, 
7he following extrads will bring our readers acquainted with the 
ffriter's motives for the publication of the volume before us : 

f Very few pieces of hifiory demand more attention than the der 
fcription of the battle. When the lives of thoufands, the change 
of property, and the fate of empires, are at fiake, no wonder oar 
thoughts sire captivated. Ic follows, the more material the a^ioiK 
the more faithf^ul ought to be the defcription. The battle of Bo(« 
worth was the lad of thirteen between the houfes of York and Lan* 
cafter; and though it was one of the laft, it was of more confe- 
qucnce than the other twelve ; nay, the revolutions it caofed, were 
of greater moment than thofe of any other, fince the conaue^ ; for 
It produced a change in the conftitution. Villanage was abolifhed i 
the feudal fvftem overturned; commercial treaties were ratified; a 
/pint of indudry encouraged ; a /low of wealth was the refult; and 
fi kind of equality was ^flablifhed axpong men. *** IntereHed 
rven from childhood in this important event, I enjoyed a pleaf^^re 
in enquiry. By carefully examining every author I coikd meet with, 
} learpt all they knew* I ^avc made fev^al vifiu in the ipace of 


Hatton'i BattU of Bo/worth Pleld^ 1 15 

dgbteen yetrt to the field itfelf» merely for information and infpec* 
tioo. I have alfo made many enquiries into the traditions in the vi- 
anity of Bofworth field, and foand this the moft copious foarce 
of Intelligence. Though much was loft, much was preferved. If 
feme of the remarks I met with were crude and contradidtory, yet 
fenetimes one little hint ignorantly dropt, iet many uncertainties to 
rights. If new difiiculties arofe, I read, thought, and travelled for a 
fdntion. By carefully comparing the writers, the field, and the 
traditions, I dave attempted to remove fome abfurdities, and place 
truth on firmer ground. I do not, however, pretend to enumerate 
t:vtrj fad, or warrant the truth of every word ; for it mull be conii- 
dered, the period is diftant, and many incidents which are mate« 
rial, and would elucidate others, are buried in time. In fqme parts 
cf the road I am obliged to follow the footlleps of my predeceflbrs* 
Where they treat of the interefts of Richard or Henry, they muft be 
followed with cautjon ; but where thofe interefts are out of the 
aoeftion, they are much fafer guides. When I (|uit their path, and 
toWovi my own, I fhall be attentive to punduahty* Truth is the 
ground- work of the hi^orian : he who u^z the beft things fays the 

That part of our author's performance which comprifes the 
life of Richard, * till be aflumed the regal power/ is intended to 
fet his cbaraAer in a fomewbat amiable point of view. It is 
chiefly extrafied from Buck, Rapin, Carte^ Walpole, and 
Fenn, and is preparatory to bis general vindication, or, at leaft, 
to an extenuation of the guilty proceedings of which he has 
been accufed by Lancaftrian hiftorians, and alfo by fome others, 
of a later date. The truly ingenious Mr. Walpole f was tbe 
iirft who attempted, in a particular manner, to refcue the me- 
mory of Richard from the obloquy which had been generally 
thrown on it, Hb knew, that to palliate tbe crimes imputed to 
tbe King were to lofe tbe point for which be was contending, 
and he therefore laboured to prove his innocence :— and this in 
every accufation exhibited againft him. Hence, in our opinion, 
his principal error; for though be has certainly cleared Richard 
from feveral of the murders he has been charged with, there 
are notwithftanding others of which it is highly probable that he 
was tbe author, as Mr. Hume has very i\j\\y evinced in a note to 

* This latter member of the fentence comes under the defcrip- 
don of Tnlly's htverfio 'vtrhorum^ and the reafoning is confequently 
fllfr. The writer means, we prefume, — hi nuho/ays the truefi things 
fwfs tbt befi: or, hi fays tbt lift things who /ays the trueft. Again, in 
fpeaking of Edward IV. he obferves, — ' Glouceller did not foften 
tJie (bint of his brother favage.' But why his brother Salvage? Ed- 
wara and Richard were defcended neither from the Iroquois nor Ca- 
faiwais, nor indeed from any other uncivilized tribe. Mr. Hutton 
would no doubt fay, hisfa*vagt (i, j, cruel^ brother. 

t See our account of Hiftoric Doubts on the Life and Reign of Rich* 
mrJlU. Rev. vol. xxxviii. p, 114. 

13 the 

126 . ttMon^s SditU 0f SoJioMi ^eU. 

* the laft edition of bis Hiftory of England^ and which if gifeii 
by way of anfwer to the bifiaric doubts. 

Mr. Button doe« not follow the fteps of Mr« Walpole ; ho 

*sttempt8 not entirely to exculpate his * hero»' — 'for fo he ftyles 

him,— ^but rather to apologize for his conduft on the plea of ne« 

^ ceffi(y *, from the force of bis ambition, And from the boldneft 

of his charaAer. 

« Had Richard been profperoai' (fays his apologift)^ < he woald, 
with all his faults, have paiTed through life with eclat. Many of 
the Engliih Princes have been as guilty as Richard, but left 
blamed, becaufe more fuccefsful. The treatment of Dolce Robert 
by his brother, William Rofus, and Henry 1. was infinitely more 
diabolical than that of Richard to Clarence. King John mordered 
his nephew and his fovereign, as well as Richard. The deftrudipn 
of Warwick by Henry VII. was as vile a murder as chat ofEd^ 
wa^d V.' 

This endeavour to vindicate the charaAer of Richard, by 
comparing him with others who have been guilty of equal, or 
perhaps of greater crimea than himftlf, will not be very fatisfac- 
tory to the man of reafon and vinue* It tends indeed to the 
annihilation of every moral and religious duty. The tyrant^, 
who, after committing three or four inurders, (hall ftop his 
hand, becaufe bis end is fully anfwered by them, is fcarcely. 
lefs an obje£l of deteftation than he who adds to their number ia 
the pj^ofecution of bis ambidoaa fchemes* Tne author agaia 

* There, is not in the whole hiftory of the Bnglifli Slings a iimilar 

inflance of a Prince forming a de%n upon the crown » laying (o 

able and deep a fcheme, in which were fo many obftacles ; furmount- 

ing them all, and gaining the beloved objed in eight weeks. Thefe 

obllacles would have appeared infurmountable to any eye but 

Richard's. He had to overcome Rivers and Gray, with all their ad- 

herents, who were powerful, and in pofleffion of the Sovereign ; the 

potent friends of Edward's family, as Derby, Haftings, York, £ly, 

&c. ; but what was Angular, he had the mod powerful of all, tho 

feopie. The fate of every branch of oppoficion was determined j 

the King (Edward V.) was committed to prifon. Stanly was to 

be cut off^ as if by an accidental blow ; the two Bifliops feized and 

^ confined. Rivers, with the King's friends, were foiemnly mur^ 

I dered in the face of the fun: Ballings in a manner unknown in 

! hiftory; and what was alloni(hing, the people were moft unaccount- 

I tbiy duped. A bolder difplay •/ mafierly talents is w 'where met 

What a (ingular commendation \ and how extraordinary the 
caufe ! The man who gains a throne by blood and treafon is 
then an hero? — But Mr Button has frequently the appearance 
of inconfiftency. This arifcs from his cenfuring Plantagenet at 

* So fpoke the fiend, and* with necei&ty. 
The tyrant's plea, excus'd his dev'liA deeds. Milto^t. 

A PbilofiphU View ofthi Genm ISc. ofihi Dutch. ^^^ 

tn buman beings jret vindicaiing hipi. aa be was an able and a 
powerful King, 

- The ftyle of this pfrformance, in general, U ill fuitcd to the 
ieirious dignity of hiftory ; and in fome few places it finks re«» 
markably below i^ *^ yet> on the whole^ it is not anunintereft* 
log work. 

I ■■ ■ , . .> 

Art. VI. A/ummary and philo/of hie Fie*w of the Genius, Charat* 

ter^ Manners^ Government, and Politics of the Dutch. 8vo. /yu 

Boards. Hookham. 17S8. 

THIS work bears no relatron, whatever, to ibe recent dif- 
tiubances in Holland, but is confined entirely to an exa« 
mination of the charadler and manners of the people, together 
witi) their Soroi of government, in the dedication, to the 
Prince of Or\qge, are the following words : * While the writer 
endeavoured to" iifplay the merits of the people he was defcribing, 
truth no lefs rec^dired, that in fuch a reprefenution, their defedii 
alfo ihould not be omitted | otherwife be woald, in^ead of » 
pidure, have compofed a panegyric, and in lieu of the tttlBt ve- 
racity juftly cxpede^ pn fuch an occafion, he ^oold have be^a 
guilty of deception, and incurred the fufpicion of venality/ 
How far our author bac\ adhered iq this his principle of iispar« 
tialtty, we (ball briefly eirquire. 

He fets out with a labi>Mred encomium on tbc Diitcb, uA 
on their intrepid behaviour ^fl throwing ofF the yoke of Spam* 
In tbis particular inftance, thxy certainly appear to eonfiderable 
advantage* A nation emancipi^Hed from a flate of fiavery^ and' 
that by the united efforts of valot/r and virtue, wilt ever appear 
an interefting obje£t in the eyes of ^U who can think and deter- 
mine for themfelves. Bat when the author is equally laviih \a 
commendation of the condud of the Hoflander in the year 1672^ 
and when he talks of the * ignomnhus alHanct of the court of j^ng- 
land with ,that of F^rance' — which alliance iovk place at the pe- 
riod in queftion*— we muft beg leave to enter our dillent fronts' 
bis judgment and opinion, as being fomewbirt unwarrantable 
and unjuft, Holland was undoubtedly the a^^^greflbr. The 
cbaftifement file received, however, was poffibly too fevere. 

We have a good opinion of the courage of thi^ Hollanders ; 
but this author muft pardon us if we cannot, in conformity with 
the fentiments he has advanced, place it in a per*%d parallelr 
with that which was to be fecn in ancient times. It is very 
poffiMe that there are Dutchm«|| who may be equal in valour 
tb any of the heroes of antiquity ^ but as they never h. id an op- 

* "What will the reader fay to fuch languaga a« this :— * Wert I 
allowed to treat royalty with plaiouers, Richard was an accoLipIifl^ 
lafcal^ and Henry not one jot better.?* 

poi tunity 

tit J Pbilofophic ViiW ofthi Gemus^ tic. ofthi 3uic^: 

portunity of (hewing that valour in a like extent, fo is it Im^ 
poffible for us to allow them Jt fimilar, or an adequate propor« 
tion of praife. But leaving the matter of peribnal bravery un- 
determined — iince as a commei-cial nation a fpirit of conqucft 
is wholly foreign to the profpe£ls^ of the Dutch— #e proceed 
to confider them in other, and, we think, in their proper lights. 

The volume before, us is intended, as we have already inti- 
mated, to fet the people of Holland in an advantageous and 
finking point of view. We think, however, that the writer 
has defeated his purpofe by aiming at too much. Many, he 
obferves, have treated the Dutch as objeds of their riiibility, oil 
account of the love of lucre fo prevalent in them all ; and at 
this be is highly oflended. It is by no means our defire to bef 
ranked with thofe who treat this people, from fuch particular 
failing, as obje£ls of their riiibility $ we rather cimfider them as 
^hji^s of pity on that very account, fince nothiifg will fo e^** 
tually iteel the heart againft the nobler and more generous fen- 
ttments of humanity* But this their confiitdtional parfimooy, 
this their regard and attachment to felf, ig by the worldling, 
and likewife by their author, denominated prudenci. Be it fo. 
But in our opinion the vice of diffipatioo, however cenfurable 
in itfelf, is highly preferable to fuch fro^n virtues. 

We will now examine the force of ^is writer's reafoning oa 
the abilities, the ^^n/criof the people in queftion. lieobferves—- 

^ Thofe who tax the Dutch with he^vraefs of genias^ may foon be 
convinced of then* miftake by attending to the multiplicity of pro* 
dudions of every fort, that areoviring to the laborious fertility of 
their imaginations^ and the wonderful indefatigablenefs of their toil* 
This is a praife which even thwr enemies have freely and explicitly 
confefled. Strade *, a Jefult, who lived at a time when religious in-^ 
▼eteracy was widely diffufed over Europe, neverthelefs expre/Fes 
the favourable opinion entertained of the Dutch at that period, with 

SBColiar pointednefs .* ** Kara hodit admirarum macbinaminta^ qiut 
tlgica uon tn*vtneritf out non ab/ol'verit,^* ** We admire," fays he, 
*' now-a-days, but few difcoveries of art, which have not been ei- 
Aer invented, or brought to perfedion by the Dutch." — Othet 
nations have carried their improvements to a great height fince that 
epocha ; but no country, England excepted, can vie with Holland 
an thofe refpedU.' 

Strada's expreffion is by no means to be undcrftood in the Iati« 
tude given to it by our author. Machinammta muft not be inter* 
preted by dtfcoverin ef art. It merely fignifies, fucl\ things as 
come from the hands of the med^anic f . Strada w:ould inlrau- 

" ■ ■ « ■ .11 ■ ■ I »m II t 

* Strada, was the name of this Jefuit, not Strade. 

f Mac^'namintum, perhaps, more generally iignifies, a haffiring 
engine ; iia which fenfc it is ufed bv Livy, 24. 34. : '* ikackinaminta 
euatiendtM muru fprtabant ;" and if this be its^truc meaning, Strada 
lecms to have ufed it improperly* 

SI Philo/iphic Vinv ofthi Genius^ isfc» o/ihi Dutch. il^ 

lite,* that in regard to induftry, to bodily labour, the Dutch are 
unexampled. This is their triie character ; and not that they' 
have * fertile imagination^/ or that they are encouragers of ge« 
nius and the liberal arts* With a iKrord or two on the fubjeA 
of a Dutcbman'sy^/ii(f/; or perhaps, as we ihould rather fay, 
if agreeing in opinion with this Writer, bis total want of tbem^ 
we fliall clofe the prefent article, 

' No people poiTefs more of that intelleflual happinefs which arifes 
from equanimity. Though it be not abfolutelv the foperlacive de«« 
gree or felicity » yet, conuderio^ that it is lefs liable to Interroption 
ixom the cafualties incident to human natare, it is on that account 
a iituation far preferable to it. . We ihall probably find, on a dae 
examination, that a ftate of tranquillity^ equally exclufive of the ex* 
ceiles of joy or oferief, is« from the vigour and fUbility ^which it 
confers on the faculties, far more eli^ble than a condition admit* 
. ting alternately of much pleafure and inuch pain ; as the frequent 
viciflitudes of both cannot fail to harafs and convulfe the foul^ and 
greatly difturb the oeconomy of our whole fyflem.* 

A very extraordinary argument ! Such men, in Our opinion^ 
are little better than machines !-^fpr what is the value of fim« 
pie exifteocc? Where is the dignity, the excellence of hu» 
man nature, if we are thus to be loft in apathy ? — if we are 
weakly to indulge this drowfinefs ; this morbific ileepin^fs of 
fool ? No 1 •' Teach us, kind Heaven ! to feel another's woe,** 
—and grant us at the fame time the power, the enviable powtr^ 
of alleviating it. The author farther remarks*^^ The Dutch are 
ttt\€t obfervers of the precept, which Horace9 who was a com* 
petent judge of life, lays down as the prime rule of beatitude. NH 
admirari prope res ejl una^ folaque qua pojfit facer e etfervare bea- 
turn. Not to admire, an art but little known^ is yet the onfy way t^ 
attain andpreferve happinefs* 

The poet means not that this ihould be confidered as a ruU% 
On the contrary, it is evidently given by way oifarcafm. He fays 
that * not to admire,' not to be moved at any things is the way to 
be happy ; or rather, not to be unhappy-^for in fuch a f^ate of 
mind there can be nothing but a negative kind of happinefs* 
Nil admirari is according to the dodtrine of the Stoics. Horace 
was an Epicurean. He is continually laughing at the floical 
philofophy, and we are pcrfuaded that he docs fo here;— yet as 
the epiftle from which the quotation is made, is partly ferious 
and partly ironical, the lines are generally mifunderftood. 

We rouft, in conclufion, obfcfve, that the Writer of this per- 
formance, although profefledly the encomiaft of the Hollanders^ 
has yet fet forth their feveral failings with a tolerable degree of 
fairnefs. We have only to regret that by a fort of palhatron, 
a fophiftical kind of reafoning, thofe very failings are intended 
to be impofed on us as virtues. 
' . Rev. Feb. 1789, K , On 

130 • Original Amcdsus df Piter ihi Great. 

On the nature of government among the Dutch, and thtff 
adminiftratJMf of public aflFairs, our author expatiates with dif- 
fufive approbation ; and we hope that the feveral members of 
the Sutes will» by the mildiiers of their future proceedings, 
continue to defervc the commendation which he has beftowed 
on them. 

Art. VJI. Original Anecdotes of Peter the Great ^ collcfled from the 
Converfation of feveral PeHbns of DiftindtioD at Peterfburgh and 
Mofcow. By Mr. Stsehliii> Member of the Imperial Academy at 
Peterfl)orgh. 8vo. 68. Boards, Murray. 1788. 

THESE anecdotes were fliehtly noticed ia our account 
of Foreign Literature (Kev. vol. Ixxiit. p. 454) on 
their firft appearance at Leipfic, in 1785* In the preface to 
this Englifli tranflation, we are informed that Mr. Staehlln be* 
ing invited [from Drefden] to .Peterfburgh in 17359 to fill a 
feat in the Academy of Sciences, his letter of recommendation 
from Count Bruhl, to the Count of Lynar, the Polifh envoy to 
Ruffia, introduced him to many perfons of diflindion who had 
ferved under the Czar Peter, and had been much about his per- 
fon. Thefe noblemen, knowing his intention of colle^ing 
anecdotes of their illuflrious m^er, readily encouraged him, 
and communicated whatever had come to their knowlege. 
His opportunities for twenty years, were increafed by his ap« 
pointment as tutor to the Great Duke, Peter Feodorowitfcfa, 
and to that of librarian, on his marriage. 

The preface to this tranflation feems to have been begun by 
the tranflator, who quotes the above particulars from Mr. Staeh- 
lin's preface ; but by a degree of inattention which appears dif- 
guftful, after the marked quotation is finifhed, the preface goes 
cuiy and concludes^ in the perfon of the original colledor, in^ 
ftead of being refumed by the pen that firfl addreflcd the reader. 

As Mr. Staehlin coIIe£)ed thefe detached anecdotes exprefsly 
for publication, it were to be wifhed, even though there was no 
intention to form a biographical narrative from them, that they 
had undergone fome mode of arrangement ; either, as near as 
could be^ according to the order of time when they happened, 
that we might have traced the progrefs of fo extraordinary a 
charader, or to have been fo clafTed according to their Aibjeds, 
that we might have viewed the charafier of Peter in its various 
parts ; religious, political, domeftic, &c. But they appear to 
be recorded juft as they happened to be received, with no more 
regard to arrangement than the materials of a jefi-book. Who, 
for inflance, after reading a narrative of the Czar's death, would 
Qirpe£l, feveral pages following, to meet with circumflances at- 
teddipg hli birth? who iod^ would not rather have parted 


Original AnecdoUs ofPtier thi GndU 131 

altogether with the latter^, which confift moflly of aflrologtcal 

Taking them however as we find them, they form an enter-' 
taining fund of materials to illuftrate the character of the great 
perfonage to whom they relate. In Peter, we fee a bold, vi- 
gorous, and enterprifing genius, born in a rude country, burft- 
ing through the deficiencies of education, and all the aeconuns 
of ftate, many of which he did not know, and all of which he 
difregarded ; to purfue his own extenfive fchemes, and to gra- 
tify his private humours. Had he tflued all his % orders from 
amid the formalities of a court, and never laid afide the prince, 
he never could have realized his grand conceptions, nor have 
made fo fpeedy an Importation of arts and civil manners into a 
country where they were total ftrangers, and have taught tfaeoi 
to focfa reludlant fcholars* Mr. Stsehlin furniflies a particular 
inftance of his anxiety to know the opinion formed of him in 
other countries : 

* The Czar was too ciear-fighted not to djfcover the opinion en- 
tenatoed ofhimfelf, his government, and his new eftabliihments,' 
in his own dominions ; bat he was defirous of knowine the fenti- 
ments of foreign nations, and loft no opportunity of obtaining this 

' N. N. AmbafTador from Rnifia to a court of Europe, on hit re- 
tarn to Peterfburgh fome time before the end of the Swedilh war, 
fent immediately to inform the Emperor of his arrival, and receiv- 
ed diredions to go to the palace about noon, at the breaking up of 
the coancil. He obeyed, and was very gracioafly received by the 
Czar, who invited him to dinner. 

* Peter alked him many queftions concerning the affairs^ the fitu« 
attoo, and the government of the country in which he had refided. 
Daring the whole time they were at table, the converfatioa turned 
only on this fnhjedl. At length the Czar alked him in a friendly 
way, what was the opinion entertained of him abroad ? 

** Sire, every one has the highed and heft opinion of your Ma^ 
Jefty. The world is aflonifhed above all at the wifdom and genius 
you difco?er in the execution of the vafl defigns which you have con- 
ceived, and which havefpred the glory of your name to the moft dif- 
uot regions.** — *• \txy well,'* replied the Czar, •* very well, 
that may be ; but flattery fays aa much of ev^ry kins when he is 
prefent. My object is not to fee the fair fide of things ; but to 
know what judgment is formed of me on the oppofite fide of the 
qaedion. 1 beg you to tell it me, whatever it may be; for I am 
not to learn that foreigners examine my condnft in every .point of 
view, and (peak (o freely of me, that you cannot be ignorant of their 
Opinion. In ihort, I wifh to know if it be the fame that 1 have 
often heard, and if you fpcak to me finccrely ?'* 

" Sire," laid the ambaflador, making a low bow, ** fincc you 
order me, I will relate to yoo all the ill I have heard.. Yon pafs 
ibr an imperious and {t^trc mailer, who treats his fubje& Xigor* 
oofly, who is always ready to punilh, and incapable of f'^rgiiCing a 
fault." ' • 

K :; • * A: 

1 32 . Ofigiml Amcdeiis of PiOr ibi Gnat. 

« At thefe words the Caar iiltcrropied him with t fmllc— ^' ^&i 
my frirnd/' (aid he ; '* no, this is not all : you will not tell m9 
what yon have heard. I am reprefeoted as a crdel tyrant : this is 
the opinion foreign nations have formed of me ; hot how can they 
judge ? They do not know the drcumflances I was in at the be- 
gfobing of my reign ; how many people oppofed my deiigns, coun- 
teradM my nK>ft. ufeful projeds, and obliged me to be fevere : 
bat I never treated any one craelly* nor ever gave prooft of tyranny. 
On the contrary, I have always aiked the affiftance of fach of my 
fahjd^ at have fliewn marks of intelligence and patriotifm, and 
who» dbing juftice to the reditade of my intentions, have been 
difpofed to fecond them ; nor have I ever failed to teftify my gra* 
titode by loading them with favours." 

The public cbarader of Peter is by this tioie generally 
known : but tbe chief value of theie anecdotes, i» where Ihey 
give uji fceoes in his private life. The following particulars are 
of this dafs : 

* The Cztr^ excited by natural cuiioiityt and his love for the 
fciences, took great pleafure in feeing difle£ljons and chirur^cal 
operations. Ic was him who made chefe arts known in Ruffia. He 
was fo fond of them» that he was informed whenever any thing of 
this kind was going on in the ho(jpitals» or other places in the vici* 
nity of his reiidence, and feldom failed to be prefent if he had time. 
He frequently lent bis affiflance, and had acquired fufficient ikill to 
difleA according to the roles of art, to bleed, draw teeth, and per- 
form other v.perations, as well as one of the faculty. It was an oc- 
cupation in which he liked to employ himfelf for the fake of prac* 
tice; and he always carried about with him, beiides his csdTe of 
mathematical in(buments, a pouch well docked with inflruments of 

* Having heard that Mrs. Borft, tbe wife of a Dutch merchant, 
witl( whom he was well acquainted, was ill of a dropfy, and theat 
fhe would not confent to oe upped, which was the only means of 
dure left, he went to fee her, prevailed on her to fubmit to the 
pperation, and performed it himlelf with a great deal of dexteriqr. 

' The following day his patient g!ew better; but tapping hav- 
ing been too long deferred, ihe died a few days after, as the phy- 
ficiant had predided, and the Czar attended at her funeral, which* 
was con d ucted with much pomp. 

* He once exercifed his dexterity with laughable circumllanees, 
4>o the wife of one of his valets-de-chambre, who was a little gtvea 
to gallantry, and wbofe hdband wiihed to be revenged. 

' Perceiving the hnlband, whofe name was Balboiarof, fitting m 
the antt^b^mber with a fad and penfive countenance, he afked him 
what was the caufe of his ibrrow ?--<< Nothing, Sire,'' anfwered 
Balboiarof, ** except that my wife refufes to have a tooth drawn 
whidi gives her the moft agonifing pain.''— *' Let me fpeak to 
her," replied the Czar, ** and I warrant I'll cure her." ^ 

* He was immediately conduced bv the hufband to the apartment 
of the fnppofed fick perfon, and maoe her fit down that he might 
exnra^e iter month,, althou^ ihe protefted that nothing ailed her. — 
'* 'i%% is the mifchiefi** feid the hulbandj <' Ihe always pretends 

II ' not 


ihtginal Jmcdoia of Peter tie Great, tj] 

ttot to fiifier when wc wi(h to give her esfe, ind rtncwM her Ufneiit* 
acioiit as (bon as the phyfician is gone."—" Well, well/' faid the 
Czar, *' fhe (hfill not fuffer long. Do you hold her head and 
arms«''— Then taking oat a tooth inftniroent, he drew, in fpite of 
her cries, the tooth which he judged to be the caufe of her com- 
plaintv with admirable addrefs and promptitude. 

* Hearing a few davs after, from fome of the Emprefs^s honlhold, 
that nothing had really been the matter with the woman, and that 
it was only a trick of her hufband, he fent for htm, and« after bar- 
ing made him confefs the whole, chaftifed him fevevely with hit 
own hands.^ 

The following anecdote is added, as the fequel of the above 
ftory of the tapping for the dropfy : 

' When the Batch merchant's wife^ whom the Czar had tapped 
with fi> moch (kill, was buried, the monarch was prefent at the fo^- 
neral ceremony, confounded with the greatefl part of the merchants 
and fea-farinp^ people, of the fame nation, then at Peterfburgh. 
After the bunal, he returned with the company to fup at the hou(o 
of the deceafed, according to the cuftom of the country. 

* When the guefts had drank rather largely, and it was the turn 
of one of the youngeft at table to give his toaft, he kept the cup bv 
^im for a moment while he devifed a compliment proper to drink 
to die health of ;the Czar. Then taking up the cup, filled to the 
brim, he rofe, gave the lid to a man advanced in years fitting be- 
fide him, and turning towards the Emperor, cried out, *' Long live 
tny lord Peter the Great, and my lady, the Emprefs, his wife. 

/ This compliment difpleafing him who held the lid, he rofe fud* 
denly— << Are you mad, young man ?" faid he, uking np the cup ; 
*' b thb the way to fpeak? let me give the loaft, as yon know no* 
thing of the matter/' He then turMd towards the Czar, and bow- 
ing with a ferious and formal air, drank his health thus-^^' Long 
live yoor Majefty my lord the Emperor Peter, and her Excellenay 
my lady the Emprefs, yoar fpoafe." 

^ * The company coald not refrain laughing ; and the Czar, much 
diverted with the ridiculous fqlemnity of the good Dntchman, a<i« 
tfwered gradoofly, ^' f ravo, my ffiend, I thank you.'* 

Surgery, however, was but one of his profeffions ; all tbo 
world ItooM he was a foldter and a failoif, but he was alfe % 

' Peter die Great, defiroos of forming ufeful eftabliihments in his 
dominions, and of encouraging thofe already exifting, vifited the 
ttiftrent workihops and manufadories with much affiduity. Among 
others that he vifited frequently, were the forges of Muller at Jftiiu 
on the road to Kalouga, at ninety werlb diftance from Mofcow. 
He once pafled a whole month there, durioe which time he drank 
chalybeate waters ; and after having given due attention to the af^ 
fairs of the flate, which he never negledled, he amufed himfelf not 
only with feeing and examining every thing in the moft minnte 
manner^ bat alfo with putting his hand to the work, and learning 
the bafineis of a blackfrnith. He fucceeded fo well, that one of 
the JUft days of this excarfion he forged alone eighteen poods of iron 
(the pood H e^ual to forty pounds), ^d pat his own particular mar|c 

£ on 

i 34 Original jtrucdotis (f PiUr tbi Gnat. 

on etch bar. The boyars and other nobJemen o£ bia fuito wertf 
obliged to blow the bellows, to ilir the fire, to carry goali and per* 
form all the other offices of joorneymen blackfmiths. 

< Some days after, on his return to Mofcow^ he went to fee Ver- 
ner MuUer, beftowed great praife on his eftablifhmcnt, and afked 
bim how much he gave per pood for iron in bar, farnilhed by 9 
2ndler blackfmith. ^* Three copecs or an altin," anfwered Mul- 
ler. ** Well then/' fatd the Czar, <* I have earned eighteen a]- 
tins, and am coiiie to be paid.'^ Muller i m mediately •pen ed hit 
iNireauy took oat eighteen ducats, and counting ihcm \xSott tbe 
prince, *^ It is the lead," faid he, <^ that can be given to fuch %, 
workman as your Majefty." Bat t^e emperor refuled them : " Take 
again your ducats," faid he, <' and pay me the ufual price ; I have 
worked no better than another blackfmith ; and this w^l ferve to 
buy me a pair of fhoei, of which I am in great want." At th« 
fame time his majefty (hewed him thofe he wore, which had alraady 
Veen foled, and Hood in need of another repair. He took the 
eighteen altins, went directly to a ihop, bought a pair of ihpf s, and 
took great pTeafure in ihpwing them oa his feet, faying to thofe 
who were preifent; '* I have earned them well, by the fweat of my 
. brow, with hammer and anvil." 

* One of thefe bars forged by Peter the Great,' and authenti- 
cated by bis roark» is ilill to be feen at Iflia, in the fame forge of 
Muller. Another, forged alfo with Vis own band, is ihewn in the 
cabinet of the Academy of Sciences at Petexlburgh : but this lat* 
ter was forged at a later period at Olonetz, on the lake of Ladoga.' 

His familiarity with common life gave him adifta^e for the 
forms and parade of ftate ; his aim was to be free and eafy. 

* When Peter and his conibrt dined or fupped alone, which often 
happened, they had only a very young page, and favourite cham* 
bermaid of the Emprefs, to wait on them. And when he had fere* 
ral of his miniflers or general ofHcers at his table^ he was onKy at^ 
tended by his chief cook, Velccn, a denchtchick ^, and two very 
yoang pages, and they had orders to retire as foon as the de^rt was 
put on the table, and a bottle of wine had been fet before each 

* No -lacquey ever made his appearance during his repass, ex* 
cept when he ate in public. " I have no occafion for them," he 
often repeated, '* to make their obfervations on me when \ give % 
loofe to my convcrfation." 

' He faid one day at table, to the old Baron of Mardfeldt, envoy 
from the court of Prulfia: ** Hirelings and lacqueys never lofc fight 
of their mafter's mouth : they are fpies on all he fays, mifconflrue 
every thing, and confequently repeat every thing erroncoufly." 

To indulge ouf readers farther with thefe anecdotes, would 
incroacb too much upon our limits. iVlr. Sixhlin informs us, 
that, by order of the emprcfs £lixtbeih, the datrghterof Pcicr 
the Great, abundance of materials were put into the hands of 

* ' A Denchtchick is a foldier appointed to wait on an officer; the 
Bmprefs allows oiiicers to a certain number, according lo their re* 
fpedUvc ranks.* ^S 

13 ^^. M. dc 

Tbi OJla Pidrida. 135 

M. lie VoltairCy tbat he might write the life of her father ; and 
that no expence was fpared to induce him to undertake the tafk* 
The court were, liowever, greaily furprifed and diflatisfied with. 
Voluire's performance : in whictu it is faid» the defire of gain 
prevented bis making ufe of half the MSS. he received \ and 
which he afterward applied to other works. In feveral parts 
of this *^ (hapelefs abortion/' he is affirmed to have fubfiituted 
bis own thoughts for thofe of his hero, and circumftancea the very 
reverfe of thofe contained in his authorities. To fome expoftu'*^ 
lations which be received on thefe points, he replied, that it was 
not his cuftom to copy implicitly the MSS. fent to him, but to 
give his thoughts according to the beft information he could 
procure ; and that though he was fenfible of the merit of tb9 
anecdotes communicated to him, they did not come within the 
limits of his plan. To a queftion, why he unneceflarily omitted 
the names of feveral great perfons and places, and fo disfigured 
thofe which be had been pleafed to name, that they were fcarcely 
known ? he replied, <* , As far as relates to the disfiguring of 
proper names, I fuppofe it is a German who reproaches ms 
with it : I wilh him more wit, and fewer confonants." 

Thefe anecdotes are all authenticated by the names of the 
feveral relaters ; and at the end is an alphabetical account of 
them, (hewing the opportunities which they had oi knowing what 
^hej affirmed. 

I ^ 1 I. r ., 

Aax. VIII. Tbi OllaFodriday a periodical Work, complete in forty- 
four Numbers. 8vo. 68, Boards. Dilly. 1788. 

MEFA 0<j3Xiov fA£}/ft x^ov, is a maxim virhich was perhaps 
never more univerfally alTented to than at prefent. With 
all the fondnefs for reading, now fo obfervable in every clafs of 
the community, few are to be met with who will enter on labo-. 
rious difcuffions, or perufe voluminous performances. Unam- 
bitious of pofleffing thofe genuine pearls of fcience , which muft 
be (Ought by diving to the bottom of the ocean which produces 
them, the generality of readers content themfelves with the 
(hells that are to be gathered from its fands and its (hallows. 
The great art, therefore, of fa(hionable book-making is to be 
brief,, gaudy and fuperficial. Many writers now employ them- 
felves in dealing out learning, as innkeepers do their liquors,' in 
fmall qwmtiiiis *. 

In the rank of thefe literary retailers, we may properly place - 
the authors of periodical papers, who endeavour to inftru6l and 
amufe the public in ihort mifcelianeous eiTay^. This has been 
found ao agreeable method of holding the mirrour up to nature^ 
and of Jbtwing the very age and hdy of the tirne^ its form and 

? */ Funcki in fmall quanuties,** Ashley. 

K 4 frejfure: 

136 The Olla Podrtdai 

pnjfure: hereby the moral obferver has an ))pportunity of ex- 
poHng many foibles and follies^ which lie out of the reach of 
more ferious animadverfion. 

The trade, indeed, of periodical eflay- writing is now grown 
old, and has been continued through fo many hands, that it is 
become exceedingly difficult to give it the charms of novelty; 
but, neverthelefs, m the hands of perfons of genius, it will noc 
fail of yielding, KxW^fome amdfement. 

The Olla Pcdrida comes to us with this recommenda- 
tion: it is the joint labour of fome tolerable literary cooks, and 
of courfe will be expc£led to have fome reli(h* The names of 
thefe providers of food for the mind are, for the moft part, given 
in the preface, by Thomas Monro, A. B. of St. M. Magdalen's 
College, Oxford, who holds himfelf out to the public as bead 
0O9k^ or, to ufe his own worde, ^ as the original projedor and 
promoter of the Olla Podrida.' This Gentleman (from the 
multitude of periodical eflfaytfts who have preceded him) might 
be fDppofed to have been puzzled to find a new tide for his work ; 
and confidering the difficulty, he has been rather fortunate. A 
cplledion df mifccUaneous papers might not improperly be 
compared to a i^i/^/ pM^/, or Ol/a Podrida i but then, furely, 9 
gentleman who lets before bis guefts fuch a difli, (bouid pro* 
vide them with t fork or fpoon, to pick out what they refpec- 
lively like from the heterogeneous mafs. It muft therefore, to 
drop the mettphor, be confidercd as a great defed in the vo* 
lume before .us, that it is furnlihed neither with an index^ nor 
tabU $f €$ntinU. Mr. M. has fervilely followed his predeceflbrs 
in other things ; and what could be bis rcafon for npt imitating 
them in giving an index, or a (hort table of contents, is a mat- 
ter concerning which we are unable to form any guefs, onlefa 
it be, that this would have given him ^ little more trouble. 
, The utility of fuch helps to the reader, in a work like this, 
mull' be fo obvious, that we could not avoid thus noticing the 

The merit of this colltfiion is various. Different writers 
muft neceflarily have different abilities. Mr. Monro, though 
the condttdor of the OUa Podrida^ has produced feveral papers 
that are agreeably written; but when he attempts to delineate 
certain charaders, he often carieaturgSy to fuch. a degree of ex-» 
travagance, as totally to deftroy the intended cffed. That the 
progrefs of a poem might be known by the fiate and fize of a 
gouty perfon's chalkilones ; that an epic poem has been foretold 
by the (booting of a corn, and an ode to peace prophefied 
from a pain in the (boulder, are but forry conceits (and thefe 
are in the firft NumbcO, and fo totally out of nature, th^ they 
cesfe to be wit» 


nt Oila Podrida. 137 

We were concerned likewHe to fee this volume, the produc- 
tion of ingenious men, difgraced by a pitiful imitation of Bob 
Sbort*i letter in the Spe^ator. Such a fquib might once be ^d* 
mitted in a periodical paper; but the facility with which it might 
be imitated) ought to keep a qoan of genius fram^ven acteHipt- 

But tbefe are litde defeds, which the reader will eafily par- 
don. Mr. M. has, in his fecond paper, (hewn himfelf a good 
critic, in oppofition to the Adventurer; and his delineation of 
thecharaders of Ulyfles and Achilles, as drawn by Homer in the 
Odyfiey and the Iliad, appears to be jufi : 

* From the conteihplation of the character of Uly/Tes and Achilles 
▼ery difierent fentimeots arife. — When we are obferving the former, 
tbe mind is rapt in unwearied admiration, it is fcarce awakened to 
observation from a continued feries of praife-wortliy adioos^ but 
numbers in the falfomenefs of perpetual panegyric — If we would 
examine thoroughly the charatler of the latter^ the mind muH be 
ever at work: there is much to praife, and much to condemn; 
through a variety of good and baa circumflances, we mufl^' pick 
our nice way." His well-placed affedion, his warm friendfhip, will 
create love; his revenge odium> and his cruelty abhorrence. Doubts 
will an(e, and enquiry mull be made, whether the one is more^ to be 
approved, or the other more to be avoided. Thus are we kept for 
ever on the watch ; if our vigilance be for a moment abated, we 
have|Niired over (bme leading feature in the charader of the hero, 
or loft the recital of fome cixcumftance, by which we might deter.^ 
mine whether the virtues or the vices of Achilles preponderate* 
When UlyiTes comes forward, the mind is already prepared, and 
knows what to exped : he is either the ooAtYArit^ ^»05 OJi^rit/,-, tbeivife 
and di'vine Vlyjfes^ or the Sio^ iraXiy«»o? ao^i, Vljffes godlike in 'voice, -^^ 
But upon the appearance of Achilles, we are uncertain whether he 
has broken his refolation of not going out to battle, or whethej he is 
mediuting the'defbudiob of the Trojan bulwark.' 

As a further fpecimen of Mr. Monro's agreeable manner of 
writing, we fliall extradl what he advances in Number 31. oa 
the fubjedof Sunday fchools. 

' An attempt has lately been made to refcue the lower orders of 
people from their extreme of ignorance, by the appropriating one 
day in the week to the inililling of religious knowledge into the 
minds of the young, and exciting in them a defire of intellcdual 
improvement. For the profccution of this plan, ferraons have been 
preached, and fubfcriptions opened, and twtry mode of perfuafion 
and encouragement been adopted, that wealth, learning, and be- 
nevolence could fuggeft. Yet to thefe laudable defigns there have 
been found many enemies. Armed with the fallacies of logic, they 
have with fufficient ingenuity demonftrated to us, that the ignorance 
of the multitude is a public good : that to the ** hewers of wood, 
and drawers of water," learning is injurious, or unprofitable; and 
that the.hufbandman and the mechanic have other objeds on which 
th^ir attention is more properly engaged liian wifdom and fciencfe. 


J38 LoCgnao^t Lours. 

AH the trgnments' wUch ver^ iirft ptodacad to MftraiD At aiT9« 
gaaceof the Mf^ii;//^. are made ufe of to reconcile ignorance to its 
dtrkncfsy and to hide the light from thofe who« having never en- 
joyed it, are little folicitnus to acquire what they have fo long been 
able to live without. Many of thefe reafoners have anfwered fome 
private end. Some have difcovered the (kill with which they can 
argue in a badcaufe; and others^ under the fanftion of Inch rea- 
foning, have indolged their avarice, by fparing their moAey* £mt 
iit him ivho <wauU provif that ignorance is erthtr a hleffing or a vir» 
tuf, rememhtr, that he advanca thtpofition of a «wiekui man, wkiih hf 
Mnfifttpf^rt <with the evrgumenU ofafooL* 

Some of Mr. Kett's papers have confiderable merits cfpeciallj 
Number 39, on epitaphs. The Reverend Mr, Gravfs the au- 
thor of Columella,, T he Spiritual Quixote, aad^tber works 1 llie 
.late Mr. Headley of Norwich, the pubKfber of Seled Bcautiea 
€f ancient Englifli Poetry ; and Francis Grofe, Efquire, F. A. S* 
and other gentlemen, have contributed to this collefiion; bnt 
tbofe to whom it ftands mod indebted, are Mr. Berkeley, who 
communicated the Vrcar^s Tale in Number 32, 37, and 38 \ and 
the author of tbofe papers, figned Z* The Vicar's Tale, the 
only' one in tbe volume, is moft afFefiing, and would not dif- 

frace tbe Adventurer : and as to thofe iiumberi which bear tbe 
gnature of Z, we muft acknowkge, that they have in general 
pleafed Us more than any others in the work. 

From politics, the author has cautioufly tbftained \ and as to 
interference in religion, he thought be fbould do little good ; 
for he remarks, that ^ it fares with this as with a (huttlecock, 
which is ftruck from one to another, and refts with none.' 

On tbe whole, the OUa Podrida is an amufing mifcellany ; 
and though it has (bme defe^, the reader will have no occa* 
iioa to reproach tbe author with having made his correfpondeoce 
with the public tbe vehicle of private calumnies, or with having 
miniftered by bis pen to the gratification of vice. 

Art. IX. A Series of Letters* Addrcfled to Sir William Fordyce, , 
M. D. F. R. S. Conuining a Voyage and Journey fronv Eng- 
land to Smyrna, from thence to Conftantinople^ and from that 
Place over Land to England ; likewife an Account^ &c. of the 
Cities, Towns, and Villages, through which the Author pafled, &c, 
&c« 8vo. 2 Vols. 12$. Boards. Payne. 17^8. 

TH E writer of the work before us, wbofe name is Lufig- 
nan *, and who ftyles himfelf Kotrjuo^oXcr^rt or, a citizen 
of the world, fays, in his preface, ^ The following tetters, con* 
taining the obfervations which I made in my voyages and travels, 

* Oar readers are not unacquainted with this traveller. In the 68tk 
vol. of our Review, p. 529, we gave an account of his Hiftory of the 
late celebrated but unfortunate Ali Bej; to whom* as we qaderftand^ 
Mr. Lnfignan was fecretary. 


LttfigsanV Liiurt* 139 

frre now preicnted to the public^ unftdorned with my cmbelltA* ^ 
tnenu of arc, and have nothing to boaft of but fheir GmpVicitj 
And geouinenefs i for as it was not my intentfon to fwell the ' 
fize of my book, by borrowing accounts from other authors, and 
imitate thofe pretended travellers who fit in their own clofi:t89 
and write their journies over the whole world, no more than 
compilations from others; I only here offer a concife defaiptioa 
of the various countries through which I pafled ; for had my 
intention been to impofe on the public a voluminous work» 
without having recourfe to the expedients of plagiary, I could 
have formed feveral volumes, of ot>ier travels made in former 
periods of my life, for which my memory would have afforded 
itte fuftctent matter.* 

Oa this declaration, we are fomewhat at a lofs what obfer* 
vation to make :<««»for, of the writer who aflerts, in pditive 
terms, that his publication is the refuit of aAual obfervation, it 
is not a liule unpleafant to remfark, that he appears to have de* 
icribed places which we might almoft fufped he has never feen* 
We will trantiribe, by way of inftance, his account of the laioe 
AO>haltites»> or, as it is uAially denominated, the Dead Sga. , 

^ This lake, or lea, extends in length from eaft to weft about 
twenty«fix miles, and from north to fouth fixteen, which js the 
breadth of it *.— Its waters are fo thick that the greateft wind 
can hardly make any motion on them ; the faltnefs of tbefe 
waters is alfo fo great, that no kind of living animals can be 
found in them; the colour of the water, in appearance^ feema 
black, but on taking it up with the hand, and pouring, looks 
clear, but not entirely white : on the (hore of it great quantities 
of fait are gathered by the Arabs, with which all Judea and Pa* 
kftine are fupplied : the ftone& round ic are of a dark grey 
colour, which they burn like fea-coal ; but they fend forth 
fuch an offenfive fmell of fulphur and bitumen as is intolerable* 
In the year 1753, in the month of March, when I vifited this 
bellifli fea, I endeavoured to dive in it;, but was not able to 
effect this, as the water always kept me up, and rendered my 
(kio as red as fcarlet. At my departure from thence, I took 
fome of thefe (tones, and when I came back to Jerufalem, I 
lighted them at a candle in my room, to fee whether they would 
burn ; but no fooner did they begin to fmoke, than I was 
forced to quit the chamber, fo intolerable was the ftench. The 
Arabs told me, that^he birds, when they endeavour to crofs this 
fea, fall in dead. When 1 was in it, I felt with my feet fome- 

♦ Totally wrong. It is /twenty miles in length, and titifinty in 
breadth. The length, too, is from North to South, and noc iroo 
Eaft to Weft. 


S40 Lufigaan'x Letun. 

thing nke a wall, for which reafon I attempted to dhre, toexi^ 
mine it with my bands ; but I could not, as I faid before. la 
the vicinity of this lake, about a quarter of a mile diftant, oa 
the North- weft and Weft parts of it, there are fome pomegranates 
and appic-trees/ which besir fruit, and although in appearance it 
looks fine and ripe, on taking it into your hand, and fquees* 
iDg it, there remains nothing but aflies.' 

The author has here letailed the ridiculous accounts of early 
writers, r^fpeding the noxious properties of the laii Afpbabita: 
all which aftertions have been long fince fully confuted by Maan- 
dret, Pococke, and Shaw, as well as by other judicious and 
intelligent travellers. Can we, after the nonfenfe, fo gravelj 
repeated, of apples mouldering into ajbes s of Urds falling dead ini0 
Ae aforefaid lake^ ice. &c. can we give our author full and ab* 
Iblute credit for the fidelity or accuracy of all his reports I 

Again he obferves,— >* under the fouthern hill, is a large 
crave or grotto, which extends from £aft to Weft, in lengtk 
£fty yards, and breadth twenty ; round the infide of which arc 
lepulchres cut in the rock, in which all ftrangers who die ia 
Jerufsdem are buried ; and when the body is confumed (which 
an general is performed in four-aad- twenty, or fix-and-tbirty 
kours the longeft), tHey gather the bones, and throw them into 
an inner cave, which is joined to the former/— This pretended 
quality or virtue of the earth of the fotier^s fields or, as it has 
£nce been ftyled, the Campo Samoy — and of which Sandys has 
given a particular account, — is declared by Maundrel and others 
CO be totally falfe.-^Tfaus far mih refpeA to his delicription of 
the bofy land. 

That part of Mr. Lufignan's performance, which contaiat 
an account of his journey from Conftantinople to England (and 
loch a journey he appears to have adually made) is not unenter- 
taining; and from the defcription of the cities and towns ; thf 
aames of the principal inns, &c« &c. on the roule, it may no 
doubt be ufeful to travellers, as well as amufiog to the reader. 

With refpeA to the points in difpute between our author and 
M. Volney, who has criticized his Hiftory of Ali Bey, and 
treated Mr. L. as an impoftor, we (ball pafs them over, as the 
particulars would take up too much of our room, without con- 
tributing, in any proportion, to the rational entertainment 
of our readers. — On the whole, whatever mtflakes Mr. L. may 
iiave fallen into, we cannot help regarding him as an honeft 
man, and a well-meaning writer. 

With refpeA tothe imperfedions obfervable in his language^ 
the reader will recoiled that he is a foreigner^ and wUl make 
allowances accordingly* 


( I4< ) 

Sf^KT. X. Philc/iphical Tran/aahns of tht Royal Societj of Lonion. 
Vol. Lxxviii. for the Year 1788. Part II. 410. Ss. fewed. 
Davis. 1788. 

^T 7 £ are always entertained with the variety of new difco* 
VV . series which are recorded in the Tranfadions of the 
Royal Society^ and are frequently ioftruded, by their perulal, in 
many branches of fcience ; and indeed in' aJmoft every kind of 
knowlege ; and we hope, by our review of the contents of the 
prefent volume, to communicate part of that entertainment and 
anformation to our readert. 

Mathematical Papers. 

On the TrAciiMts rf SmvivorJUps betwan two Pirfons of atif 
given JgeSy and the Atethod of determining the Falues ofRever^ 
fions dipenditf on thofe Survivor/hips. By Mr. William Mor- 

e Moivre's bypothefis of an equal decrement of life was ge- 
nerally admitted as the bafis for computing life-annuities and 
revernons 1 k has, however, been difcarded by many later writers 
on the fubjeA, on account of its incorre^nefs : and the advan- 
tagea wbioh arife from it, in facilitating the computation of life- 
annuities, arc by no means fo great as to counterbalance the er- 
rors which, in fome cafea, it will occaiion. The dodrine of 
life«annuities has been fuppofed to depend on the moft abftrufe 
principles, and to be extremely involved in difficulties. A 
xnowlege of arithmetic, and a capacity to reafon juftly, are the 
principal requifites to enable a man, who is endowed with com- 
mon fenfe, and not blinded by metaphyfical duft, to folve moft 
problems that occurs and a little algebra wil^ enable him to 
folve them all. 

Mr. Morgan has here given the folntions of three problems, 
which, he uys, * though the moft common in the dodrine of 
furvivorfbips, have never hitherto been folved in a manner 
ftriaiy true.' 

The firft problem is, 

* Suppofiog the ages of two perfons, J and J9, to be given, 
to deurmine the probabilities of furvivorQiip between them from 
any table of obfervations/ 

The inveftigation cannot be abridged $ we therefore only give 
the ge neral anfwer. The probability of ^'s furviving J is 

JLx i±-^' + i±i4"+ 1±1 a- &c. where * = the 

ak Z ' 2 2 

number of perfons living in the table at the age of uf the younger; 
y, a^, a^ &ۥ = the decrements of life at the end of the ift, 
2d, 3d &c. years from the age of ^; ^ = the number of per- 
fons living at the age of B the older ; and ^, d, e &c. = the 


I4» Pitbfopbtcal TranJaSUM^ Pgrt It /or lyU. 

number-of perfons livmg^at the end of the i ft, 269 3d Ikd yeart 
from the age of B. The probability of jfs furviving B is the 
difference between unity and the feries above mentioned. 

The fecond problem is of tonfiderable importance. * Ft has» 
indeed,' fays Mr. Morgan, * been folvcd by M. de Moivrc ♦» 
and Mr. Dodfon : but* the firft of tbefe writers has erred moft 
egregioufly in the folutioh itfelf, and the other having derived 
bis rule from t wrong hypothefis, has rendered it of no ufe/ 
This paflage is furely not exprcfled in the ufual language of a 
mathematician. If De Moivrc has erred moji e^egioujly^ it be- 
hoves Mr. Morgan to (hew how, Nullius addi^us in verba^ &c; 
is a maxim which all mathematicians muft admit ; and Mr. 
Morgan's* bare aflertion, without a demonftration, that D« 
Moivre ba$ irredmoft igngioujlyy will not be admitted as proof 
againft an author who has been juftly efleemed one of the greateft 
mathematicians of the age, and who never advanced any propo- 
iition without demonftrating it. The problem, as dated by Mr. 
Morgan, is^ ^ fuppofing the ages of A and B to be given, to deter- 
mine, from any table of obfer vat ions, the prefent^aluc of the 
fum S payable on the contingency of one life's furviving the 
other.' De Moivre's 17th problem (as it ftands in the laft and 
beft edition, printed in 1756} is, *^ A borrows a fum 5, payable 
at his deceaie, but with this condition, that if he dies before B^ 
then the whole fum is to be lofl to the lender ; to find what A 
ought to pay at his deceafe, in cafe he furvives £." 

We have copied each problem, that, by a comparSfon, our 
readers may judge of their fimilarity. The one is to find the 
prefent value of a certain fum payable on i certain contingency; 
and the other is to find the future value of a given fum on a 
certain contingency : or in other words, they are the reverfe of 
each other. The folution of each depends on the fame prin- 
ciples, and in this refpeS only can they be called fimilar. We 
have carefully re-examined De Moivre's folution, and do not 
perceive that be hm irredmoft igregioujly ; if we except the adopted 
hypothefis of an equal decrement of life in ail ages. 

The third problem is, * The agcs/»f A and B being given j to 
determine the value of the fum £, payable ca the extiodion of 
one life in particular, (hould that happen after the extindion of 
the other life.' 

The values of reverfions on furvivorfhips are doubtlefs not 
accurately eftimated on the hypothefis of equal decrements and 
the term of life, as ftated firft by de Moivre, and adopted by 
Simpfon, Emerfon, and others. Subfequent obfervations have 
(hewn, that the hypothefis, though nearly, is not ftridlly true^ 
and the world is much indebted to thofe gentlemen who have 

—^■^^——1 ■ ■ ■ ■ — — — ■! 

f * Sec De Moivre's 17th problem.' 


Philofipbtcal TranfaHioni^ P(frt IL for 1 788. 143 

correded tfaele errors, and /hewn the true methods of computing 
the values of annutges and reverfionary payments depending on 
different contingencies of furvivorftips. 

In this paper, Mr. Morgan has given feveral tables of the 
probabilities of furviyorfliips between perfons of difFerent ages^ 
which greatly enhance its value, more efpecialiy as the labour of 
calculating them isl>v no means inconfiderable. 

We have lately had occaiion to remark, that the Mathemati- 
cal Papers in the Philofophical TranfaAions were incorrectly 
pnnted ; in the prefent OYemoLr, we iind, at p« 335, 1. i, ,8887^ 
which Qiould be .8827 ; and in the fame page, line 3, 9 .X 4^ 
which (hould be 9 +4. Errors in algebraical or arithmetical 
expreffions ought to be carefully avoided, becaufe.they maf 
eafily lead the calculator into inextricable difficulties. 

Saw/ Prepirtht of iht Sum of the Diviforf of Numbers. By Ed- 
ward Waring, M. D. F. R. S. 
Like tbf generality of Dr. Waring's Papers, the prefent ts it 
moft Intricate and abftrufe algebraical calculation. Its ufe in- 
deed is ROC apparent ; nor will it be perufed with pleafure bf 
any others than thofe who have a tafte for the moft abfirad fpe« 
cuktton. An abridgment of what is already too concife for 
moft readers, even thofe who are well (killed in algebraical 
knowlege, would be more difficult to underfiand than the origi- 
nal ; to which we refer fuch of our readers as have Icifure mA 
iftclioatioD Co examiae this curious paper. 


The only Paper belonging to this head is jIh Account of a re* 
tnarkttbU Tranfpofstion of the Vifcera. By Matthew Baillie, M.D. 

Any deviation which nature makes from her ufual path in the 
fimdure or formation of her works attrads attention, in proper* 
tion at it is more extraordinary, or more rarely obvious. The 
Lufus which Dr. Baillie has here defcribed, was a complete tranf- 
pofition of the contents of the two cavities of the trunk, front 
one fide to the other. The fubjed was a robuft man, about 
forty 3^ars old. During life, there was no fymptom that could 
indicate the fituation of the vifcera ; and all the animal and na- 
tural fundions were duly difcharged. Dr. Baillie does not 
nenuon the caufe of his death. 

The cafe is not without parallel. Dr. Baillie fays, * I have 
only found this Angular lufus naiura defcribed by Cattierius^ * 
M. Mery, and M. Daubenton ; but by none of them is it fuf- 
ficiently particular/ Had he turned to the 107th Number <^ 
the Philofophical Tranfa^lions, p. 146^ he would have found m 
'efeription of a cafe fufficiently particular to determine it to have 
^ prccifiply fimilar t9 the prefent. 


144 Pbilofipbhal TranfaHkns^ Part ILfit lyMr 

Every- finguldr pbcnomenon in the ftru£hire of animalf ouglil 
to be recordedf : for though they may not at firfl fight furaiih 
any ufcful improvements in medical pradicc, or explain any of. 
the unknown parts of the Animal oeconomy» yet, from a com- 
parifon of them with each other, and from a general view of 
fcveral fa£ls taken together^ confiderable light may be throwa 
on many obfcure parts of phyfiology; and perhaps feme of the 
anomalous fymptoms in uncommon difeafes might be accounted 
for in a fatisfac^ory manner. 

Astronomical Paper. 

On ih$ Georgian Planet and its Satellites. By William Herfchel. 
LL.D. F.R.S. 

In the laft volume of the Philofophical Tranfadions, pr. 
Herfchel gave an account * of his haying difcovered two fatel- 
Ktes, revolving round the Georgian planet. The prcfent me- 
moir gives not only a detail of his obfervaticms on thefe (atd- 
lites, but alfo the dedufiions which he has made from them, in 
order to afcertain their orbits. 

' To determine the orbits of fecondary planetf, H wo aftrcino- 
mical problem of no little difficulty ; and in the preftot cale, 
this difficulty is increafed, by the wtfnt of obTervationa of die 
ecHpfes of the fatellites ) and by the great nicety of making 
even fuch obfervations as the prefent fitoition of the fiubelKtes 
afford. . 

The refult of Dr. HerfchePs obferVationt» and thecalculaCions 
which he has made from them, are. 

The period of the iftfatellite, 8^ 17'' 1' x<f. Its diftance 
33'': and on the 19th Odober 1787, at 19^ ir'aS^i iti 'po* 
iicion was 76^ 43' North, following the planet. 

The period of the 2d fateUite, 13^ li* 5^ 1*^.5. Its tliftaoce 
44.".23 : and on the 19th Oaober 1787, at 17^ ti' 40" waa 
76° 43^ North, following the planet. The orbit ia inclined to 
the ecliptic gi^^ i' yf\^ or 89^ 48^ 27''.5 j its afinending nod« 
in 18® of Virgo, or 6* of Sagittarius. The fituation of the or- 
bit of the iirft differs not materially from that of the fecood. 
There will be cclipfes of thcfe fatellites about the year 1799, or 
i8i8, .when they will appear to afcend through tbefliadow, in 
a diredlion almoft perpendicular to the ecilipcie. 

The diameter of the new planet it to the diameter of the 
earth, as 4 31769 : i ;* its' bblk, 80.49256: i ; hf dtnfity, 
0.220401 : J J its quantity of matter, 17.740612 : 1 j and heavy 
bodies fi^II on its furface 15 feet j-J- inches in a fecood. 

PVom this recapitulatioo of the con ten fs of this valuable 
Paper, our agronomical readers will eafily perceive that Dr 

* Sec Rev. vol. hcxvii. p. J79. 

' Hcrfchcra 

tl«rfehcPj ciilcttbttioAi htvc been intricHf and laborieei. It 
Iveie to te wifluBd, ihat uUes of the plaaet'i motions were con** 
firuded from Dr. Hcrfchel's own obfervationi of it* pl^mi* 
Tbofe given in the Connoijfance det fempt of 1787 muft, necef- 
farily, not be fo corred as others that might now be formed^ 
fiQ<^ the i^gdct haa been J<vnger iobferrrdi and more frequenjt 
AfifNwiAifHuee ii^Mfe pcciirred for afcf nainior the limea and places 
of its oppofitions and ftationa. The oppomipns indeiqd fcem at 
fccfent Che xnoft eligibly obfervatioos for determiBing tbeplaqet'a 
orbit $ few of the aftronooiera of the present day have a chancy 
of iiretng ii in the node, and human life will not fufice for tbf 
iiupe obfeffver to fee it twice in the fa^ie place ; for which reaibyi 
it ia adatf incumbeot on .our prefent obfervers to lecord tbeir 


Okfinrv&iims an thi Namrul Kifiorf 9f the Cmhw» Bf Mr. £d^ 

ward Jenner. 

Tbe fiagularity of the cuckow has engaged the attention of 

Asfond naturalifts ; who have made thefe general condufiooa^ 

tba^ thcxitckow is a hird^f paflage,«^tbat it does not biiil4 

ass Awa neft, nor. hRtcb its yo<ing,<p— that k depofiu its egRS ia 
the oeiU of ortier birds, who become tbie foBer parents of tb^ 
fOMg cuckows^ Mr* Jenner celaiea various fa£)s which he batl^ 
#b{crifed« reilpcding the iime of Ahe cuckow*s imning intp 
JEngiandt >the ^manner of its luring* tbe nefts w.hicii it cbufes for 
^lepofiting iis 'Oggt , the Sojt of the egg, the tiaae pf incubation^ 
the flianners of (the young one, how it is fed, and the time of ita 
contimi^Bte wififa ^u 

Theft faAs are all particularly telaCed with great preciJEiiaii; 
^od auc thr reibjk of a long and careful obfrrvatipn pf (h^ bir4« 
We A«tt however except the firjft and the hft circumftan<e| 
flsbioh aae lAifficuk ao be Afcertained, even admitting the hypo^ 
abcfis of migration. The .noctoa has been generally ^opted^ 
without, perhaps, fufficiently ;Ktcading to future. Batts ang 
iivaUofws, we belieirct do no^ migrau, though they remain in<« 
«ifible dining many months of the year. The dtfappearanc^ 
therefore^of ihe cuckow cannot alone be admitted as a proof ojf 
ks migration I aodxxber coocomitnot circumftances mull necef* 
•ftrily be fldduoed in its ooofirmttion. Hbve the flights of the 
cuckow, either inxoming or going, heeji notii^ed I What cpon^ 
Uwi dons the cuckow frei|uent when invtftble in j£ngland? 
JSattsfaAoty aniw^ess to 4uie or both of thefe <)ueftioi^8, are rct- 
ijnircd tocompleieihe natural hiftory of this finguhr bird; and 
^om the fpetciotea which this nMmoir contains oif Mr. Jconer'a 
jncliootion .and abilities /or ohfcrviog natural phenomena, and 
nfcertaiiung the Jasva dedufiible from them, the natvralift is en* 

JUv« Feb, 1789. L couraged 

146 Pbilefipbical TranfaaUn$y Pari II. fir ij^SB. 

couraged to hope for fome account of the cuclcow's manner of 
paffing hts time, and of his adaal refidence, while invifiblc lA 


Cffthe Temper anunt ofthofe mufical Injlrumtnis^ in which theX^ih 

Keys^ and Ftets are fixed j as in the Harffichord^ Organ^ GusUtr^ 

&C. hf Mr. Tiberius Cavailo, F. R. S. 

In reading the later vofumes of the Philofophical Tranftc** 
ttons, we have had frequent opportunities of admiring the ex* 
tent of Mr. Cavallo's philofophical knowlege, the ingenuity 
which he difplays in many mechanical inventions, and the im- 
provements which the arts have received from his labours. The 
fubjed of the prefent memoir has been attentively confidered bjr 
many able mathematical muficians ; their fpeculations however^ 
although fublime and highly ingenious, have neither afforded 
any pra^Ucal rules to infirument makers, nor facilitated the me* 
thods of tuning the inftruments. 

Tn the beginning of this paper, Mr. Cavallo gives a (hort de- 
fcription of the o^ave, and adds fome remarks concerning the 
nature of founds and the properties of founding bodies, fnch ai 
firings or pipes ; and in this introdudory part, we meet with ma 
error. Mr. Cavallo, fuppcting the firings in every other refped 
equ'al, fay?, p. 239, ^ the nun^er of vibrations, which they 
[ftrings] perform in a*given time, is fimplj in the propirtifu if 
their lengths/ According to our fyfiem of mufic, founded oa 
the Newtonian dodlrine of gravitation, and mathematical prin« 
xtpler, the fquare of the time of vibration of any mufical ftring 
IS' as its length and weight dire£lly, and its tenfion reciprocally. 
Hence, the weight and teniion being the fame, the time of vibra- 
tion is as the length ; for the matter of the ftring being the famc^ 
the weight is as its length and the fquare of its diameter : and 
the time of vibration \% reciprocaily as the number of vibratiom 
in a given time ; therefore the number of vibrations in a given 
time, is reciprocally as the length* 

He then defcribes temperament, and {hews the neceffity for 
ufing 4t in fuch inftruments as have their tones or keys perma- 
nently fixed. Of this neceffity there has never been the leaft 
doubt, and various have been the efforts of the learned in order 
to afcertain what divifion of the odave would be the heft ; dif- 
ferent writefs propofiag different temperaments, not one of which 
wholly removes the imperfeAion of thefe inftruments. Mr. 
Cavallo fliews that the beft divifion is that of 13, by equal afcents, 
called by other writers the ifotonic fcale ; of the lengths of the 
ftrings forming the odlave, he gives the following table : iooooo» 
94:587, 89090, 84090, 79370, 749>S» 707»o> 66743,62997, 
59462, 56123, 52973, 50000 J which we-fliould not have . 


Phihfophical Tran/aHhns^ Part H. fir 1788. 147 

(rtiifcribed but for the fake of correfting 74915 to 74914, 
70710 to 7071 1, 66743 to 667429 62997 to 62996, and 59462 
. to 59460. 

To what do all thefe inveftigations tend ? or, has Mr. Ca* 
▼alio applied them to pradice ? In fonne refpeA he has ; for a 
monochord being accurately made with the divifions juft men- 
tioaed. Is recommended as a help in tuning the harpficord ; but 
to afcertain the divifions and fix the moveable frets on the mo- 
nochord, will be found to be a work of confiderable difficulty* 

The advantages -attending this fcale are many; Mr. Cavallo 
particularly mentions one, which indeed is of confiderable irn* 
portance, viz. that, on an inftrument thus tuned, in whatever 
key the performer plays, the harmony will be perfedly equal 
throughout. He does not however recommend this fcale for 
tuning inftruments that are to ferve for folo playing, or for a 
particular kind of mufk ; but advifes to tune in the afual manner, 
viz. (o as to give the greateft efie£ls to thofe concords which 
more frequently occur. 


On ibe Era of the Mahometans^ calUd the Hejera. By William 
Marfden, Efq. F. R. S. and A. S. 

The flight of Mahommed from Mecca to Medina, was (eighteen 
years after it is faid to have happened] eftablifiied, by the Caliph 
Omar,. as an epoch to which the dates of all the tranfadions of 
the faithful fliou.Id have rcfi^rencc* The year pf the Mahommcdans 
coniifts of 12 lunar months, each containing 29 days' 12 hours 
and 792 fcruples*; fo that the year concaips.354 days J hpurs and 
864 fcruples. In order to reduce this year to an in^egj-af humber 
of days, a cycle of 30 was chofen as t(ie moft convenient period^ • 
becaufe 30 times 8 hour^ and 864 fcruples is exaSly it days ; 
and in this cycle there are 19 years of 354 days, and 11 of 3555 
the intercalary day is added at the en<j of the 2d, 5t.h, 7th, loth, 
13th, 16th, i8th, 21ft, 24th, 26th, and 29th years of ihe cycle* 
The commencement of each y^ar of the flejcfa'wiirntver fall 
on the fame day of the month according 'to our calendar, but 
will anticipate about 11 days. Mr. Marfden has added a very 
valuable table, exhibiting the correfpondence of the years 0/ the 
Hejeia with thofe of the Chriftian era. The firft year of the 
Hejera began Ann. Dom. 622, July. i6th.' The i20i1l of thd 
Hejer^, which is the firft of the cycle, began Ann. Dom. 1787^ 
O^. 24. So that the table may be eafily formed, or extended 
to any length, either backward or forward. 

In the perufal of this memoir, we could not but remark the pre^ 
cifioa, with which the Mahommedans,^ in 622, fixed ^the lunaV 
^__^_^____ _ ' ■- . ^ ' 

* io€q foruples make an hoar. » * 

, L a ^ oiodA 

1 4^ PycV P^u 9f AfiftaiU: 

mooili at 49* la* and 792% being only 3'' a'*' too IfttTc. ^TWe 
CbaYdeans however were wonderfuHy near the trut^, for 'they 
made the lunar month 29' I3<» 793% being only ,V <>^^ fcooutd 
tdo muchi 

[ 7i fe tonthniiif. ] 

Aar. XI. T'i^ Ptff//V ^ Artfl§th, tranfinted from Che Greek, with 
Notes. By Henry Jaases Pye» £1^. Oro. 4s. Boardi. Sioekdak* 


OE Ariftotle's Poetic, fo much talked of, ahd (b little read, 
this is the firftgood tranflation that hsith appeared in tte 
£nglifli language. That of Dacier, in French, is not in any 
degree to be compared wi^h the prefent Verfion, in poiht of 
neatnefs and precifion. The Fnmch critic, it mtift be acknow- 
feged, has enriched his work'withxopious and learned notes^long 
held inefteem by the literary worid. There is room, however, 
to hbpe that this country will %ave to boaft a wt>rk of eqtel 
excellence, fince Mr. Pye has promifed a continbfed commcii* 
tary, illuftrated by examiples from the modern, and particulariy 
the Eoglifli drama. By the bill of fare which he gives us, « 
rich banquet maj be expeded, and fbr this reafdn :-^betaylb 
the particular*, let forth in the preface, befpeak a mind prepared 
for the true beauties of the dramatic art, and the efienti^s of 
true criticifm. He propofes to draw a comparlfoti of (he ad- 
vantages and defeAs of the ancient and modern drama : this ia 
a wide field, and the zealots. Who confider the chorus as the 
cftabliflied religion of the drama, will, it is prefumed, fee, in 
this part of the work, reafon to read a recantation of their pre- 
judices. Mr. Pye means to treat it large the qoeftion con- 
cerning poetic juftice, and to examine Arift6t!e*s rfafons fbr 
preferring the unhappy cataftrdphe. Where "zW are involved in 
one common diftrefe, to that, where vice is punKhed, itid vir- 
tue rewarded. Adifcuffion of this kind wHl go deep into the 
lubjed, and may (erve to render the gentlemen, who write for 
the ftage, acquainted, before hand,' with the nature and the firfi 
principles of their art. A difiertation like that vvhich is an- 
nounced, will be of this further ferviie: it may teath the 
critic not to adopt, with Aiperftition, rules of the dra^a, 
merely jKCaufe they are in Ariftotle ; for In the Greek "writer 
many rules are to be found, which are not fbriUatkiental/but 
^adapted entirely to the'ftrudure of the ancient drtina. Wb 
liave, indeed, in the PattCj many ellhitial rules frdm which -Wb 
ought never to depart, for they ^re founded ' in nature. Mr. 
Pye is aware of this difticdidn ; and the performance of Tbia 
part of his promife wiU, probably, help to open the eyes of 
fucb aa haye, hitherto, been l)igotted to antiquity. Anolher 
advantage will artfb from fndi a work ai Mr. rye hai projeA- 
ed, and we will give it in bit own^ords : 


Vjes Pj^ tf Jri/htU. 149- 

:^ Ike Midbr wxU fte that weteoir Immorttl ShakeQ>Mrft to be 
tried before Ariftotle hlmfelf, thai candid critic (&r candid he ia 
in the higheft degree) might find him* perhaps* fi^ii^y ofbreakiog^ 
fome of the mnoicipal ftatates of the Grecian fUge, yet would he 
applaud him for the higher merit of fIrifUy obferving thofe fuperior 
taws of general propriety and excellence, which are independent of 
local and temporary regulations, and which are implanted by the 
hand of nature in the imagination of the real poet, as the laws of 
soraltty and juftice are in the heart of the virtuous man.* 

We could not refrain frofli taking notice of what Mr. Pye 
%m promifed, becaufe we approve of his plan, and hope to fee 
it carried into execution. As to what he has performed, when 
we coofider the difficulties arifiog from the clofefieft of the ori- 
g9aal» and « teiu ia fome plitccs injured by time, wc cannot 
witUiioM the tribute of pr;iife, where it fceni^ to be fo. fairly 
«aracd* Aa w;e forefe^, from the circuioftance of another tranf- . 
Intioa being juft. publiflied, that Ariftgtle will be in our handt 
fer iiHBe time, we do not propofc, at prefeni, to enter inia a 
mvmxc eyamiaation either of the dodrines taught by Ariftotle^ 
' or of the prefent (raoflator's meric. Qur reafon is, that the op* 
fortunity being fur, we ftiall not content •urfelves with a fe* 
kfiiofi ot particular pafl«gfs, to illuftrate ^^if nmarks, wiQiing 
cuiMUf (p lay before, oiir r^dera a compendioua view of the great 
philofopbic critic, diftinguKhing fi^cb rulei, as appear only to 
be local and arbitrary, fropa thofe^ which are founded in na- 
ture, aqd therefore of eternal obligation on the poets of every 
age and country. Jn ^be ea^^cutipn of this defign, we (ball fre- 
quently have recourfe to Mr. Pye's tranflation ;. and when he is 
quoted, the elegance, as well as the accuracy of the verfioo, 
will be obvious to the reader of tafte. Before we finally clofe 
•ur review of the Poetic, we (hall proceed to the tranflation by 
Mr. Twining (which we have not yet feen), and from an ex- 
amination of both performances, we flatter ourfelvcl that oar 
leaders will find in the following numbers of the Monthly Ro- 
view^a concife, vet not defc^^ive, fyftem on the fubje^ of dra- 
matk poeiiy. And though it wili, perhaps, appear that many 
of the precepts laid down by Artflotle, have been fince, or ought 
to be^ rejcded by the voice of nature and good fenfe, yet it 
will be found (to u(c Mr. Pye's aliufion to Dodor Harrifon in 
Fielding's Amelia) thai Arifl9tk is notfi great a bUcibiod^ tufim 
tinmky ufh^baw mvir r$md binh 

Aa we have now opened our defign, Mr. Pye, we hope, will 
ezcttfc our balriag fo long forborne to do juftice to bis elegant 
tnmfladqn, and, as the fubjeft ia of importance to the literary 
worJd, our readers, it is prefumed, will' give us credit for the 
dtfeharge of our promife, in our fubfequent publicatioas } efpe« 
eially aa we have chalked out apian of no fmall trouble to our* 
fAn^ fiqce we aia to ^uU from varioua macvials, and (after all) 

L 3 *® 

150 Crowe^Oritf^, &c. . 

to crowd t great deal into narrow limits. This, it wfli be t4« 
roitccd^equiresfome preparation. 

Ariftotle is, certainly, the firft great author of philofopfaic 
^criticifm. He has, with the utmoft perfpicuity| given the ori- 
gin and progrefs of tragedy ; by a moft ingenious analyfis of the 
ievera] parts, that compofe a legitimate tragedy, he has jnvefti- 
gated the nidden beauties, proceeding to the fummary perfec- 
tion of the wholiej and he has, with that depth of penetration^ 
which fo greatly diflinguiflied him, laid open the fecret fourcet 
of that exquilite art, which raifes delight by a gu(h of tear$ : ^ 
Boileau fays, 

** Et pour nous, dtvertirj naus arracba des larnus." 
Such a writer, now brought forward by Mr. Pye, and by 
another gentleman of high reputation, ought not to be difpatch- 
cd in too curfory a manner ; efpecially at a time, when it may 
not be ufelefs to recall our prefent race of dramatic writers t^ 
fome knowlege of the art which they profcfs. As the taflc 
which we propofe to ourfelves will take fome time, we think 
uft cannot better clofe this article, /^r /Ar prifint^ than by refer- 
ing our readers to fome particulars concerning Ariftotle, taken 
ffom ancient authors, which will be found in our Review, vol, 
liii. p. 200. where we have given an account of a forqier tranfia- 
feion of this part of his works. 

[To b$ contlnuedJl 

Art. XIL Oratio ex inftituto Hon. D»m. Natbanielis Dom. Crew, 
habita in Tbeairo Oxon, 1788. a GuLiELMO Crowe, L.L. B^. 
$ Cell. No*v, publico Univerfitatis Oraiore, 410. is. Cadell, &c. 

OF Mr. Crowe's partiality to Whig principles we had a 
fpecimen in his poem on Lewefdon Hilly which lately camd 
under our notice ; but in the oration now before us this par- 
tiality is much more prominent and glaring. So far from 
concurring with the late Dr. Samuel Johnfon, in calling King 
ff^illiam a fcoundrel^ he fpeaks of him with all the commenda- 
tion of a true Revolutioniil, and evidently thinks, though he 
doe's not fay it, if the word faundrel muft be applied, it Qbould 
rather be applied to King James II. His orattdn is whiggifm 
in all its glory, the blaze of which fome of his auditors could not 
perhaps patiently endure. We, however, applaud his manly, conn 
ilitutional f^ntiments ; and though the Latin may not in every 
refped be the moft claflical, we have read the whole with •plea*^ 
furc. What were the particular objedions which the x^rixc^a* 
TM et TsohLTix^rarQi homines made to Mr. Crowe's oration, ht 
has not informed us ; but fince he publifhcs in his own defence 
(b^beant a me defenfeonis et refponji loco^ ipfam orationem fuis oculis 
Jub;e£iam), wc iball, Chat our readers may focm fooic judgmeoe 
4 of 


of hit politics and latioity, lay before them a fliort extrad taken 
from the beginning, 

• CenUjimus hie annus efit Acadimici, ex quo, pracibue quidem di*vina 
ppe, deinde conftantia et 'virtute majorum noftrorum ao gravijjimis malii 
infiatttijjimi/que ' fericulis erepti fumus atque /er<vati, lUo enim ann» 
fermagna quidem et ante id tempus inaudita in Britannia rex gefta tfi i- 
Rex potentijfftmuSf >quod mult a contra remp, feceratf ipfe eft una cum fa* 
€in9rmn fu9rum fuaforihus et miniftris, cum feSm J'ute facer dotibus et 
^Jjlkclis^ cum tot a denique dome in exilium miffus, ejeBusy iihdicatus, Tuf(t 
€JUM im UcwH eleSus a ci*vibus alius, qui jufte et legitime imperar^t : ci- 
*vium porro jura, ipfo rege approhante, definite diJlinSleque recenfita, et 
no^amm auhoritate legum confirmata etiam et ftabilita, Tanta funt 
hac, Academiciy et cum noftra omnium falute ita conjunSfa, utfi quis alia 
tempore ea dicendo commemorare 'velit, baud intempeftivum orationis ar- 
gmmentum fumpfiffe njideatur, Seculi autem fpatio jam exaQo, oporteri 
bite eadem folenniori quadam pradicatione ceiebrari, que's eft qui neget f 
Juftum ergo tempus mibi ohlatum effe iJiideo ; neque deerit kgiiima dictndi 
meattrits : dicam enim, Academici, de viris, btec olim^ intra maenia enu- 
iritie, qui infigne mirtutis documentum iniquo illo tempptc dederuut : pnt*, 
eipeu autem de Hits dicam, qui hac ipfa in Academia nefariorum bominunf 
amfiSf inftantifque tyranni minis refiftere, magna licet cum ipforum dif 
critmne, non recu/arufft •^ 


Art. XIIU 
1. Fragmens de Lettres, Sec, i. e. Fragments, of original Letters 
from Madame Cbarlotte-Elizabetb of Ba<varia, Widow of Mon- 
sieur, only Brother of Lewis XIV, 2 Vols. izmo. Hamburgh. 

WHETHER this fportive compilation is genuine or 
not, we are unable to determine; but of this we are 
certain, that many of the jokes have been long in' circulation. 
Jn 1767, a kind of French Joe Miller was publiflied at faris, 
in two volumes, under the title of Diniontiaire f Anecdotes^ 
fomewhat in the ftyle of this book. Thofe who have leifure an(| 
inchnation to collate thefe works, will probably find fome of 
t^eir old acquaintance in both. Many of the ftories paint the 
j^allantry of the court of France during the reign of Lewis the 
XIV. and the Regent, on which, and on jokes of a c^tain kiad^ 
Madami'^^t\\% with peculiar fatisfa£Uon. 

But though the firft volume begins much in the ftyle of a jeft 
booJty it grows more interefting, and its materials become more 
probable as we advance ; and if the work is a forgery, the au* 
thor muft be allowed the merit of confiderable ingenuity; fo^ 
though fome of the pleafantries and anecdotes feem familiaf, yc( 
there are doroeftic defcriptions, and chara£lerifiic conv^rfations^ 
particularly of MMnfitur and Madame^ that are at Icaft well ima-« 

• Xf4 Thi« 

%it FoitBIOirLlTJKftATOltt. 

*• • 

This ptinctfsy tht another of ibe Regent Duke of Ortt«Mjf 
OOtwttbftMiding the ceremontafls, rcfioeoieitttt and vtr&illied 
nanoefs o^ the court of France^ where flie had refided near fi'ftj 
yearst when moft of thefe letters were written, preferve^ the 
led polUhed maanert and fentiments of Germaoy, wbrch (be 
bad inUbed io htr early youth ) and relates, ia pittty plaitt 
teros, oaay circuviftances to her correfpoddents, which, though 
too comdk)ik perhaps in France to have been thought worth mo^ 
ti^e by a native, ftein likely to have awakened aUMtios in i f<H 

We have long heard of the gallantry of fafhionable people fai 
l*rance, and how vulgar and b$urg$$is it was for two perfoos of 
rank and condition auer marriage to be troubled with any thing 
like conftaocy^ affedion, or }ealoufy. But we have here frdf* 
mMs of pkin mmHurniJbsd tdliSf which paint the manners of the 
Frtnoh courts io higher colours than can e^fily be found io aojr 
of the iHtmerottS mm9ir$ wrttcen by the gay natives of Fraoct 
during the refidence of Madam in that kingdom. 

To begin with the Orund AUMrpii himftlf, who wca eiri)L 
married to a princefs of Spain \ his miftreiKfS, puMic and prK* 
iraiie, during the lift of fBe Qa^en, were innumerable. After 
mentioning fevetJil of bis early favourites, Madame tells her 
correfpondent, that ^ the late King (Lewis XtV.) was certainlf 
verv g|iilant;.and that, fomettniesy evien to a degree of debauchery. 
All was fair game with him then — toantry giris, gardeners daughters^ 
houre<»maid8, chambtr-maidt^ and women of quality^ provided thcv 
did but ftem fond of him. 1 am €ertaia» howe?er» that the Dacheis 
de la Valliere was the only one who had a true affedion for him. 
Madame de MdnteQnia loved him throagh ambition, 8 * * * through 
intereily and M * * * from both thefe motives. . La Pontangd loved 
him eaceifivelv ; but like an heroine in romance ; for ihe Was romao* 
tic beyond all expreffion, Ludri loved him with ardour ; but this 
]>affion was not long mutual, fw the King foon grew tired of her. 
As to Madame de Monaco, I would not fwear that (be ever rewarded 
the paifiop which the King mamlefted for her. While his fondnefil 
eonunued, the Comte de Xaufun was difgraced: he had a regolae 
but fecret intrigue with his beautifai coufin, and did not forget cp 
fbrbid her liftening to the King : and one da^i when ihe was fitting 
with his Majefty on the ilcps of the terrais, in clofe couverfation to« 
gethfr, Laufun, feeing them from the guard-room,' came out, Iq 
traoi^ted with jealoufy, that he could not contain himi^lf ; but 
running up the ileps, as if only to pais by to the terrafs^ trod oa 
the hand of Mada^ .de Monaco, with fuch violence, chat he almoft 
crolhed it to pieces. The King, in a fury, abofed him fbr bis brutality/ 
which the Count anfwering with impertinence, he was immediately 
Ordered to the BalUle ; which was his firft viiit to that fortrcfs.' 

So much for bis miftrefles, before he pipufly atuched himfelf 

CO Madame de Malntenon ; which was fo late in life that, when 

llrs. Corowalli^ an £ogHfli lady theo at Paris, wu aflccd what 

^ ..'.. ' ' (he 

*'lM%atf ftm it Terlitfles ? «nf#ered, <« I havr fceii fitch ftrange 
cilfng» M I never enpeded to fee ; lote m eke comib^ wai tmnw 
fcrs ill the cradle ;" iMMitDc the King's favourite Madaaw do 
MMtenon^ then loieraWy old, and Meflra. de Torcy Mmd Scgne-^ 
Idj^ his fnifiiAcri of ftace, tc i vtry early period of tb^r lives. 

It ktm$ to hive been generally allowedy that Lewis XIV. 
iMd foMt perfonal grace, elegance, and dignity^ tlien any ono 
of bii court. Hie f^;etre was fueb, tbat in a crowd no one need 
have afted #hfeh Was tbe king ; and in converiatioo with per« 
fons in whom he had an entire confidence, he is faid by. Jt£H 
Sam td have ht€» the oioft amiable of nw ih He bad an irony 
and pleafantfy which he phyed oflF with infinite grace* Bot 
though this prince had much natoral wit, he was a ftranger tm 
learning and fciente. He had never ftudted 1 which he feeaaed 
frequently to lament* However, though he appeaitd mortified 
ind aAlaated of his ignorance, there were flatterers fiill more 
ignorant than htmfet^ who oiade their court to him by ridi^* 
CoHng alt kinds of learning and feience. Is there any thing 
aflonifliing, fays Madame, in tbe bad education of the King 
and his brotlier? Cardinal Masarin wiflied to reign himfelf | 
and if thefe princce had been well inftruAed, his domioion 
woaM have foon eealed. The Queen-mother aporoved of what* 
0Ver the Cardinal thought expedient, and (be wiAed to hare bins 
always at the head of affairs. 

It is 4 cireoffiftance worthy the attention of Sovereigns am« 
hitioos of fame, tbat Lewis XIV. though be was kept ia 
fuch ignorance by the policy of one minifter as hardly to be 
pble to read and write, yet by another, the excellent Colbert^ 
lie was ftimulated to encourage and proteA men of learaing 
f nd fcience, in a more liberal and cfledual manner than anj 
prince 00 record ; and thii is the only fame that is left him, ettber 
in books, or in the hearts of men. The glory of ionfusft na 
longer daztles even bis countrymen who reflfd on tbe iojuftice 
pf his wars, and the oppreffion of his fubjeds in fupporting 
them. Even his piety^ which feems to have fupplied tlie place 
0f worn-out pa^ons^ unfaccefsful ambition, and fatiated va- 
nity, was fp tinged with intolerance, and ignorance of true 
Chriftian- humility ami benevolence, that bigotry itfelf is oow^ 
lifbamed to defend it. 

And as to the pomp^ fptdfuUur^ and magnijuenci of his courts 
palaces, garden?^ and public buildings, they have long loft tlieir 
charms in the eye of wifdom and philofophy, whep it is re* 
membered how his fubjeds were opprefled, and his Inngdom 
beggared, to cpnftrud and fupport them. 

C>f all his numerous defcendants, legitimate and illegitimate^ 
lineal or collateral, there does not feem to have been one manly 
pbttft confttcntion or great jatelle^ual charade among them* 


MaddmiU account of his eldeft fen, the firft Dauphin,' h, that 
he was a prince incapable of friend(hip» and only liked hjs ac» 
quaintance and attendants for his own pleafures. He was very 
fond of people talking to him while be was feated on a chaift 
fertiiy which was dooe decently enough, with their hacks turned 
toward htm. I have often entertained him, fays Madami^ in 
the fame manner, from the cabinet of the Dauphinefs, with 
which he was much diverted.— -The reciprocal eafi with which 
the mod ferioui bufmtfi has been long tranfaded in France, is 
wonderful ! ! 

The Dauphin li^d very well with his wife during the firfl 
three years of their marriage, but afterward be had miftreflea 
without end; and, accordipg to Madame,- be. ufed no art, dif* 
guife, or hypocrify, to keep his amours a fecrct from his wife; 
they were carried on with drums beating and colours flying. 
He was naturally gay; but fo indolent that he would not take 
the trouble to be cheerful. He would have preferred an idle life 
to all the kingdoms on earth. He refembled the King very 
much in the face. He had a daughter by the adirefs, Railin \ 
but he would never acknowlege her. He had however fome ex- 
cellent principles inftilled into him by his governor the cele- 
brated Bofiuet, bi(hop of Meaux : but he was too much tired in 
learning them, to bear the additional fatigue of putting tbem in 

He never loved any one fincerely except the Dauphinefs, and 
Bever hated any otia very violently. When he could oblige or 
ferve any perfoil without trouble, he fet about it with a good 
grace ; and, when he could vex and mortify, he feemed to do it 
with seal and fatisfa£lioi1. He was, in general, one of. thofe 
unaccountable characters that are good, and even very good, 
%rhen they are expe<Sed to be bad, and moft mifchievous when 
they are expeded to be good. 

He. did not like to be treated with too great refped, perhaps 
from the trouble it coft him to return it. He feared nothing fo 
much as being King; at firil from tendernefs and veneration for 
bis father, and afterward from the fear of trouble. He paficd 
whole days in bed, or in being drawn in a chaife about, the gar- 
den, with a. cane in his hand, and beating his fboes, without 
fpeaking a Angle word. 

He never fpoke his fentiments op any fubjed, unlefs about 
once a year, when, if he chofe to fpeak, he exprefled himftif 
nobly. His religious opinions were often whimfical. The moft 
deadly (in, in his opinion, was eating meat on a faft day. He 
fent for the adrefs, Raifin, on one of thefe days of abftinence j 
and having concealed her in a mill, he allowed her nothing^ to 
eat or drink during the whole day. His miftrels often related 
the fumptuous manner in which this Prince h^d treated her. ^ I 


FomilGK LlTtRATURB. 155 

Utti htm oneday,' Ays Madame, < what was bis reafon for eon- 
dcaniDgber to fucb a regiiQcn ? wben he told me, that be meant 
to commit one fin, but not two.' * 

^ If the Dauphin had chofen it, he might have had great in- 
fluence with the Ktng# His Majefty told him, that if he wiAed 
to ferve any one, or to perform a£ls of benevolence, he might 
draw on the royal treafury for whatever fums he pieafed : bu^t hq 
never availed himfelf of this offer. He (aid be (hould be fo 
pefiered with folicitations/ 

How totally unfeeling and deficient in benignity muft that 
heart be, which can fuffer its poffeflbr to aflign fo wretched a 
reafon for refufing to confer benefits without any other labour or 
irxpence than the mt¥e -ad of beftowing, which,- to beneficent 
minds, is the firft of all gratifications! 

His indriFerence concerning the crown, the Dauphinefs,' 
and his friends, was extended to his children; for he lived 
with them as with utter ftrangers, never entering their 
apartments ; and, when they met, he called them Monfaur U 
Dtu d$ B$urgogfu^ Monjuur U Due tAnjouy M. U Due dt Berry ; 
fund they always called him Monfiigneur. 

This Prince died in 1711 of the fmall pox, a difeafeofwhich 
|he French were then fo ignorant, that the King reproached 
Jdadanu ^%kr\ng the Dauphin's illnefs, with having faid thatper- 
fons in that difeafc had always a terrible fever when it was at 
|be height— *5' why the Dauphin, fays he, is quite eafy ; he 
does not fuffer at all during the fuppuration, and the puflulea 
begin to dry up.-— So much the worfe, fays Madame, in a 
fright, he ought to fuffer extremely,— Ob, you know better, 
I fuppofe, anfwered the King, than all the phyficians. I know 
but too well, fays (he, by my own experience, what the fmall 
pox is; but I hope with all my heart that I am miftaken." The 
pauphin died the fame night. 

His eldtft fon, the Duke of Burgundy, by fome called the 
fecoiid Dauphin, feems to have dwindled into greater imbecility 
both of mind 4nd body than his father. He was extremely deformed 
in his perfon, and a bigot in religion : and though he had the 
excellent Fenelon for his preceptor, he feems never to have dif- 
covered any tafte for literature or fcience. But how uafucccfsful 
have ever been the labours of the moft able preceptors, when they 
have neither had a good bead nor a good heart to work on ! 
Great expedations were formed of the Duke of Burgundy, 
from the virtue and abilities of his Governor the Duke de 
Bouvilliers, and of his preceptor, the admirable Archbifbop of 
pambray. But all they could do with this Prince, who was 
paturally proud aiui paffionate, was to foften him down into bi- 
gotry and inadivity ; he loft all energy of charader, and be- 
came what Mftdm^ has defcribed him. He was married to a 


Pitncedef'tlif hoiireof SMoy, whot)kiAm€(tmlf%mrfg^fflA 
ilNuglMly di^ofiiioii, bui was pfett]r> and ^uttfi^glji agimhto 
;irhenever (he pleafed. \/ 

• This PriAce (bf Mad^ifi like moft btyop-badqed met, k«d 
an ezceffive paffion tot the fair icpe ; and hit devotion not fuA^ri^g 
bim to touch any other womaa thin hit Wife, he became extremel]( 
uxorious. He was fo fearful of ^eafing auy other female, that 
when a lady told bim one day that he had very fine eyesji he imme« 
fdtately began to iquint : but this good prince might hare ipared 
himfelf thefe precautions. This Pnnceft had her R)rtune told be^ 
Ibre (be kfc Italy, when ik was predi^d that (he would die belbro 
$k€ wsa twnty-feven, which (he never forgot. One day (be told kav 
bufbaad, that her time £nr quttting the world being nearly e xpii < >d» 
9ft (he knew he could not live without a wife, as weU on accoaat 9( 
his rank, as his religious principles,, ihe wilhed to know whom b^ 
intended to many : he told her that he hoped God would never 
]buni(h him fo feverely as to take her from him; but if that 
Inould happen, he never would think of marrying again, but would 
follow her in lefs than eight days ; and he kept his word, dying of 
grief in 1712, the feventh day after his wifb expired.' 

Tboiigb Ibis ftory affords no proof of rbe truHi ef fticb pre- 
didions^ it it a notable tnftanceof the force of imagtnatioii; 
pnd k muft be > ftroog n»ind indeed, which, after Httentng to 
fbch terrific divination, can wholly forget or def^fe it : t&d its 
opet ationt on the health, bappinefe, and life of perfons who irt 
9t ail tinAured with credulity and fnperftition, are often fe fitaly 
that whoever wi&es not to (horten cxtftenCe by Aich meanSj 
^oqM never confult fach oracles. 

The Duke of Anjou, King of Spain, the Dauphin's fecond 
foil, fays Madame, is a good Prince, who fpeaks but little, loves 
his wife exeeffively, leaves the (nanageoient of the ftate to others, 
and has an utter averfion to all kinds of bufinefs. He is de- 
cidedly hump- backed ; however, he is taller than bis brothers, 
and has a more agreeable countenance. It is very extraordinary, 
but he lias fair hair and black eyes.*— He is extremely devout^i 
^nd his piety is one df the motives for his prodigious attachment 
to his wife | for he believes he (hall be d- d if he loves any 
Other woman* His good nature renders him fo facile, that his 
wife never trufts him out of her fight, for fear he (hould com* 
ply with improper requefts. The Queen of Spsin hss a nev«r<» 
failing power over the King. Knowing his fondnefs for tha 
fex, &e has had cafters put to his part of ihtfyn$nsmi or doobla 
bed I and when he is intradable about ftate affairs, (he pu(hcs 
his bed further off; but when her propofition is admitted, (be 
draws it nearer, and admits him into tier own. 
• The Dauphin's third Ton, the Duke of Berry, fays Afadams^ 
killed himfelf at eight-and-twenty by mere eating and drinking. 
When a child, he promifed more than be afterward performed* 
If e W81 very bsdly brought up among bis moCbcr's female attend** 


ttft, i/tfp ftiidfelitoi^e MitmioA djudge ^ndfiig of thm vpart- 
mmts; and 1t Wm Berry 'here, B\*rry fhere, itid Berry every 
Wbere^ ob ill occafions« At len|(h he /ell in love with one of 
the Walcing-Wdfnen, whofc WOrtTJc had folonfbeen perforjn* 
ilig. After this, he vms itoarrinli to a daughter of the Rcgeo^ 
€fi Wb6m he was lllcewKe very 'fond, at leaft three moifthf, when 
be waa fmitten with a fwarthy^hamber-maiil. The Ducbefs of 
Berry, who Was very cunnidg, fooh difcovered this amour, and 
told him plainly, that if he continued to treat her with the fame 
cxtprpal regard and attention at at their firft marriage, flie wool4 
•vcrkiok hi« jofidelicies ; i>at if he was wanting in the refpeA 
10 'which ^ was entitled, Ibe would complain to the King, an4 
iMve hit dowdy fent where he wouU never 'bear of her again. 
From this tioie fhey lived 'very well together ; he treated her 
wifti refped, -and ihe let him do what he pleafed. 

The Dote of Bur^urtdy*^ tinly remaining * fon, afterward 
Lewis XV. had the fingle merit of being handfome. He had 
ceitainly a moft noble countenance, de beaux r^ardsi but though 
the flatterers of Lewis XIV. gave him the title of Louis le Grani^ 
and tbofe of^at-^jgrand(bn qualified him with that of Louis 1$ 
Biem^aimi^ pottcrixj has adopted neither of thefe cognomens^ 
The sMM^/ruiAiisu^i which, adcordtirg to Mr. Wraxall, dif* 
linguiAied the 'hoofe of Valois, ftem transfemd to theboufe df 
Bourbon ; #hdfe galkmtrv and unbr?died paffion for the fair-fex 
have been continued uninterruptedly from the time of Henry 
rV. to his prefent IMajeRy, who feems the mofl moderate mo- 
nar^, in illicit pleafures, of the whole Bourbon race. 

Mofifiimr^ the brother of Lewis XIV. and huiband of the Prin* 
ctfs, from wbofe letters thefe fragmenis have been extrafied^ 
ieeai8«to have been a doworigbt fribUe. Madame, who, after 
thirty'yetrs ftruggle, had'aecommodacedherfeif to his humours^ 
tells lis, tiiat tli€9^ never were two brothers who difTered frooa 
each other, both in perfon and Hiclmation, m^e than the King 
and Mmfieur. The 'Kling was rather large and robaf(, had a 
noble carriage^ with hair 6f a bright chefnut colour. Mon«> 
fieur bad certainly not a noble air, andixras very thin ; his hair; 
eye<^%rows, and eye^kiflies, were as 'black as jet, with larg^ 
bazle eyes, a long and narrow vlfage^ a large nofe, a fmall 
mouth, and bad teeth. 

* He had many /mMi/r indtnathms. He neither loved horfes-n^r 
iuiatittgy but -was fond of play,* eonver&tion, good eating, dao- 
cing, dre£i, and in ihdrt every thing that u ploiltB^ to woaen. The 
Kiag loved buntiag, mtffic« aad theatrical exhibkioni ; v^y bo/baod 
ooly liked private a£einbHes aad roafquarades. The Kjog was £e* 
markably fond of the ladies ; my huiba^id never loved any ene du- 
ring his whole life. 

* Though I.faflered a ereat deal with him, I had a regard for 
hi«B| and duaog the tad three years of hi) life I had catirely gaitied 


tsi t*ORlIOir LlTSRAtUftt. 

his confidence. I had even made him confefs t^me his voeftkneflblt 
and prevailed on him to join with me in laughing at them.' 

Cardinal Mazarin obrerving that the King had lefs vivacity^ 
than Monfieur, defired bis preceptor to ftop his fiudies entirely,, 
** Why (fays he to I^a Motte le Vayer) (hould you make the 
King's brother a wife man ? If he becomes more learned than 
the King, he will not know how to obey.** , 

* My late huiband (fays MaJame) made my children afraid oi 
me, by always threatening to tell me of their faults. But, fays I,' 
are they not yonr children as well as mine f why don't yon correA 
them yonrfelf? — « I don't know how to fcold, faid he; befide, thej^ 
don't mind me, they are only afraid of you. He had a violent ayer* 
fion to field fports, and, except in time of war, never mounted m 
horfe. He wrote fo bad a hand, that he was frequently unable to 
read his own letters, and brought them to me to decypher : faying^ 
pray, read me this letter, that I may know what I have written i 
YOU are ufed to my hand'— at which we have often laughed very 

' He was fo fond of bells, that he made it a rule to be in Paris 
tvtTy night of All-faints, when they were inceflantly ringing." H^ 
loved no other mufic. He was always devout ; and as to his bravery* 
the foldiers ofed to fay, that he was more afraid of being fun-burnt 
than of powder and ball. 

' Monfieur once pretended, for the joke's fake, to be in lovd 
with the Marifchale de * *, the fillieil woman in the world. But 
if ihe had never had any other lover than him, her reputation would 
aot have fufifered. It is certain, that nothing«ferious ever pafled be* 
tween them. He always took care never to-be alone with her, and 
whenever it happened accidentally, he was always in a great 
fright, and faid he was ill.— I have often heard him reproached 
on this account, and we have laughed at it heartily, when alone. 
He fometimes pretended to look at a woman with a kind of liking, to 
pleafe the l^ng; butthis was ibon over. Madame de Fiene often 
told him that he diflionoured no female by his vifits ; but fuch vifits 
difgraced himfelf. He was fometimes upbraided with having been 
ravifhed by Madame de M .* 

According to Madamij her hufband only fpoke to people to ' 
prevent them from complaining of being unnoticed by bim. 
* The late King was often pleafan^ on the fubjcA. My bro- 
ther's non(en(e, fays he, makes me a(hamed of fpeaking to 
people,' Here her Serene Highnefs relates a converfation be«- 
tween her hufband and a gentleman at court, very fimilar to 
that of the late Duke of N ■ in Foote's Mayor of Gar- 

rat. When the gentleman was prefented to Monfuur^ he faid^ 
** You come from the army. Sir? — ^No, Sir, faid the ftranger^ 
I never was in the army.^-You come then from your boufe in 
the country? fays Monfieur. — No, Sir, anfwered the gentle- 
man, I have no houfe ?n the country. — Ah ! fays Monfieur, 
you live then at Paris with your wife and children ?•— No, Sir, 
fays the genilemao^ I have never been married. — Here every 



who heard this converfation barft out into a loud laugh, 
mod Monfieur was quite difconcerted." 

And this was the hufband iirft affigned to our charming Prin- 
ccfs Henrietta, fitter to Charles II. ! Even her fucceffor, who 
has furniihed thefe fragments, fays, (he was very much to be 
pitied. * Madame^ my predeceffor, fays (he, was very young, 
beautiful, amiable, and full of grace. She was furrounded by 
the greateft coquets in the kingdom, who were all miftreiTes^o 
her inveterate enemies, and who tried everything in their power 
to prejudice her hufband againft her/ Indeed, fuch were the 
diabolical politics of the French court during the life of this 
Princefs, that it was thought neccffary, even by Lewis XIV. 
himfelf, to alarm his brother Monfieur^ with jealoufy, left he 
Ihould turn his mind too much to politics ! 

Madame's charafler of her fon, the celebrated Regent Duke 
of Orleans, correfponds with the ideas which have been long 
formed of that voluptuous Prince; who, according to Voltaire, 
refembled his anceftor Henry IV. more than any one of his 
race; poflfef&ng the fame valour, gopdnefs of heart, indul- 
gence, gaiety, facility, and franknefs, with a more cuUivaied 

Speaking of him, while in his youth, Madanti fays, 

* My fon has (ludied hard, has an excellent memory, quick con« 
ceptioo^ and has a pleafing figure : he neither refembles his father 
nor his mother. My late hafband had a long face, my fon has a 
fquare countenance ; but he has his father's gait and geilures. Mcm^ 
Juwr bad a little mouth and bad teeth ; my ion has a great moock 
and fine teeth. Though learned, he is wholly ittt from pedantry, 
■nd has not the leafl dijpofition to melancholy. He has a prodigioua 
number of little entertaining ftories at his fingers ends, which he 
picked up in Italy and Spain, and which he relates admirably. C 
love him however befl wh^n be is ferious ; he is then more natural 
and pleafing.' 

As thefe Letters were chiefly written to Princefs Caroline, af- 
terward Queen Caroline, at the Englifh Court, Madame takes 
great pains tp aiTure her correfpondent, that her fon the Regent 
never had any intention of affifting the Pretender, either pub- 
licly or privately ; and if Lord Stair would have made an alliance 
with him, the rebellion of 1715 would never have happened, as 
be would have prevented the Chevalier de St. George from pair- 
ing through France. 

' My fon (fays (he) underilands war, and fears nothing ; but kia 
great defe^ is too much gentlenefs, and the liilening to people who 
have lefs underftanding than himfelf, by whom he has been often de* 
ceived. Whatever has happened that is difagreeable or unfortunate 
may be afcribed to that defed. Another uult is his too violent 
paffion for women. Except in thefe particulars, I know of nothing 
reprehenfible in him ; but this is fufficient, and thefe propen^ties are 
bttttoo frequently the foarce of great evils. 

' Formerly 

t6o fi^nkiM LwfikAti^tt; 

^ ^onnerlf hit fi^oie was very pl«tfiii^» bat at fnAni int %t % m 
too fat for hit height. But xiocwithiUnding hit wtot of beftat|r, di^ 
wonen are all nadi for htm $ suteKft lulft atcra^ioiif, for he pays 
well* At my fen it no longer a yooth of 18 or 1^ but aear 40 yeiuv 
ofi^f people are Botpleafed ivith hit attending hallt for the fgkft 
of getting at youne women, ai a time that he hat the whole king- 
dom on nit fliouldert. I cannot deny but that my fon has an in« 
fatiable love for women ; but he hat a favourite Sultatu* Madame 
deP***. She it at prefent a widow. She it tail, well made^ 
brown, for (he ufet no white, hat fine tyttt a beautiful mouth, and 
little nnderftanding ; in ihort, ihe it a charming morfel. 

' It it certain that my foa at fufficieotly informed to troft to 
hit own judgment in moft things. He it well verfed in muiic, and 
doet not compofe amift ; he ipeakt many languages, and lovea 
reading; he underftandt themiltry; hat dipped into moft of the 
idencet; but all thit doet not prevent hit being tired ofevery thing. 
If he it ever intoxicated, it is not with drams and liquiurs^ but with 
generout cbampaigne, I tell him tvtry day that he it too good to 
the people about him ; but he laught, and fayt it it z good fault. I 
cannot conceive whence he had hit patience ; hit father had noBe» 
and I am fure he had it not fram me. What the won»en foe in bia 
peifon^ I am at unable to difcover ; for though I love htm myftJf at 
the bottom of my heart, yet his complexion is now a copper colour % 
hit complaint in hit tyt% maket Jiim frequeaily /qf int^ hki maAaers 
are ndt very ffallaat, and he it ^rtry indifaeet* 

* My fon had a little girl by an adreft, whp wijiied jto pre&ot 
liiai wiah a focond child ; but he told her it had tQO^nuch of tha 
liarleqniii in itt compoficioa— and when ( him toaxplaia 
ittrafolf, he faid, ic it made of too many different pieoet. 

* I have often cenfured hit fickleoeft in the purfuit of Juiowlege ; 
jMt he tellt me that it it not bit fault ; I wi(h to know tvj^ty thij^ 
iays he, bMt at fooa at the kaowl^e is acquired^ it oeafos to give 

*• My fon wat a boy of only 17 yeart old when they married hina 
by force, threatening to (hut him up in a caftle called Villert-Cot* 
terett» The lady whom he wat obliged to mzsry was Madcmoijfelle 
•de Bloitf younged natural daughter of Lewis XIV. by Madame do 
Montefpan, who, though the mod indolent and nervous valetudina- 
rian on record, lived till 1749, when (he was upward of 70. Tha 
country has no kind of attradUons for my fon ; he is only fond ora 
town life, like Madame de Longoeville, who being kept a great 
labile in Normandy by her hulband, would not enter into^any of the 
amufementt of the place, though foveral awre o^red to her choioa 
•^but (he told the people about her, that it wat jn'.vain to tease Jier 
may more aiK>nt it, fox fi^ ^aud itmottMt fUt^uru^ 

* My fon is naturally brat^e, and being in no foar. of deaths it is plaia 
that he feart nothing. He does not know what it j>e jealous oJT 
liit miftrefles ; he pretends that:tende/fiefs and jealoMfy are only to be 
found in romances. He eats, drinks, fings, and jxaiTes the nigbe 
with httmi^e&t, and that's all. My Ton it not c^vpable of beipf 
feriout with iiit children, .or of ^ireierving the gravity of a father; 
ke lives with them like aikiad ixiend or htA(m» 3is acvf r £iyi a 

13 word 

Foreign Literature; i6r 

"^^idt-cl to mc^f ftate affairs, a Icflbn which he learned from his father, 
who ufed to fay, all will be right, provided Madame knows nothing cf 
th« mau«r. After the Mifliilippi buftncfsy I received a threatening 
letter^ that a determined confpiracy was formed to poifbn my fon— ^ 
bat when I fhewed him the letter, he only laughed heartily at my 
fears for his fafety, and faid, that they were not fufiiciently ingc- 
nioas in France to poifon him in the true Perfian manner, mentioned 
in the letter.* 

This true difciple of Epicurut died in ijl^i, at 50 Jrtars of 
a>e, after enjoying every poffibic human gratification, natural 
and artiHcial, to the utmoft limits of his powers; never forget* 

.ting to crcp thofe yfoti/^ri, which, according to his own cele- 
brated precept, he thought it right we {hQ\x\d/ow in oar paflage 
Co another ftate : 

Si fa v/> bumnine tCeft qtCtin pdjjhgey fimons am morns desfieuri* 

Our extrads from tbefe Fragments have been already fo co- 
pious^ that we dare not truft ourfelves with the entertaining ac* 
count which Madame gives of the Miffiffippi fcheme by the 
f^tmous projector. Law ; which, belide ihe madnefs, mifery, and 
calamities it occafioned, was likewife produ<9ive of many cir« 
cumftances truly ridiculous, during the golden dreams of the 
V^hote French nation. 

* If Law (fays Madame) wifhed for the favour of French women, 
they would kifs his dtrritre. One day when he gave audience to a 
great number of ladies, they would not fuffer him to leave them for 
the moll prc^fUng cccafionsy which though he was forced to explain— 
^ey only cried out, Ob! if that's all, we certainly (hall not part 
with you — ** you may do whatever you pleafe, pr6vided you liftea 
to us the while." There was nothing to which they would not fub- 
mit, in order to get at the fpeech of M. Law. One lady, dcfp^iring 
of fuccefs by any other means, ordered her coachman to drive to the 
doorof a houfe where (he kncwhe was to dine, and began crying fire! 
fire ! with all her might ; on which the whole company ran out to fee 
where, and Law among the refl ; when the Curioua lady jumped out 
of her coach to have a lull view of him, which having accompliihed» 
ihe took to her heels, and made her efcape. Another lady ordered 
her cO'ichman to overturn her carriage oppoiite to Law's houfe, in 
order to bring him cut to her relief; in which fhe fuccceded with 
whole bones, and confefled to the tcrreflrial Plutus-that the accidelic 
was brought about exprefsly to have an opportunity of fpeaking to 
him. A livery fervant having gained a great fum, fet up a coach. 
The firft day that he was to ule it, he wcat mechanically behind his 
carriage, inilcad of taking poflelBon of the infide — when his coach- 
man cried otit» Where are you going, Sir ! the coach is your own.— 
"True, fays the maftcr — I had forgot. The coachman of Law him- 
feif became fo rich, that he gave. his miller warning — when the P/o- 
jetlor hvjgged that he would not leave him till he had found him 
another ccachman. The next d'ay his old fervant brought hioi two, 
acd a^ared his former mader that they were both fo good, that "he 
would hire for his own ufe the man who was sot fo fortunate as to 

B.u^. Feb. 1789. M pleafc 


pleafe him. The Troje&or, Law, fays Montefqdea^ turniif tte 
iUte, as a botcher turns a garment/ 

The inuftriout author of thefe Fragments has freqoentlf 
charafierifed the great perfonages with whom fiie livedo in no very 
flattering manner; bur, if (be has been fomewhat fevere on 
them, (be has not changed her ftyle in fpeaking of hcrfcif, which 
ihe feems to have done with Teutonic truth alnd iimplicity* 

* Infincerity,' fays ihe» * paffes in this court for wit^ and truth for 
imbecility ; fo that I am neither poli(hed nor witty— -and am often 
told that I am too rude and fincere. — It was in pure obedience to my 
father's will that I came hither. In my early youth, I ufed to amufe 
myfelf with fire-arms, fwords and piftols, more than toys and dolls. 
There was nothing I wifhed fo much as to be a boy, and this nearly 
coft me my life ; lor having heard that Mary Germain became a boy 
by jumping, I ^t about jumping with fuch violence, that it is the 
greaceft wonder in the world I did not beat out my brains.— In the 
whole nniverfe, more ugly hands than mine, I believe, could not be 
found* The late King has frequently told me fot in fport> and I 
have often joined heartily in the laugh ; for there is nothing on 
which I pique myfelf lefs than on my perfonal charms ; and I gene- 
rally begin the laugh at my own uglinefs, which totally defeats 
the farcafms of others.— I muft be frightfully ugly, for I never had 
one tolerable feature. My eytn are fmall ; I have a fhort fnub nofe, 
£at lips; out of which the materials for a fine face are but few. I 
have large flabby cheeks, a lank Bgure, though (hort in ftature. On 
the whole, I am fo hideous, that, if I had not fome folidity and 
goodnels of chara^, I (honld be infupportable. If any one had a 
mind to dilcover my wit by my eyes, he muft take a microfcope, cu- 
be a wizzard. I was once to have been married to the Duke of 
. Courland ; but having ieen me, he was fo mtkaMtult that he never 
returned to finilh the courtfhip. 

. * I readily obeyed Monfieur, my late hufband, in^not importuning 
him with my embraces.— Indeed, I was delighted, when he propofed 
feparate beds, after the birth of my daughter ; for I never loved the 
trade of making children. — It was extremely difagreeable to lie in 
the fame bed with Monfienr ; he would not fuffer one to come within 
a mile of him when he was afleep, fo that I lay (b near the edge of 
the bed, that I have often tumbled on the floor.' 

Madami feems, like rooft foreign princcifesi to have remained 
a mere bye-ftander at the court of France, neither alBmilating 
the manners, nor heartily efpouiing the interefis of that king- 
doou She hated Madame de Montefpan and Madame de Main- 
tenon alike, and entered into none of the intrigues or cabals 
with which (he was furrounded. During her fon's rrgency, (be 
wrote her friend, the Princefs Caroline, word, that flie would 
not meddle with politics. 

' I am too old (fays (he), and want repofe. I never learned the 
art of reigning, and I flionld acquit myfelf very ill. My fon, thank 
God, has fufficient abDities and talents to do without me. I fliall 

five a good example to my fon's wife and daughter. This kingdom 
as unluckily been but too long governed by women> tld and youn|f, 


Fottii^N Literaturk; 163 

•f every kind ; it is high time now for the men to govern themfelves. 
However, when my recommendation can be of the leaft n(e to poor 
and worthy people, I ihall eagerly ufe it— nothing gives me more 
pleafure than to fucceed in fuch applications ; and 1 thank God for 
It as mach as if I had been prolperous in my awn affairs of the 
greateft confequence.' 

And with this benevolent fentimeot^ (b different frona that of 
her nephew, the Dauphin, on the fame fubjeA, we (hall clofe 
our account of this worthy Princefs and her Fragments,; which 
are rendered fo amufing, by the delineations they contain of 
tranfadions behind the curtain, in the moft poliOied and vo- 
luptuous court of Europe, that we hope our readers will not be 
offended at the length of our excrads and remarks. 

Art. IL De la MoraU Naiurelti^ fuivu du Bwhewr detXj U. i. e. 

Jn Ejfay on Natural Etbia^ or Moral Science. By ts. • Nec- 

KBR. 8vo. Paris. 1788. 

Is it not Patroclus, that here comes forth in the armour of 
Achilles, or rather in an armour as like it as this literar3r 
Patroclus could procure from the forge of a mortal Vulcan ? 
To fpeak without a figure, we cannot difcern in the work be« 
fore us the genuine charaders of that elevated genius, that en- 
lightened underftanding, and that feeling heart, which penned 
the E£ay on the Importana of religious Sentiments. We are much 
miftaken, if there is any thing more of M. Nbcker in this 
work, than a nice, little, prim piAure of him prefixed to it, and 
a keen and elaborate attempt to imitate bis ftyle, in thirty-four 
ftiort chapters. We are confirmed in our opinion by an Effay on 
tbe^Happinefs ofFools^ fubjoined to the work, which is ftill more 
inferior to the tafte and fpirit of M. Nxcker than the work it- 
felf. This fupplement, which is an impotent attempt toward 
wit and pleafantry, in our opinion, fully difcovers the impof- 

The work, however, confidered in itfelf, rifes far above con- 
tempt. It abounds with fenfible and acute obfervations on mo- 
ral duties and relations. The ftyle is lively and animated, 
though too quaint and affeded | and the fpiritthat reigns through- 
out the whole, is friendly to virtue. The author appears todif- 
iidvantage in M. Neckbr's coat, but be would have pafled for 
a very perfonable roan in his own. 

Art. III. ' Mecanique Analpiqui. i. e. Analytical Mechanics. 

By M* DE lA Grange, Member of the Academies of 

Paris, Berlin, Peteriburg, and Turin. 410. 513 Pages. 

Paris. 1788. 

The defign of this work, which is worthy the great reputa- 
tion of its celebrated author, is to facilitate the folution of all 
the problems relatire to the fcience of mechanics, confidered 10 


1^4 FoKBicN LitSratueh; 

aiU its extent Its plan and execution are entirely new ; tHs* 
methods which it exhibits are peculiar to the author^ as alfo a 
part of the refults which he deduces from them. It is divided inter 
two PariSf the firft relating to Statics^ or the theory of the equi*' 
librium of bodies ^ and the other to Dynamics^ or t'be thedry of 
their motion*^ 

The principle employed by hrm in folving the problems of 
ftatics,. is that of virtual velocities^ which fcems to have been: 
hitherto negleAed. He prefers this principle on account of its 
fimplicity and univerfality : he finds in it, alfo, the center of 
wiion^ which connc£ls the laws of the equilibrium of fluids, with 
tihofe of the equilibrium of folid bodies ^ and the folution which 
he p;ives of the different problems, relative to the equilibriunEi 
of fluids, whether elaftic or incomprefBble, is fimply a deve- 
lopement of this principle, which his method of employing it 
renders produ<^ive of the moft interefling refults. 

In folving the problema of dynamijcs, this writer adopts the 
well-known principle of the late M. d*Alemrert, which, in 
«rder to efir^uate the direS folution of the problems, rouft be 
combined with fome principle of ftatics* The authors who- 
have hitherto treated this fubje^, have combined it with the 
principle of the lever, or with that of compound motion; but 
M. i>B LA Orange thinks that the admiffion of thefe, as ac- 
ceflbry princtplet, often renders the folution complicated and 
difficult ; and he has found, that the fubftitution of the prln- 
ciple of virtual velocities, in their place, leads to an analytical 
method much more (imple and expeditious* This method, par- 
taking of the advantages of that which is employed in the firffr 
part of this work> gives a pleafing appearance of unity to the 

Art. IV. M$ife conjidere comrm Legijlateur et cmtme Moralijte. r. ei. 
Mofes conildered, at a Lawgiver and a Moralifl. By M. 
Pastoret, Counfellor of the Cour des Aides^ Member, of 
the Academy of Infcriptiona and Belles Lcttres, &c. &c» 
8vo. Paris. 1788. 

This work is highly recommendable on account of the cxtcn* 
live CFudition itdifplay^, and the method, order, and perfpicuity,. 
with which it is compofed. Too much regard is perhaps (hewn 
to Rabbinifmy which often comes in to turn the author'is and his 
reader's attention front the main fufojed. His work commences^ 
from the infancy of Mofes, and the firjl ihapur contains an ac- 
count of his birth and education, with a fummary of his life. 
I In the yu- fuccecding chapters, M. Pastoret treats of the 

' theocracy, of the ci«il and political adminiilration under Mofes^ 

j and its fhaoges and modifications under the Judges, the Kings^ 

and the idSMi^Ul ariflucracy, ^fter the captivity of Babylon ^ 


FoftElGN LlTBRATURt. t€^ 

*whcre lie intift often \o{e fight of hts hero. He treats alfo t^f 
the civil and religious laws of the Jewim empire, relative to 
police, religious woijfhip and ceremonies, the^kdminiflration of 
juftlce, lee. in whicn he reprefents the wifdom, as well as the 
celeftial miffion^ of Mofei, in a very interefting light* 

Art. V. LiUns de Theoiinu le Philanthrope a Madame la CamttJJi 
de B*^* Jur queiquet Objets de Literature et de Morale, i. e. 
Letters from Theotimus the Philanthropift to the Countefe 
of B***, concerning fome Subjeds of Literature and 
Morals, «vo. Paris. 1 788. 

Whether thefc Letters be or be not the production of the Vif- 
-count TousTAiN RAhebourg, and whether the lady to whom 
they arcaddrefTed be, or be not, tbeCountefsof Bea^uharnais, 
is a queflion of little confequence to the Reader. It is certain 
that they do great hoBOur to the writer, whoever be may be, and 
muft excite a high prepoffeilion in favour of the kdy to whom 
they are addrefled, as it is not pral>able, that a French man of 
quality would fit down to entertain a fair reader with dtfcuf* 
£ons that would not fuit her tafte and feelings. 

The fjl^irit of religion, which thefe letters breathe, is liberal, 
pure, and peaceable. The ideas which the noble author has 
formed of Chriftianity difengage it, with refpe^ft to the efTeo* 
Cials of belief, confolation, and pradice, from all fubtile and 
-unintelligible queftions ftarted by difputatious theologifta* 
who go beyond their line. He carefully avoids all unfruitful 
difcuflions^ whether philological or metaphyfical, which only 
tend to perplex the head, and leave the heart cold ;''«-exccpt in 
cafes where the latter ia heated with the unhallowed fire of 
polemics, which kindles pride, refentment, revilings, and oth^ 
fini^of ibe fpiri^. 

Art. VL V Influence de la Dicouverte de YAmeriquejur le Bcnhe^ 
du Genre bumain, i. e. Concerning the Influence o( the Dif- 
covery of America on the Happinefs of Mankind. By the 
Abbe Genty^ Royal Cenfor, correfpondent Member of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences at Paris, &c. gvo* with a Map 
and ati £i)graving. Paris. 1788. 

That the difcovery in queftton was neither advantageous to 
America nor to Europe^ is apropofitioo that many believe; and 
this author illuftratet it, and renders it ftrikiog ; but that it 
might have been, and may even yet be made useful to both, ia 
equally credible. The principal objed of tf)is judicious writer 
is to point out the manner of diminiOiing the evils occafiooed 
by the difeovery of the .new. world, and of multiplying the 
advanuges that may refult from it. The work breathes all- 
Jkral fpiritj and is worthy of attention; 

M 3 ■ Art. 


Art. VIL OhJirvati0Hs fur Monufquiiu. u e« Obferrations oil 
Montefquieu. By M. Lenglbt^ Member of the Academy 
of Arras* 8vo^ Ltfle« 1788. 

This may ferve as a ufeful introduction to the perufal of the 
Spirit of Laws^ the work which M. Lenglst has in view^ ia 
thefe obfervations. It was prefented to the academy of Boar- 
. deaux, as the prize^eulogy of Montefquieu^ but was confidered 
by that learned fociety rather as a critical review of the cele* 
brated work now mentioned, than . as a portraiture of the ge- 
nius, talents, and charaAer of its juftly celebrated author. Thia 
engaged M, Lenolet to publiih it under the name of Obfgr^ 
vatsonsi and in thefe obfervations, many things in the Spirit of 
Laws^ which appear confufed or obfcure (at Icaft to tbe common 
clafs of readers), are happily elucidated. 

Art. VIII. Memoins ii M. k Due di St. Simon^ &c. i. e. The 
Faithful Obfcrver; or^ Memoirs of the Duke of St. Si- 
mony relative to the R^gn of Lewis XIV. and the earlier 
Periods of the fucceeding Reign. 3 Vols. 8vo. (Pr. iz 

Thefe memoirs, though they have neither the merit of elegant 
compofitioU) nor chronological order, are neverthelefs highl/ 
interefting; They are e^trafled from the papers of a noble- 
man, who was perfefily acquainted with what pafled at the 
court of Lewis XIV. and was highly diftinguiflied by that 
rough probity, freedom of fpeech, and aufierity of manners, which 
naturally attrad a peculiar degree of credit to his narrative. 
We find here many details and anecdotes concerning the wars 
and minifters of the French Monarch, the intrigues of his ca- 
binet, his favourites and miftreflesi the ceremonial of his court, 
the incidents of his private life, his habits and manners, aqd 
other particularities, that gratify curiofity. The ift Book of thefe 
Memoirs comprehends the privati and public life of Lewis, 
whom the author exhibits in his manifold Uttkmjfisj as well as 
in hfs fplendid tranfadlions: the whole, without fear or fa-v 
TOur, and fo as to nuke the hero appear a Micromegas^ that is, 
a gnat'littU-maHm 

The 2d Book contains the particular hiflory of the refpeft-r 
able Dauphin (the Marcellus of France), that of the Duke 
and Duchefs of Burgundy, and the reft of the family»*^-man]f 
details, relative to the Duke of Orleans, Regent, and other 
Princes of the blood; and a long account of tbe uncommon 
fortune* and misfortunes of that fingular perfonage, the Prin^ 
ce(s of Urfins. The profligate Duhois is not here ftigmatized 
in proportion to his turpitude, nor Fenelon applauded in pro- 
portion to his merit;— and this muft naturally furprife U9, when 
we confider tbe character of the author. 



In the 3d Book, we have anecdoces relative to foreign af* 
fairs and perfims, that have a£bed the firft parts on the political 
fcene; and here the ajffairs of Spain^ and the miniftry of Albe- 
ronty occupy a confiderable place. 

In a fuppUminti the noble author fdraws a pidure of the 
court of France, as it was in the year 1711, which is very 
curious; and defcribcs the tone of manners and. morals,' which 
diftinguilhed the moft celebrated ladies of that time. 


For FEBRUARY, 1789. 

Art, 14. NrWf candid ^ and f radical Thoughts on the Law of Im^ 
prifinmtnt for Deht, with a View to the Regulation of it; for the 
Prevention and Puniihment of Frauds ; for the Maintenance of 
Credit ; for the better and more fpeedy Satisfadion of Creditors ; 
and for the Relief of unfortunate Perfons confined for Debt ; to« 
gether with Heads propofed for an Adl of Parliament for efi^dting 
thefe Pnrpofes ; and for preventing unlawful and malicious Ar* 
refts. fiy a Country Attorney. 8vo. is. 6d. Whieldon. 1788. 

THE fecurity of private property , and the defence of credit^ are 
the objeds which the law concerning imprifonment for debc 
leems to have in view. The author of the prefent performance 
founds his reafoning on this maxim ; and. after fliewing that the law 
as it now (lands is no defence of credit, gives no fecurity to private 
property, is cruel and oppreflive, and makes no diftindion between 
an unfortunate honefl trader, and a defi^nihg fwindler, he iUtes the 
ancient mode of proceeding in cafes of debt--the prefent praAice— - 
with a few obfervations on them both, and examines the (latute jad 
of Geo. II. r ufually called the Lords A^) to ihew its ineHicacy, im- 
policy, and fallacy* 

His inquiries terminateJn the propofal of heads for an Aik of Par* 
liament, for regulating the laws of imprifonment for debt ; the 
principal parts of which are, that at a limited time after imprifoa- 
ment^ the priibner may deliver a fchedule of his effedls to the plain- 
tiff, and auer a ilated number of days to appear in court, there to 
deliver a duplicate of his fchedule, and fubmithimfelf to be then ex-' 
amined ; that if the court be fatisfied with the ftatement of the cafe» 
and convinced that no fraud was intended, the effbds to be equal]/ 
divided among all his creditors, and the debu>r difcharged. Should 
fraud appear ta have been his motive, then penalties are to be 
enaded. For parttculars, however, of thb apparently equitable pro- 
pofal, we rthr our readers to the pamphlet, which abounds with much 
juft obfervation, and feems to point out proper means for the relief 
of m^orttfnate perfons confined for debt. 

M 4 Art. 

i68 MoNTiiLV Catalogue, Martial Law^ &c. 

Art. 15. noughts bn Imprt/onment for D(bt. Humbly addrcflcd- to 
Kis Majefty. By f. A. S. "Murray, £fq. 410, is. ^d. Hook- 
ham. 1788. 

Mr. Murray expatiates on the injuries which imprifonment for 
debt produces to the ftate, to the creditor, and to the debtor: and 
thinks, * that if debtors mull be imprifoned, or driven from their na-f 
tive country to avoid it, there ought to be fhort dated periods ap-« 
pointed for the enlargement of the one, and the recalment of the 
other.* Thi» hint feems liable to mapy objedlions. It has beea 
juilly faid, that *' no man (hould be liable to imprifonment for debt; 
that tvtiy debtor, of whatfocver degree, if he fliall owe to a certain 
amount, ihall be compellable to fatisfy his c^editors in a manner 
more fummary than that diredled by the common law before the in-r 
trodudion of commerce ; and that if he fhall negleft, within a prc- 
fcribed time, to anfwer their jufi demands, he diall be liable to a 
commiflion of infolvency ; but it fhould not be in the power of any 
malicious creditor to harafs him with a falfe demand.'^ 

/ ,MartialLaw. 

Art. 16. Jn Opinion on ihi Pofwer of Courts Martial to PU^MSH for 
Contempts; occafioned by the Cafe of Major John Browne, of 
the Sixty-feventh Regiment. 8vo. pp. 22. is. 6d. Bell, 1788. 
In this opinion (which is (igned W. Gilbert)' the fpirit and ten- 
dency of the I5lh article of ihe i6th feQion of The Articles of IVar^ 
are fcverely impugned, in order to fhew, that the power of fupprclT- 
ing contempts, by fummary punilhraent, is cither futile or fatal. ' la 
the firfl ftage only,' fays the author, * it is futile ; in the fecond, and 
every fubfequent, fatal. Nay, it is as fatal, and that in every ftage, 
to the difcipline of the army as it is to the liberty of the fubjed. It 
is as inimical to its own party as to the fafety of the date ; as deftruc- 
tivc of the caufc it is meant to promote, as of that, with which it is 
in open boflility.' — This do^lripe is warmly but fenfibly and learn- 
edly maintained by the author; who appears to have well fludied 
the fubjcft.— For an account of the trial of Major Qrowne^ fee Rc«,. 
view for July 1788, p, 71.* 


Art. 17. Melijfa and Marcia\ or the Siflers. lamo. a Vols, 6s, 
fewcd. Lane. 1788. 
This performance has a more than ordinary degree of merit, both 
with refpeil to the (Irength of its charadcrs, and its ftyle. The 
progrefs of vice, as feen in a woman of falhion, is, in particular, 
delineated with a fpirited but delicate pencil; and the moral, which 
points out the fuperioiity of a life of regularity over that of diffi- 
pation, by the example of a death-bed repentance, with all its con« 
comitant horrors, is fuch as the lover of virtqe mjll ncccilarily ap-i 

Art. l8. Henrietta of Gerjisnf eld \ a German Story. Vol. 2. iznio. 
2s. 6d fewed. Line. 1788. 
In the title-ppge to ihc firfi volume of this production, publi(hed 
XX^ 17S7, the na^ue of inland appeared as iu author. It i.s hD«'- 


MoKTMLY CataidguEj Novek. 169 

ever, omitted io that of iht/econJ. We then ^avc it as oar opi* 
Dion (Rev. vol, Ixxvii. p. 79.), that this little work proceeded not 
from the pen of that ingenious gentleman ; and we are not induced, 
from the continuation of the ftory, here prefentcd to us, to change it. 

^rt. 19, Mtmoirs of the Mifs Holmjhjs. By Sarah Emma 5penccr» 
izmo. 2 Vols. 5 s. fewed. Smith, 1788. 

• I do not regret having an opportunity of faying (bmething of 
jnyfcif ; which will, I prefume, difppfe every humane and cand]4'' 
reader to'excufe fome of the faults of the following pages. I have 
had but 4n humble education.— I may truly add, that I have not . 
a friend in the world who would take the trouble of corrcding thefe 
epiilles : they therefote appear juft as they fell from my pen. They 
were written by the bed-iide of a ilck hufband, who has no other 
fupport than what my writings will produce.' Author* sPref act. 

Such a dory would aifuredly caufe 'the pen to drop from the hanJl 
of the moft fevere and rigorous critic. But the writer ftands not ia 
need of the indulgence which fhe folicits. Her Novel is generally 
interefting. There is a happy contrail of charadler in it; and the 
more prominent features of virtue and vice ^arc depided with confix 
derable ikill and judgment. 

Art. 20. X)/<waU Cajlli ; or Memoirs of Lady Sophia Woodville, 
lamo. 2 Vols. 6 s. fewed. Hookham. 1788. 
Charader and incident^ the principal, and indubitable requliltes 
in novel- writing are not. to be found in this performance. The 
elegant and the tender, however, are happily blended in it. It is, 
in (horty a very> pretty love-llory ; a Hory from which our women 
inay learn, as in a mirrour, to deck themfelves with the jewels of 
virtue and morality— Z^&e bright eji <wbich they a^n pojjibly ivear. 

Art* 21. Pbaebei or diflreflcd Innocence. i2mo. 3 Vols. 58. fewed. 

** Every fable or ftory," fays the Stagyrite, " muft have a begin- . 
ning, a middle, and an end.'* The author of the prefent i>erform- 
ance, however, fcems to be-of opinion that there is no necefliiy for 
JTuch formalities. What a jumble of abfurdity is here 1 ** Chaos it 
^ome again." 

Art. 22. The Ilfufions of Sentiment. 12 mo. 2 s. fewed. AxtelL' 
Trifling and frothy, Ifabclla de Montmorency, the heroine of 
the Tale, informs us that fhe is * inured to tranfcribe her mofi tri<uiaf 
thoughts^. We are very forry to hear ic, and iincerely wilh her 
fome better employment. 

Art. 23. Helena. By a Lady of Diflindlion. i2mo. 2S. 6d. fewed. 
Richardfon. 1788. 

• Helena, a Novel, by a Lady of diftin^ion.* No ! faid <we, men*- 
tally*, on a perufal of it, this is not the produdion ot, a woman of 

• * Said he mental ly.*-^Xh is expreflion occurs in the prefent and 
alfo in three or four other Novels, which have, within- the lail 
twclvjB months, fallen into our hands. From this, and otberyf«rg^«- 
faritihf we fuppofc them to be the productions of one and the lame 

* falhion. 

17^ Monthly Catalogue, Mfallaneous. 

iafhion. Bat let not this remark operate to the prejudice of tha 
work. — The trath is, that there is no little degree of merit in this No- 
vel : we mean not in the delineation and force of' the chara£tersy but 
in the feveral pleailng and trurly moral refledlions which are icat* 
.tered through it. We wifh this Latfy efJifiinBiou wonld allow her- 
lelf a greater portion of time in the finilhing of her compofitions, fo 
9S to give them the correflnefs which they undoubtedly want^ But 
perhaps we require what is altogether impoffible. She may be ia 
^e fame> or nearly the fame fituation as that of many gtutlmen aw 
fh$rs — ** deeped in poverty to the very lips."— Unhappy gentle* 
aien, the Drydens, perhaps* of the day 1— and wbo^ unable in anjr 
fort, to counterad that poverty,— 

Do pine. 
Look palti and all Decemher tajle no nvinr, Jvv. Sat. I. 
Bnt this obfervacion refpeding the prefent writer is founded only 
Sd conjedure, and judging from the rapidity with which ihe appear^ 
to write ; w^ fliall be glaato find ourfelves miflaken in the matter. 


Art. 24. A Series of Letters. By the Authpr of Clarinda Cathcart^; 

Alicia Montague f ; and the Comedy of Sir Harry Gaylove t- 

i2mo. 2 Vols. 6s. fewed. Elliot. 17B8. 

We refer in the note below to the opinions which we gave of thefe 
^feparate publications before we knew of their affinity^ or of their 
common parent, who, in an advertifement to the prefent volumes, 
£gns herfelf ^ean Marijhall, and dates from Edinburgh. We be- 
lieve this Lady profeifes (bme branches of education, either publicly 
or privately, and (he exprefles herfelf with eafe and freedom on the 
fevefal points which now have emplo)^ her attention. In one of 
Jier letters ihe gives the public her literary hiilory, a hiftory more 
amufing to the reader than to the anxious writef. The high expec- 
tations of inexperience, and the ityftte mortifications of difappoint- 
snent, are however by no means unnfual with literary adventurers ; 
with whom notwithftanding the world is always fufficiently fupplied ] 
and however this Lady may have fufiered, it does not appear that ihe 
is yet difheartened ; having, from the circumfUnces related, met with 
more private confolation than many of her unfortunate competitors 
for literary emoluments. 

Thefe letters , were written to one of her young popil^, after he 
had left her; and they treat of a variety of fubjeds, moral^ poli- 
tical, and religious ; and though (he wanders too far from home ia 
the latter, (he makes many judicious obfervations on education and 
itiorals : in all, however, ihe evidently fbrms too high expeflations 
from the fuccefs of proper tuition, and proper meafures ; fiu- higher 
than the nn tradable nefs of human difpofitions, and the counterac-^ 
tion of the human paifions, will warrant. Judging from her general 
good fenfe, we were much difappointed at her apology for daubing 
the human face with artificial colours; which we cannot fufier to 

♦ See Rev. vol. xxxiii. p. 40c. f Rev. vol, xxzvii. p. 76. \ Rev, 
Tpl. xlviii. p. 7^, 


MoKTHLY Catalogue, Mifcellani^uil i*ji 

pt{s without difapprobation. It is contained in the following paC- 
&ge written to her popil, then in Switzerland : 

* At the wedding to which yoa was invited, although unacquainted 
with the parties, you fay you was much hurt at (eeing the Ladie# 
fiandiog in a group, the bridegroom in the midd of them, with z 
xooge-box in one hand, and with the other, painting the Ladies 
cheeks, fingle and married. You could not help exclaiming*— X> 
tempera ! monsZ—Now, my dear friend, in my opinion it would 
have been much more agreeable to your natural difpolition of pleafing, 
to have enjoyed the humour of the company ; and if [it be] cufto- 
mary for the men in Switzerland to paint an inch thick, to have 
without fcruple followed their example. For my parr, I fee no more 
barm in puttin? rouge on the face, than in powdering the hair» 
only fo far as it is done with an intention to deceive : and even ia 
this relped, I am not very clear about it ; for if it is allowable to 
cover any defed of nature, or improve it by art> why not tho com- 
plexion f* 

Becaofe, though both may be equally prepofterous, abftra£Ud 
from the obligations of that tyrant, faihipn, the latter is more inju- 
rious than the former, and deilroys prematurely what it was meant 
to improve. £ven if it had not this evil tendency, is one bad habit, 
an z€t of grofs deception, to juftify another? If fo, the authority 
grows ftronger as we advance, and difdains all limitation !' We 
little expelled to find a lady fo capable of adviiing in other poinu 
of conduct, fo egregioufly duped bv a depraved cuftooi, that we did 
not think had travelled fo far North. 

We have yet another point to fettle with Mrs. M^rifhall, and that 
is, the merit of Novel -writing as a vehicle of inftrudidn ; which fho 
ftrenuonHy aflerts* ^ I am clearly of opinion that'novels have infpircd 
a thoufand young people with principles of honour and moral ftQ\* 
^de, for one they ever hurt.' Sorry as we are to difpute her judg* 
itfent, we are as clearly of a contrary opinion. In proportion as 
ientiment is fubfiituted for adventures, or adventures lead |o fenti- 
inent, the ftory grows infipid, and fuch Novels are rejeded as bad* 
Novel-readers do not read for in(lru6tion, but for amufement ; that 
kind of amufement which abftradts their attention from their owa 
homely concerns, and carries them into the flowery regions of ima-' 
gination, whence they return with reluftance to their own family 
a£Fairs and connections ; which their familiarity with their ideal ac- 
quaintance leads them to defpife, as unfuitable to their new ideas of 
fenfibility ; and a deiire to realize feme of thofe pleafing vifions, too 
often tempts them into improper afTociations, and to wrong fteps. 
Let the feducing fcenes, to vulgar mind^, in the Beggar^ Oftr^ decide 
the queftion. 

If ^n haberdalher's powdered daughter takes every opportunity to 
fteal from behind her father's counter up to her own room, to Hudy 
the adventures of Jenny and Jemmy Jeflamy ; if every petty gentle- 
man's daughter difdains the imputation of attending to domeftic 
courems, to bridle forth a Mifs Byron, we need not wonder at 
matrimonial difappointments, nor to find prudent young men fhrink 
from venturing, where the chances are fo greatly againfl them* If 


i;x Monthly Catalogue, MifctUanem* 

(he* merchant's* clerk, inftead of iiXing his mind ileadily to traffic^ 
and to poiUng his accounis, diiSpates his ideas, by tracing theamonrs 
o{ Capuin A. and Lady B. or the CoTent Garden frolics of Colonel 
C* his morals will be as much difordered as his books : and ihould 
Mrs. Mariihall plead that fi^t does not write for the low mechanical 
ranks of mankind ; "^^^ if the obligation which Novel-writers are 
under to render their ££lions agreeable, does no good to the fape- 
rior daflesia life, and, which is of much more importance, diftra^ 
the attention and perverts the judgment of the lower orders in fo*- 
ciety, — the cafual advantage they may afford to thofe few whofe prin- 
ciples are not to be fkaken, cannot balance the extenfive difadvan- 
Cagedone to thofe whofe paflions make a wrong application of eqai* 
vocal lefibns ! But manners arc now fo far relaxed, that thefe anti- 
quated notions will only be reliihed by the few : for even the prudent 
Mrs. Mariihall, who, as we have (hown, allows her fex to improve 
their complexions by paint, considers domeftic duties as only fervile 
concerns below the attention of a wife, where they can be paid for ; 
of courfe, fo far as fuch fentiments operate, they will be paid for 
oftener than they can be fafely afbrded. Such ^odrine is at leajl 

Att* 2 J. Important FaBs and Opinions nlati^ve to tie King ; faithfulljr 

colledled from the Examination of the Royal Phylicians, and 

clearly arranged under general Heads. 410. is. Ridgewav. 1789, 

The principal parts of the examination of the pbyfiaans are 

here fele£ied, and as the title-page exprefTes it, arranged under^eneral 

heads. The plan is -doubtled a good one ; and admitting it to have 

been impartially executed, this compilement may fave the reader of 

ahe original report great labour in colieding and judging of the 


Art« 26. APofi/crift to Mrs. Sttwart^s Cafi. 410. ^d. See eur laft 
Month's Review, p. 82. 
Mrs. Stewart, otherwife Rudd, continues her fpirited inveo- 
tlves again ft Lord Rawdon (once her benefactor), as the# intercept 
cor of that public benevolence, to which ihe apprehends herfelf co 
have a peculiar claim, as a woman of birth and family f, reduced 
to extreme diftrefs. She alfo takes fome notice of certain paragraphs 
which bad appeared in the newfpapers concerning her; and fie ftill 
reproaches her enemies, in terms of the moil fovereign contempt* 
Some other perfons of diftindlion are alfo attacked in this pamphlet. 

Art. 27. M, Neckar's Report t^ his mofi Cfjriflian Majefiy in Cotincii^ 
announcing important Changes in the French Government, 
Tranflated from the French. 8vo. pp« 47. J s. 6d« Debre(t« 
It is impoiSble to perufe this admirable addrefs to the King of 

France, without being filled with the higheft admiration of the wif- 

• Elither an Englilh or a Scots merchant ; for the heads of both 
are too much diverted from the low attentions on which their welfare 

t See cmr account of her cafi^ as above referred to* 

I dom 

Monthly Catalogue, Pclitiad'. tf^ 

iom and patriotie virtue of the excellent ipinifter, to wko/e indrii-- 
mentality France will, in all probability, be for ever indebted (be- 
caofe fhe can never fully repay him) for that reformation in govern^ 
ncDt, which feems to be happily advancing, with gradual (leps, but 
determined perpofe : fo that the time, perhaps, is at no great dif^ 
txnce, when that emancipated nation will no longer ^ear« with ab^ 
jedfubmiffion, her Grand Mo^ar^e aflerting 

** The right divine of Kings to — govern wrong.** 


Art. 28. JLiitirt^ John ffffrng TooJU, Efq. occafioned by his Two Pai k 

or Portraits, and other late ^Pablications. 8vo* pp. ioo» 

2s. Stalker. 1789. 

We moft ranlc thu epillolary performance among the moiit diiUn-^ 
goifhed of thofe produdions which have appeared in oppofition tm 
the party that hath taken the field under the banners of him who was 
eace ftyled tlfi man of the ptople : a title which now feemt to havo 
changed fides. 

This well-informed writer, apprehends that the portraits drawn 
by Mr. Tooke, have been too mach contraded; that they have 
been exhibited to the world without thofe elaborate and £ni(hing 
tooches which the pencil of fuch a mafter can give to every feature ^ 
that they are only iketches in miniature ; and that, of courfe, they 
moft fail of producing all that general tfit&. which the times re«- 
qoire. — He therefore advifes his very ingenious correfpondent to 
enlarge hiscanvafs, and to give its x\it four perjhm^ in their full pro- 
portion, as large as the life. * The materials,' fays he, * are more 
than can be crowded into the narrow limits which yon ieem to have 
prefcribed to yourfelf. What you have executed * has done mnch. 
good, but more is in your power. Give us, with that ilrength of co^ 
looring of which you are mafter, your Two Pair of Portrait* 
over again. Begin with the Right Hon. Henry Fox, and the Right 
Hon.' William Pitt. Thofe were the names which thirty years age 
kept the poblic mind in agitation, and they are at this hour the 
names that engage the attention of the whole community. The fl- 
toations in which the two UtrmtT Hood, as well with regard to the 
Bacion as to each other, may be traced ; their condu^ in thofe fitua- 
u'otos may be diilindly marked ; and it will not be incurious to point 
oat the lines of refemblance in the charaAers and condu6^ of their 
defcendants. Such hints as have occurred to me, I fhall offer to 
jonr confideration.* 

With this view, the writer prefents to his friend, in order as he ex- 
preflcsit, *'to point out to him a general outline,' j1 Pair of 
Portraits, * as drawn by the maHerly hand of the late Earl of 
Cbeflerfield f. Thefe pictures are certainly well painted, and they 
are generally deemed good refemblances ; though perhaps that of Mr. 

♦ For the account given by us, of Mr. H. T.'s t<wo Pair of For - 
trait's 9 fee Review for Anguft 1788, page 175. 

t The author profefles to have copied them from Flexney's publi- 
cation in 1777.— Our readers will find ihe portrait of Mr. Pitt at 
length, in the Review, vol, Ivi. p. 293/ 

1 1 Fo^ 

174 Monthly CATALootJB, PMcaL 

Fox wat ratber too harfhly delineated.^ Was it not too fevercty 
faidy that ** he had DOt the lead notion of, or regard for, the pob- 
iic good or the cOnftitation» but defpifed thofe cares as the obje^ of 
narrow minds, or the pretences of intereded ones ?" We hope this 
'will not apply to any living charadler, of confeqaence to our nationid 
welfare l^-Of Mr. Pitt's advantageoas portrait, as here oppofed to 
that or Mr. Henry Fox, we need fay nothing, having already exhi- 
bited it to our readers at foil length. Set tb$ nott above referred 

The ingenious letter-writer follows up Lord Cheflerfieid's exhibi- 
tion with his own more ample portraiture of thofe two celebrated 
characters ; and he appears to have been well acquainted with the 
originals,— or, at leaft, fufficiently informed, with refpedt bQth to 
their private views and their public conduct. His inveiligations, ac- 
cordingly, feem to have more depth than is ufual with the ordinary . 
run of our political fpeculations ; and we prefume to add, that his 
details perfedly accord with our own recoliedion of what pafled in 
the times of which he here takes an accurate review. 

Having gone very circum&antially through the charaAers of the 
Pitt and the Fox of former days, and contrafted them in the 
mod ftriking light, he modeftly obferves, addreffing himfelf to his 
correfpondent, ' I do not pretebd that mine is the hand to paint 
them in the ftrength of colouring, with which fuch eminent per- 
fons ought to be finifhed. I can only fketch in crayons. You, Sir, 
will be able, if you chnfe to retouch your Two Pair op Poe- 
TRAiTS, to exhibit to the world, bold yet juft repreientation. I now 
pafs to the two fons of thofe exalted perfons.' — Accordingly, he ea- 
ters on a curious, entertaining, and perhaps not unufeful difplay of 
the character and condud, public and private, of the Pitt and 
the Fox of the prefent day. * The fons,* he obferves, ' fiand in 
the fame relation to each other, as their fathers did at the breaking 
out of the French war in 1756. We fhall fee them, befides, in the 
fame relation to their country, both high in office; both competi- 
tors; and of courfe adverse to each other. How much they retain 
of their refpefiive fathers, and what they have added, will be matter 
ofcurioiity; but it <wtll he/ometbing man tban curiofity . Two fuch 
portraits, given at length, will inform the people of England what 
they are to expe£l, ihould Mr. Pitt be permitted to continue in that 
high Ration which be has ^lled for ^yt years pail ; or, on the other 
hand, (hould Mr. Fox, in a time of public calamity» rife once 
more to power. If he does, noftrd mi/erid magnus etP 

The conclufion of the foregoing paragraph will fufficiently inti- 
mate to our readers in what degree Mr. Home Tooke's correfpond- 
ent (lands afFeded to the colours of v** blue and buff,** — He proceeds 
In his inve(ligat4on of the political manoeuvres and changes of the 
times; which he traces down to the prefent day; interfperfing his 
details, anecdotes, and remarks, with fhrewd glances at ieveral cha- 
raders, bcljde thofe already mentioned ; particularly that of Mr. 
Sheridan, on whom he is pointedly fevere. He alfo takes occafion 
to difcufs the two celebrated India bills, and totally condemns that of 
Mr. Fox, as highly inimical to the privileges of the great chartered 
company, as well as to our general, national^ and conftitadoQal 
13 rights. 

MoHTHLY Catalogue^ P^Htnal 175 

rightii. — Toward his conclufion, he takes leave of hit coirefpondeat 
in the following terms.: ' I have now, Mr. Tooke, fubmitted to 
yoar coniideracion the hints that occurred to me towards the com* 
pletion of your Two Pair of Portraits. There is abondant 
mat ter* ]]in deed there is!] ' for the enlargement of your plan.^I 
flatter myfelf, <hat in the mifcellaneous manner of this epiftle, I 
have touched fome points worthy of your notice. To /pruut 
yntr can*vafs vuider is a duty which you owe your country ; and lee 
oie add, that as new adtors are t\txy .day producing themfelves on 
the ereat theatre of national bufinefs, it will be a further fervice t» 
mankind if you will give their portraits at fail as they rife.' 

Mr. Tookt will certainly do well to avail himfelf of the affift- 
ance of fo able a coadjutor^— -if he has any thoughts of carrying oai 
the bufinefs of literary portrait-painting. 

Art. 29. A Letter from a Country Gentleman ^ to a Memher ofPcw 
Jiement^ on the prefent State of Public Affairs. 8vo. pp. 7c« zu 
Walter, Piccadilly. 

It is impoffible for an impartial and dlfcerning reader, to pernfe 
this letter, without vielding co its very feniible author, a high degree 
t>f approbation. His remarks ' on the palling fcene of things ia 
this country/ and on the views of the contending parties who figure 
•n the great political theatre, are ferious, fol id, and acute; andhia 
charaders of the diftinguiflied perfons * mentioned im the note Mow, 
«re drawn not only with the utmoft force and freedom of expreifion^ 
but, V9t are afraid, with too much truth of colouring. We repeat^ 
that we are afrtud^ becaufe (we are forry to add) the whole tenor of 
his obfervatioas drongly militates againft the principles and condu^ 
of the leaders of that party, lately didinguiihed by the naoie of thi 
PaiMCi's priBNDs; but who, in the elHmation of this writer, are 
not, in reality, entitled to that denomination. — As to the political 
merits of this well-written trad, we enter not into the queflion ; but 
we cannot refufe oUi tribute of praife to the author of a very mafterly 

Art. 30. The pre/ent National Emham^lfment confiderid\ containing 

a Sketch of the Political Situation of the Heir Apparent, and 

of the legal Claims of the Parliament now afTembled at Weil- 

minfier. 8vo. pp. 68. is. 6d. Hookham, &c. 

The author, who appears, from his manner of treating therubje£U 
to be a lawyer, with his head full of Weilminiler-hall quibbles, and 
intricate problems, fets out with dating, 

I. That the King's prefent (ituation, that is to fay, his political 
fitoatioD, has not been confidered in the propered light. 

n. The legal claims of the Heir Apparent have been mifrepre- 

III. The legal fituation and claims of the parliament, at the pre- 
lent jundure, have alfobeen mif-dated. 

* The Dukes of Norfolk, Portland, and Northumberland ; the 
boofes of Devondiire and Rudel; the Lords Thurlow, Loughborough, 
and North ; Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox, Mr. Burke, Mr. Sheridan, Mrs. 
FitzJkrbert, and hit iU^al Highnefs thi PaiNCfi op Wales. 


176 MoNTrtLY Catalogue, PolitUaU 

For the author's manner of reafoning on thefc knotty points, wt 
4nuil refer co the pamphlet: in which are many fhrewd remarks^ 
and fubtle concluiiuns, new, lingular, and perplexing enoogh to fee 
' the whole nation together by the ears. 

Art. 31. Authtntit Specimens rf all the Adirejfes thdi have hten^ nni, 

all that 'will bet prejented to the Right HonoUrahU Wiliiam Pitt^ 
. and 4he virtnons and uncorrupted Majorities in both Honfes of 

Parliament, &c. 8vo. pp^ 102. 2s. 6d. Ridgway. 

This pamphlet confifta chiefly of fecrct inllrudions for manvfac* 
tured addrefles, with a few fpecimens, in pretended cabinet converfa- 
irons between Mr. Pitt, Mr. Robinfon, Mr. Wilbcrforce, Biifaop of 
Lincoln, &c. Theaothor writes well ; but he « too fcvcre on the 
above-mentioned chara6tersi and too liberal of iiis fneers at other in- 

Time atont can (hew whether there be any ju^ice in his opinions 
of Mr. Pttt and hb coadjutors, and their meafures. 

Wc fufpeft thit the author of this pamphlet is the fame genius 
who at once entertained and offended us by the * Royal, RecollediMs,* 
Sec Rev. for Nov. lall, p. 468. 

Art. 32. J ColleSioH of AddreJJes and Letters^ that hafoe been fent^ or 

may be fent to the Right Hon, ' Chancellor of the 

Exchequer, &c. 8vo. 2s. Stalker. 

Through the medium of various ill fabricated letters to Mr. Pitt* 

this author execrates that miniiler and his meafiires, and rej(>ices ai 

liis fuppofed downfall. 

Art. 33. A Letter ^written By his R, H the f. of Wales ^ in An* 
fwer to Mr. Pitt's Letter, which contained the Limitations, &c. 
8vo. 6d. Ridgway. 

For reafons beft known to himfflf, the editor of this pamphlet has 
fupprefled Mr. Pitt's letter ; while, in his preface, he loudly de- 
claims in fa\t)urof tiie Prince, and of his anfwer. If, as a compofi- 
tion, the royal reply dcferves praife, how much belongs to his High- 
iiefs, as iht compo/er ci M, we cannot determine : — Suffice it to lay, 
tiiat this copy appears to be incorredl in many places. 

Art. 34. An authentic Copy of Mr, Pitt'^s Letter to his R. H. the 
P. of Wales, with his /infwer. 8vo. 6^» Stockdale. 
This copy feems to be drawn from the fame fource with the fore- 
going, as it has the fame apparent errors and impcrfedions. The 
advertifement of it taught os to cvpcd fome ' con flit u tion al re- 
marks,' by the Editor, but ^for delicate rea/cns,^ he has poUponed 
them till the next edition. 

Art. 35. Authentic Copies efMr> Pitt's Latter to his R. H. the P. 
of Wales, and of his R. H.'s Reply. 4C0. 6d. Becker, &c. 
Thisedition of ihele celebrated letters diflers, in feveral inftaaces, 
from each of the preceding ; and, as far as we can judge, they arc 
here given in a really authentic and accurate flaie. 
Arc. 36. An Addrefs to his R. IL the Prime cf Wales, on the Re- 
port of his intention 10 refufe the Kenency. By a Member of 
.Parliament, &c* To which are added Mr. l^itt's Letter to the 
Prince, and his ^. H.'s Aofwer. 8vo- is. 6d. Ktariley. 
•After afFc6ling |0 condemn, in the ilrongeft terms, the Mlniflcr'a 
Ticws aad mcarurcs, with refpe^ to the much controv^ncd rejlric^ 


Mo!7THLT Catalogue, PoUticah 177 

fions^ Hkt author conclodcs with adviiiDg his R. H. to accept the 
proffered terms, rather than leave ail the power in the hands of Mr. 
Pitt. — Bat there is an appearance of litcleners and infidious canning 
in the arguments of this pretended M. P. fuch as, we trud, couJd 
never have influenced the mind of his Royal Highnefs had they bceci 
offered to his coofideration. 

With riefpeft to the copies of the Prince's and Mr. P.''s letters, 
here annexed, they are not more corf«^ than the firft two, above 

Aft. 37. Sjfiffmris on the Prince $f Wales* s Letter to Mr. Pitt. In a 
Letter addre/ied to his Royal Highnefs. By Candour. 8vo. pp« 
28. IS. Stalker, &c. 

Candour confiders his Royal Highnefs's letter to Mr. Pitt as 
imprudent and icppolitic, with refpe<6i to the ivriting, and unprince- 
Jy, in regard to its puSIication.^^Thc writer's expoltulaiion with hi$ 
Highnefs on this ful>j<;^^ is«arneft, but decent, and fenfible. 

Art. 38. ■ The ^eflion/ol<veiii or the Right of the Prince bf Wales, 
to be (ble, unlimited, dnd immediate Regent, demooilrated» 
from the Nature of the Con(Hiaiion, and the Law of the Land. 
8vo. pp. 56. 18. 6d. Edinburgh. Printed for Elliot and Kay, 

What are political demondrations ? In mathematics, demonftrarion 
generally determines the propofition ; but here is a queflion dc- 
inooftrated at Edinburgh, which at Wedminfter has been refolded in, 
a way diametrically oppofue ! but fuch differences muil always be 
cxpedled, when demonftrations are put to the vote, 

Art. 39^ I. A Letter from an Irijh Gentleman in London ^ to the People 
' of Ireland, on the Limitation of the Regency. 8vo. pp. 38. is. 

Art. 40. II. Afccond Letter , from the Same to the Same. 8vo. pp. 
62. 15. 6d. Debrett. 
The writer, apprehending that the lords and commons of Ireland 
will be called on to adopt the refolutions of the Britilh parliament, 
relative to the appointment of a Regency, endeavours to animate 
them with a fpirit ofoppofition to iht reJlriSlhns \ contending, that 
tJie P. of W. ought to be inveftcd with the full prerojgaiive4 of the 
crown, with all its attributes and authorities.— He writes with fpi- 
rit and plaulibilitv, if he does not argue conctufively : and his 
clothes are blue and huff" of the dcepeft dye. It fhould fecm that our 
good iider, Hihernia, hath taken the hint, and followed the au- 
thor's advice. 

Art. 41. Cofy of a Declaration of Articles fuhfcribed hy the Memhin 
of Ad miniilration, and now propofed for Subfcnption to the 
Counties and Bodies Corporate of Great BtitalA. 8vo. pp. 17. it. 

An ironical attack on Mr. Pitt, and his md miniilration. The 

iiooy of thu little fquib is not contemptible ; and where a roan of 

parts is eagerly exerciiing his wit in the ufe cX this plcafant figare» 

caadour and liberality of fentimcnt are feldom much attended to. 

Rev. Feb. 1789. W Art. 

178 Monthly Catalogue » Political. 

Art. 42. J' Let fir to the mofi infolent Man alive. 4ttK pp. %\. 
is.-6d. Kearfley. 
Tbe mlnifter it the charaaer umed at in this party pafaoinade | 
the lively author of which pofTeiTes abilities'that oaght to be more 
liberally employed. The •' infiUnce'* in the title*page, is a fair 
fpedoien of tbe whole. 

Art. A3. A C§py of tbe Speech which it is now /aid *will he delivered 

by his Royal Highncfs the Prince of Wales, to both Hoofes of 

Parliament, on his firft Appearance in the Hon fe of Lords as Re- 

gent. pp. lo. 4to. 6d. Walter in Piccadilly. 

Well imagined, and very well writteni; though the author con Id 

have had no expedaiion that any thing like it woald have been 

adopted : for he makes the Prince defert the party to which, it ia 

generally fuppofed, he has long adhered. Among other wnexfeQed 

things, the regent, herot declares hit refoiutiOB to cootinne the pre* 

fent miniftry. 

Art. 44. Letters to a Prince ^ from a Man of Kent. 8vo. pp. 59. 
IS. 6d. Ricfaardfon. 
The man of Kent offers much good counfel to the P. of Wales, on 
the fuppofition of his fpeedily entering on the office of regent. He 
addredes his R. H. with great earnefhiefs and freedom, but with 
no impropriety of language. He is a warm friend to Mr. Pitt, 
whom he confiders as * the moft popular man in the kingdom.' 
After obferving this, it is fcarcely neceiiary for us to add, that he 
(Irongly recommends the detention of fo able and fortunate a minify 
ter.^— Abdraded, however, from the immediate political aim of 
the letter;, ic would be injullice to difmifs them without acknow- 
I^g^i^g their merit, as containing an ufeful compendium of excellent 
moral and prudential advice to a young prince; on which ground, 
we think they cannot be too much commended. 

Art. 49 » A Vindication of the Proceedings of the Lords and Commons^ 
apcfft the Regency : in which the Right is explained according 
to the Conditution, as deduced from the Time of the Saxoos 
down to the prefent. With Proofs that the late Protefts are 
founded in Error: and that an Addrefs to any Perfon tp accept 
the Regency would have defeated th^ End intended to be obtain- 
ed ; be an Infringement of the Rights of tbe People ; an Offence to 
Mdjelly ; and an Indignity in the Lords and Commons. By M. 
Dawe5, Efq. of the Inner Temple. 8vo. pp. 4$. is. Whiei- 
don. 1789. 

The copious title fufficiently explains the fubjefl, and tKe author's 
purpofe. He dedicates his work to Mr. Pitt, to whom he pays fome 
handfome compliments, founded on his apprehenfion that the minif- 
ter's cdn'dud * on the prefent event in politics, hath been aniforco, 
and confident with our conllituiion, the law of the realm, and the 
ofage of our country : which' [he adds] '. entitles you to the thanks 
of all good ^nd unprejudiced fubje£ls.* Mr. D. has taken coniider- 
able pains, and manfifelled good Judgment, in the execution of his 
de£gn, in this vindication of the late parliamentary proceedings oa 
the regency bdfinefs. * 


•Monthly Catalogub, PoUtieal 179 

Art. 46. Tbe Speech cf ihe'Rt. Hon. W. W. Grenville» Speaker of 
theHonfoof Commons, ia the Commiccee on the State of thtt 
• Nadon> Jan. i6> 1789. Svo. pp. 58. is. 6d. Stockdale. 

Mr. Grenville has gained great credit by this circomRantial ex- 
pofition of the late meafares of adminifb-acioo, in regard to the ap- 
poiotment of a regent. It contains a clear, diflind, and well ar- 
ranged ftatement of the whole buiinefs ; fuch as mud have carried 
coavidton to every impartial ear that heard it ; and, if we judge of 
others by oorfelves, it cannot fail of continuing to produce the faitie 
cffeA on the mind cf every unbialTed reader. 

^t. 47. Letters froin a Country Gentleman to a Member of Parlia- 
iaeat, en the prelent State of the Nation. 8v6. pp. 72. 2s. 

In thefe letters, the condu£l of opposition, with refpe£l to 
national affairs, the meafares of Adminidration, and the real inte- 
xefb of the Prince of Wales, is ftridlly invtf(Hgated, and totally con- 
ilemned. The author writes with the litmoil ferioufnefs, and appa- 
rent concern for the welfare of his country; and his obfervations 
leem to be the refult of exteniive reading, and due reflexion. He 
appears to be well acquainted with the prefent date and paft revolu- 
tions of our poliueal hen^phere; and to have fuccefs fully applied 
hb knowlege, in this line, to the topics and queftions that have 
lately been agiuted, both in and out of parliament. 

An. 48. Ohfervations upon Mr, Sberiiian^s Pamphlet^ intitled, 
** Comparative Statement," &c. In a Letter from Major Scotc 
to Sir Richard Hill, Bart. 3d Edit. 410. pp. 78. 3s. Stock- 

In the preface to this edition, Mdjor Scott renews, with' great 
vigour, his attack on MeH*. Sheridan, Burke, and the party in gene- 
ral ; and introduces a defence of Sir John Macpherfon, in oppoOtioil 
to the idea which had been thown out, that Sir John nvas in^^ohud 
in /iftr [alleged] jrrfwW/'/y of Mr. Haftings. We know Sir^Joha 
Macpherfon fo we|V» that we (hall not eafily credit any charges 
againfthim of criminality, with refpefl to his government of Bengal ; 
and, indeed, the perufai of this weIN written preface will convince 
every impartial reader of the inconfiftency of thofe who have ven- 
tured to inilnuate any thing to the difadvaouge, even in the fmall- 
eil ^t^w^ of fo able and fo upright a fervant of the Eaft India com* 

Art. 49. Mtqer Scott's Charge againft the Rt. Hon. Ed, Burke. Feb. 
6, 1789. Svo. pp. 16. 6d. Stockdale. 
Extraded from the preface to the above mentioned new edition of 
tke Mtjoc's * Obfervations.' The fabjed of this extrad is-7-the de* 
feoce of Mr. Haftings ; for whom Major Scott here, as at all times, 
proves himfelf an able advocate. 

Art, 50. Seven Litters to the People of Great Britain. By a Whig, 
pp. 80. 8,«o. 2t. Stockdale, 
Written with energy and fpirit, on principles favourable to go- 
Temment, and to its friends under the adminiftratioa of Mr. I^itr. 

N 2 Theft 


Thefe letters iirft appeared, ru€ce|fively» in the Poblic Advcrdferi 
tnd are here colledled by their author z^who, as it now, appears, ia 
the well iafbrmed Major John Scott. The fubjeds difcuiled, are, 
the principal topi(;s which have been agitated between the great con* 
tending parties, fince the latter end of October, when It pleaTed the 
Almighty to aiRidt his Majefty with that fevere indifpofiuoa, — from 
which he is now fo happily aECOVEREO ! — 

Jnd here^ nue truft, tbt fcene finally thfes^ o« ontpf thi fiuft 

iuttrtfiing falitictdftrugglis thai €*oer happimdin a land of freedom I 

Medical and Chirurgical. 

Art. 51. Cafes efthe Hydrocele^ wth Obiervations on a pecoHar 
Method of treating that Difeafe. To which is fubjoined a fin- 
gular Cafe oi Hernia /^^r<r, complicated with Hydrocele, and tw<» 
Ciks of Hernia Incarcerata. By T. Keate, Sorgeon extraordi- 
nary to her Majefly, and Surgeon to their R. H. Princt of Wales 
and Duke of York. 8vo. 2$. Walter. 1788. 
Mr. Keate has here related fome cafes of hydrocele which were 
fuccefsfuUy treated by an external application of fal ammoniac. 
The difcutient powers of this fait have indeed long been known, 
even to the Greeks, who, as Mr. Keate acknowleges, nfed it hi this 
difeafe ; this is foffidently coafirmed by the cafes now before as, 
which contain many important remarks that are worthy the atten- 
tion pf .the pra£^ical furgeon. l*he cafe of hydrocele complicated, 
with bubonocele and hernia 'ueficte is truly curioos, and well illuftrated 
by a drawing of the parts, taken on diHedion. . 

Art. 52. Report of the Lords Comniitt'ees, appointed to examine the 
Fhyiicians who have aueaded his Majefty, kc. December 1788. 
8vo. IS. Debrett. 

Art. 53. Report from the Committee appointed to examine the Phy- 
ficians, 6tc, cSrdered to be printed 13th of Jan. 1789. 8vo. 
IS. 6d. Debrett. 

Art. 54. Report from the Ccmmttee, tec. 8vo. 2S. 6d. Bell. 

'Art. 5^. Report at large from tin Committee ^ ice. 410. 2S. Walter 

in Piccadilly. 
To mention the refpeftivc fixes, and prices of thcfe publications, 
\% fofiiclenc information to our readers. Sec alio our notice of Mr. 
Stockdale*s two editions of ihe iall report, in our Rev. for January. 

Art. 56. An Ejay on Crookedneft or Diftortions cf the Spine ; ihcwing 

the Infufficiency of the Moiies made ute of for Rtlief in thefe 

Caies ; and propoiing Methods, eafy, fafe, and more cffcftual, for 

- tie Completion of their Cures Uc. llluftrated with Copper Plates. 

By Philip Jones, 8*^0.45. Boards. Cadell. 1788. 

The aufhor of this^i jy begins his preface with informing us by 

what means he, who follows the bufinefs of flay-making, became 

qualified' to Undertake the cuie of a difejtfp which had long puzzled 

the moil eo^ineot men of the faculty. 

' H»-*'ing frequent opportunities cf feeing the human body vari- 
ouHy diflorted, his invenugn was often CAercifcd in conrnvances to 


Monthly Catalogue, P$HlcaU i8r 

hi^ fach defers firom the obferving eye : anxious to gain a compe* 
cent IcDOwlege of the natural form of the hum^in llrudlure, he attend- 
ed, anatomical le^ures^ efpecially thofe of the late '^t. William 
Hanter ; bv which m^ans he became acquainted with the varioos 
parts of the body, pafticolarly of the fpine ; and after knowing its 
ibudure, action, and dependencies, and alfo the modes made nfe of 
in the animal oeconomy for the formation of bone, he at laft con* 
trived an apparatus, which fuccefsfully reftores diftortions of various 
kinds. What the contrivance is, he has not thought proper to pub* 
liOi, bat if we may judge of its efficacy, from the ^5 cafes which 
Jie hath given, it undoubtedly deferves the highefl praife. 

The plates are figures of feveral varioudy diftorted trunks, which 
are nferred t3 in the defcriptions of the cafes, and they feem fnch 
as many medical gentlemen would be apt to deem incurable. 

Thia in^eniou^.ardft promises a future work, in which he pro- 
pbfes to give an eafy method of procuring a large quantity of de- 
phlogifticated air, and of filling rooms with it expeditioufly and ef- 

Art. 57. An tlegiac Peem^ facrcd to the Memory of a Father. By 

the Rev. William Lee, Mailer of an Academy in Lower Tooting, 

Surry. 8vo. 2s. half-bound. Bucklatad. 1788. 

The Rev, Mr. Lee may poflibly be an excellent preacher, and pe- 
culiarly well qualified to be a mader of an academy ; but we cannot 
carry our politenefs, even to the cloth, fo far as to call bim an excel* 
lent poet. Perhaps he might have fuccceded better in rfyme, but be 
this as it may, the Horatian maxim, J^/V <valeant humeri\ Should 
ha've reAtained bim from clothing his Mufe in the ponderous armour 
of blank wttit. He has, however, what. is. better than even good 
blank \^i^^y tl good heart, as thefe effuiions of filial piety will ferve 
to demonHrate. , 

Art. 58. Tht De/erter, a Poem^ In Four Cantos : defcribing the pre- 
mature Death of a Youth of Eighteen, who periihed through ill* 
timed Severity in Dover Caftle, on the 5th of March 1788. In- 
icribed to the Soldier's Friend and Guardian, the I^ight Hon. the 
Earl of Effingham. By a Young Lady. 4C0. is. od. Faulder. 
The incident, on which this poem is founded, was certainly much 

more interefting in reality, than it will appear to the reader, under 

the imperfect reprefenution of thefe incorred and unharmontous 


Art. 59. The Bee* A Sele^lipn pf Poetical Flowers from the moft 
approved Authors, i^mo. is. 6d. Boards. Chalklen. 17^8* 
We have fo repeatedly mentioned productions of this kind, and 
they are generally, at lead, fo unexceptionable, that of the preTent 
work we nave only to iay, it is a judicious fe)e6lion from our moft 
admired poetical writers, neatly printed, and of a iize convenieoc 
for the pocket. The number of publications of this fort is, however, 
anncce^arily increafed ; and the proprietors of the colieded works 
of the d^rent authors are injured by their beft pieces being fo-con- 
tinually ftolen, and fold tit fo cheap a rate. 

' N 3 Art. 

lit Monthly CataloguIi PmieaL 

Art. 60. An improvtd Edition of the Songs in the Bnrbtts ifHiiiti^ 
adapted to the Times. 8vo. pp. 38. is. 6d. Stockdale. 
This borlefquer of conns, of ftatemeityi and even Majefty itfelf, 
reminds us of Swift's allafion to a puppet-ihew ; where, 
'* In doleful fcenes, that break one^s heart; 

'* Punch bounces in, and let's a " 

Onr politico-poetic buffoon direfls his battery chiefly ag^nft Carle- ' 
ton-hou(e, where every thing is turned to farce, and exhibited in jar- 

fon rbimes; — fuch rhimes, however, and fuch farce as may be 
eemed fuitable enough to the charaAer and talents of a literary 

Art. 61 • Tht Banquet of Thalia^ or the Fafhionable Soogfter't 
Pocket Memorial ; an elegant CoIle£Uon of the moft admired 
Songs, from ancient and modern Authors* izmo* 31. 6d. fewed* 
. Scatcherd and Whitaker. 1788. 

It is feldom that we can, in confcience, contend the fong-booka, 
publiflied, from time to time, by our modern bookfellers. The 
compiler of this collection has omitted thofe obfcene and trifiiog 
compofitions which are too commonly met with in publications of 
this kind ; and his feledlion from the lyrifls of Vauxhall, the theatretn 
the Anacreontic fociety, and other aflemblies, mufical and convivial, 
appears to be made with judgment, and taile. The fongs taken from 
our poets of the lad and the preceding age are few, but well chofca : 
fuch as' ** Come live with me, and be my Love'* — *' Blow,- blow, 
thou Winter's Wind"— '• The Noon-tide Air"^" The Vicar of 
Bray" — " When Britain firft, at Heaven's Command'* — 5cc. ^c. 

Art. 62« Apf^tical Epiftle to a falling Miniftr ; alfo an ImitatioB of 
the 12th Ode of Horace. By Peter Pindar, Efquire. 4to. 29. 6d. 
pp. 30. Kcarflcy. 1789. 

Peter Pindar, Efquire, now ftands forth, confeifed, the poetical 
champion of OppoQuon ; and, armed. at all points, he fttrionily falU 
upon the 'falling^* Minifler, and other chiefs of the lNS,^fpariog 
Tieichcr rank, dignity, nor even sex : the Queen herfelf not escaping 
his rage. His abufe of Mr. Pitt, however^ exceeds all bounds ; bat 
by over. Quoting /he mark, the archer often jniiTes his aim. The 
other ohjeas of the poet's fury arc, her Majefty's brothers. Mad. 
Swellenberg, the Lords C '- n,T w, and W b, the Speak- 
er, Mr. R— lie, &c. not overlooking Dodor Willis, who, perhapsii 
may have committed the fin not to btforgimtn, Peter fpftens, a little, 
however, on mentioning Ireland, whofe appointment of a regent 
without reftrlHions feems to have almoll brought him into good hn? 
mour. A few lines frpm this part of the poem ipay fervc as a fpeci- 
men ; which we (hall infert, if )t be only to pleafe our very loyal 
friends on the other fide of the herring-pond : 

* O Pitt f ! a filler kingdom damns thy deeds. 
And pities haplefs Britain as flie bleeds. 

* But not yet " fallen from his high eftatc." 
f The poet has left a blank for the name, which we venture to 
^" up, to prevent the reader's falling into any miftake. . 


Monthly Catalogue, Eduiation^ &c. 183 

HiBERNiA fcorns^acb n^eanly treachVons art 

Hatch'd by the bafc r-bj-— n of thy heart* 

That crawk an afpic bloated black with fate» 

To pouy « dire contagton through the flate. 

She, with an honeft voice» her PaiKCS approves. 

And nobly trufts the virtues that (he loves.* 
The beft^ and pleafantcil parts of this work are the Dialogues be* 
twecn PauDENCE and Peter; but for thefe we pouft refer to tht . 
poem at length. 

Art. 6^. The Choice $f a Hufiand. A Poem. 4to. is. Printed at 
Ofweilry, and fold by Robinfons in London. 1788. 
If the precepts in thefe verfes were not better than the poetry, they 
woold deferve little attention from the fair. 

Education, School-Books; iic. 

Art. 64. The French Scholar put to trial \ or, Qijcftionson the French 
Language : to which \i preiixed an Explanation of the feveral 
Rules. By J. A. Ourry, Teacher of Languages, Greenwich. lamo. 
IS. 3d. Deighton. 1788. 

It is true, as this writer obferves, that youth are apt to think it 
fofficient if they learn and repeat the rules to which they are direded, 
without reflefling on their meaning, or applying them to ufe. Mr. 
Oarry has taken the hint from Morgan* s Grammatica ^eftionet, to 
attempt fomething of a iimilar kind for the French language. He 
has employed confid^rable attention for this purpofe, and we appre- 
hend that the explication and application which are made of the 
roles, or rather which are here intended to be drawn from young 
peribns themfelves, may prove beneficial. Very far would we 
be from appearing to difcourage any attempt .to meliorate the me- 
thods of education.— Yet may it not beafked, whether quefUons of 
this kind might not be fuppofed readily to occur to inftruflors who 
unite with common fenfe an earneil deiire to improve their pupils I 

Art. 65. Exercijes in Latin Compojition. By the Rev. John Adams^ 
Aothcr of Le^ione J Sele^it, 12 mo. is.^d. Law. 

Tht/rji part of this book contains eafy Englifh le/Tons, with the 
Latin words to be rendered by 'the fcholar into (heir proper 
caies, moods, genders, &c. Tht/econd, Englifli lemons, witlioot 
the Latin words ; t-hat the learner may confult his didionary and 
chu(^ for himfrlf. It is intended as a fequel to^ or to be ufed in 
tarns with, Exempla Minora^ Bailey's Exercifes, or a^y other intro- 
du^dry performance, of a like nature. 

The author flatters himfelf, that after the roles of fyntax are un- 
derilood and exemplified, thefe leffons will contribute more to the 
improvement of youth, in Latin compofition, than any thing yet 
publilhed. We think with him, that under a proper diredion, chey 
may be found very ferviceable in advancing the end propofed« 

Art. 66. 7he Book of Nature ; or, the true Senfc of Things explained, 
and made eafy to the Capacities of Children. i2mo. 40. Robinfoos* 

• All children,* obferves this author, * are dclrghted with pic- 
tures : but they do not know that the whole world is a pTi^ure, and 

N 4 that 

x84 MoNTHLV Catalogue, Pbikfiphj^ &c; 

that all tbe things yvtfee fpeak fomething to the miod, to inftrnA 
and improve it.' On fuch a principle this little book is fdrmed : 
and we are inclined to fjpeak of it as a pretty and a u(bfal perform- 
ance. The defign is ingenious and fen(ible» the ^ecution alfo 
agreeable^ and well adapted to the intention : yet, wi^ unwillbgly 
add, there may perhaps be a few inftances, in which the remarks 
here made may tend to form prejudices in the young mind» or givieit 
a bias not altogether favourable to candid inquiry and liberality. 

Art. 67. lAlly*s Accidiuci inlargei\ or, a complete Introdudion,' in 
Englilh Profe» to the feveral Parts of Engliih Grammar, and a 
Syliem of Rhetoric illuftrated by Examples of Claific Authority, 
i2mo. IS. 6d. Lowndes. 1788. 

This is the feventh edition of the prefent work, with improve- 

Art. 68. Sficred Extraffs, 8vo. 48. bound. Dilly. 1788. 
This book is defigned for the ufe of fchools, and probably was . 
compiled by the fame hand which a fhort time fi nee furni (bed coU 
ledtions from the Latin and Greek claffics. A few proper reafons 
are mentioned in the preface. It is here fuppofed, that one great 
caufe of the negled of the fcriptures in places of edocation is, a dif. 
approbation qf reading them indifcriminately. It is alfo remarked^ 
that while tbey are loiing ground, many trifling and-, unintereiling 
books fupply their place : even hiftories of Jefus Chrift and of the - 
Bible, it is added, are conveyed in language, which tends to debafe 
the fubjeft. On fuch confideraiions the prefent cxtrafts are offered. 
The chapters which are chofen from the New Tedament are ihofis 
particularly recommended by Dr, Anthony Blackwall. 

Philosophy, l^c. 

Art. 67. An Bffay on the Cau/es of the Variety of Complexion and Ft- 
^urt in the human Species, To which are added, Stridurcs on 
Lord Karnes's " Difcourfe on the original Divcrfity of Man- 
kind.*' By the Rev. Samuel Stanhope Smith, D. D. &c. . Phila- 
cVlphia printed. Edinburgh reprinted. (With (bme additional 
N^tis^ by a Gentleman of the Univerfiiy of Edinburgh), for 
EUiat and Co. London. 8vo. 3 s. 6d. fewed. 17S8. 

Art. 70. Another Edition of the above-mentioned work, reprinted 
by Stockdale, in Piccadilly, ^vo. 2 6. 6 d. 
Dr. Smith here purfues, with much ingenuity and labour, a very 
curious enquiry. From obferving nature, and her operations, and 
the tSc^i produced iii them by diverfity of climate, by favage ani 
focial life, by diet, exercife, and manners of liviivg, the author 
ihews, that all the different nations of mankind may have fpmng 
from one original pair; and he thence infers, that there is no occa^. 
fion to have recourfe to the hypothefis of feveral original (locks. 
The fubjeft has been amply difcuiTed by Linne in his oration on th§ 
intreafi of the habitahk luorld, printed m the fecood volume of the 
Annnitates A<ademi€m^ a work which Dr. Smith has not perhaps feen, 
and which !& not coniscd to mao alone, but treats of animals in ge- 


Monthly Catalogue, Thiologj^ . 185 

Dr. Smith's arguments woald loTe much of their force if detached 
or abridged. Recommending tiierefore the whole work to the per- 
ufal of the natoralift and the divine, we (hall conclude with one 
brief remark, itipt^ffant^ on what oar aurhor, in contending for the 
power of climate, and the changes it produces on animals, &c. fayt 
of the negroes. Ho affirms, that the native blacks in America 
$nnd in their colour^ features ^ and hair, in every generation. Thia 
would be controverted, no doubt, by a negro critic, who woold 
certainly obieA to the word mindi which, however, perhaps, b« 
would candidly coniider as an error of the prefs, and fhortfy fay» 
** for mexJ, rtid degmer ate i**-^ and, ** for J^air, read <i«;W.*' 


Art. yi. J Letter addrejfed to the Miniflert of thi Orthodox or Calvin 
nifiic Baptifts\ particularly thofe of the Weflern A^ciation: 
(hewing the Jnconfiflency of their Conduct and Worfliip, and pro« 
pofing a Remedy. £y one of their Brethren. 8vo. 3 d. John- 
Ibn, &c. 

Unfcriptural . doxologies, foch as are in common ofe among diT- 
feoiers of the Calviniftic perfuaiion, are the ebjeds of this wnter'a 
aotmadverfion. Though he feems warmly in terefled in hit fubjed, 
he writes with candour. It is very obvious, that the worfhip of God 
ought to be as fimple and general as poffible, that none may be 
oiltnded, and all be edified. Nothing therefore is more furprmng, 
than that any diifenters, who Value themfelves on accoont of their 
freedom from human authority, fhould be unwilling to depart from 
arbitrary and unfcriptural reflridions. 

Art. 72. Four Marks of Antichrift \ or, a Supplement to the War- 
burtonian Ledure. 8vo. is. Deighton. 1788. 
The title, when compared with the book, proves that we have 
here an arch writer: we will not call him a luag^ both becaufe his 
fabje£t is ferious, tnd he alfo treats it in a grave and feripus, 
though at the fame time a lively, and we muft add, an able manner* 
Anticbrift may be confidered as having fixed its btad-quarters on the 
ftven hilis of Rome, ytu fays he, may Chriftian focieties of different 
denominations become true members of its body, from confpiriagia 
the iame views, and from ufurping the fame authority, which havo 
^mped this mark of ignominy on the forehead of the Romilh 
church.— The marks which are here fpecified are' briefly thefe : i. 
Anexercife of religious power over the minds by iht gofuernor^ and a 
fttbrniftion to this power in t\\tjuhje&. 2. Enjoining other terms of 
commuoion than thoTe required and appointed by our Lord himfelf 
and his apoftlef. 3. Ah inordinate fpirit of ambition, or love of 
pre-eminence and power. The fourth criterion is pointed oiK by 
introducing a paflage of fcripture : Matt. vii. 13, 14. < £nter ye in 
at the ftrait gate. Sec. It may be farther explained by thefe worda 
of the author, *'Auy conlUtution of religion that counteraBs this 
purpofe (<v/«. of recalling men to virtue and happmefs), and coa« 
fpires with the general depravity of manners, mufi be a member of 
the body of Anticbrift J* Each of thefe topics he illuftrates; under 
one of them (the fecond) he points to a particular fubjed, when 
fiuoy will be inclined to ihiuk a more general account might have 


l%6 BfoVTHtY CATAIrOGUEy Tbfbgy* 

fttfSced* He wQI cpr^uiily be ftid ib hive dipoed Ills peo io galfi 
II be writes with too great feverity . But with this <uw have noihiog 
to dOf DOr are we concerned either to fnpport or oppofe the charge 
l^e briilgt. There ma/ be thofe whofe honour and intereft are deeply 
uSt&ftd by it. The writer calls on ecdefiaftical dignitaricst— for 
(miftrabili Ji^u !) the church of England is immediately intended, — 
and on the noted champion Dr. Horfley by name, afliiriog them* 
that whenever they m^ke a reply, he will throw adde the veil, and 
direAly give • them his name.— For farther information^ we refer to 
the pannphlet. 

i^rt. 'jy HintSy &c. fubmitted to the Attention of the dtrf^^ No« 
bilitv, and Gentry, nrwlj^ a/Tociated. By a Layman, a true Friend 
to the Conftitution, in Church and State. 8vo. is. Riving* 
tons, &c. . 1788. 

I'his anonymous call to ecclefiafUcal reformatioQ, dates feveral 
fafts, rcfpi^ing the hidory of the liturgy, and the repeated at* 
tempts Which have been made, by men of the fird didindyoo for 
rank, learning, and perfonal merit, toward a revi/ali and poinu 
out feveral particulars of amendment which are now generally and 
earnedly deftred. The author pleads, that no time could ever be 
more favourable to fuch an undertaking than the preient, and re* 
commends an immediate attention to this bufin^fs as of great im* 
portance to the fupport of the credit and influence of religion. The 
hiats are good ; (he plea ii w.eighcy ; but we fear the conwrncmt 
Jea/on is not yet arrived. 

Art. 74. J LetUr to the Chancellor of the Exchefuer^ (hewing the 
Neceffity of a Clerical Reform'; and containing a Flan. for re« 
tnedying the Grievances of the Inferior Clergy. By Mr. War- 
burton. 8vo. IS. 6d. Nicoll. 1788. 

Mr. W. expreflcs great furprife, that the formal ixitrior of 
.Chridianicy, diould have been fo long fupported under the in- 
cumbrance of fo many abfurdities ; and calls on every man who is 
a friend to the ehurch to accelerate its reformation, in order to fave 
it from ruin. His plan of reform is, that every redor, vicar, ice* 
(hall pay one fourth part of the annual revenue of his benefice to hit 
officiating curate ; that no beneficed clergyman diall perform any 
parochialduty out of his own pari(h for any pecuniary confideration ; 
and that every clergyman fliall be liable to forfeit 40I. for non- 
refidence for the fpace of one entire month. The propofal ori- 
ginates from a petition lately prefented by the infierior clergy of 
Lancaihire to the Qi(hop of Cheder; and the fubjej^ has certainly 
an urgent claim on the attention of the legiflature. 

Art. 75. Ejpty on the Advantages of the Knowledge revBaUd t9 
Mankind, concerning the Holy Spirit. ^y the Rev. Jofeph 
Whitelcy, A. M. late of Magdalen College, Cambridge. 4to^ 
IS. Leed», printed ; London, fold by Johnfon^ t788. 
The do^rjne of i\it. Divine influence accords well both with na- 
tural and revealed religion. The drid Calvinidic opinion of the 
operation ofihejpirit, may or may not, for aught we know, entirely cor- 
refpoad with either. Some years ago a work was publilhed by the 
celebrated Bp. Warburton, called the Dodrine ofGr^acCy in wKich, if 
e rightly-recollefl, his Lorddiip feems to confine the operation of 


S t & MO If 8 in Commim^aihn tf ibi Rtrnhdnn. 1 87 

the Spirit to the mlracolous elTuiion in the early age of CfariftiaDity, 
aad the inrpiration of the Scnpn]i;es, ia the pofTeifioti of which all • 
nif ht be faid to be under its goidance and influence. Mr. Whiteley 
eiteods the idea much farther, and fuppofes this Divine agency re« 
qaifite fer faith and repentance ; for the attainment and improve** 
men( of virtuous difpofitions and habits, for confolation, peace a|id 
joy. At the fame time he obferves this agency is not coropulfive i 
its purpofe i% moral improvement, and leaves full fcope to the ex- 
crcife of the moral powers, antl while it co-operates with human 
endeavours gives ample room for iincerity, attention, and exertion. 
He enters not into any enquiry concerning the meaning of the 
fcripture terms, Holy Spirit^ or Holy Ghoft ; but applies his reiharks to a 
pradical ufe. The eflay is intermixed with feveral quotations from 
ancieAt writers ; but though the heathen fages and poets fometimet 
fpeak of a Divine Efflatus^ their notions concerning it were not only 
uncertain, but often wild and fuperilitious ; and they even appear 
to have bten not always directed to a moral end. The di^ertation 
is ingenibas and ufefut ; and, like fome foirmer pieces by thic 
writer, which have been duly noticed in our Reviews, gained tho^ 
i^trrtfiaH prize. 

Art. 7$. thoughts on tbt Duty of Man rtlatimt to Faiib in Jefui 
Chriji : in wbich Mr. Andrew F^jller's leading Propofitipns oa 
that Subje^ are confidered. £y John Martiiu Parti. lamo. 
?s. Buckland. 1788. 

We are wearied with attending to publications of this kind ; 
dilputes between we know not who,« concerning, we had almoft faid, 
we know not whs^t. fn the prefent pamphlet, there appears to be % 
great deal of trifling, about words and phrafes, which fome may 
dignify by the name of verbal critidjm. The litle-page intimates 
that there is to be a fequcl ; . podlbly, when that appears, we may 
have a little more to itij on the fubje^. 

Art. 77. free Tkmghtt on ihe Extent of the Death of Chrift, the 
Dodrine of Reprobation, Ut* By James Skinner, izmo. 6d« 
BacUand. 178S. 

Surely there caA be little piety and little comfort in fuch repre- 
ientatioDS of the Divine Being as an ignorant heathen might give of 
Moloch, or other ferocious and fangninary idols !-v-To fcntiments of 
fach a fcind this pamphlet is oppofed ; ai\d we trull that both reafon 
and revelstion vindicate the oppofition. The Author may probably 
he, 10 fome refpe^ of popular, or what are deemed orthodox 
opioioos, but nature, reafon, religion, in htm, all revolt (and 
farely with juflice) ^^nft the doflrine of reprobation. 
.- ' J- ' J ' I ii j ■ ■ 
SfftMONS in dmmimsratioti 0/ THZ 'Aey olv r lon^ cirtittued :> 

See our laft Review. 

I preached at Whictifif ton, Derby&ire, on the Grand JcHleep of 

Centeo^ary Coimenioratioii of the glonoBS Revolotidn, 168S. By 

3)i(nue.lJ^^gge^iiA« Red^rof Whittington. 4x0^ is. G a n i ne t,to^ 

Mr. P^gge reduces tjie nature, and the (oncomiuat bM(ngs ,oS 

the two ddiverances eemibemorated on the 5 th of NovemBei'* tp ike 

two fteaera) hea4< cfCHrch aod Stato • 

^ Under 

its S I & M N s fn (Ummmtratm oftht lUvobuUn. 

Under the fitft bead, he gives a proper dercrlpuon of what am 
jttilly termed tht horrors offottry,^^ the inq^ui/icorial cruelties, and 
the defpodc tyranny exercilcd over the confciences of men, pra£tifed 
and allowed^f in the church of Rome.' — He remarks, that the free 
o(e of the Scriptures, in our tiative tongue, is a principal advantage 
derived to qs from the Revolution ; and that when the clergy exhort 
their hearers to perufe their Bibles, they difplay * the true fpirit and 
genius of Proteflantifm.' 

So far all is well ; but, with regard to what follows, many good 
Pfoteilants, we apprehend, will objeft to Tome expreffioos. — • The 
do^^rines of our church,' f^ys he, ' contained in the 39 Articles, arc 
conformable to the holy fcripture, and can be proved therefrom ; and 
as to our form of church government, and our liturgy, they approach 
as nearly to the models of primitive antiquity, as the diftance of time, 
and change of manners and cuftoms, in the common courfe of things 
can poilibly admit ' \^Here it mty be ^h/ervedg we hope without of- 
fence, that fome o/tbt bright efi ornamiutt of our church havi txfrejfid 
thim/tl'Vts /omcwhat differently on this head,] He proceeds. ' 6ome 
ibdie matters in the Liturgy; but the sober-minded think it 1)eft 
to let it remain as it is twith all its blemijhes^x and to leave theie pe- 
tulant HUMORISTS to the enjoyment of their own refflefsne/s amd 

Here fome of tho(e who, from a fincere admiration of the real 
beaaties of the Liturgy, wiih to fee its blemishes remo*ued, may 
bo led to fnfped that the venerable preacher hath nnwarily caught « 
little of that impofimg fpirit of the church of Rome, which he hath^i 
himfelf, fo jufUy condemned ; and they may poffibly afk, '* to what 
pvrpofe does he exhort his hearers to read the A:riptures, if they are 
»ot to judpe for themfelves with refped to their meaning; and are 
to be branded as difcontented fpirits and petulant humourifte given to 
change, if they do thus exercife their underftandings ?" 

We entirely agree with Mr. Pegge, i.n what he has advanced 
nnder the fecond head, refpedting the privileges beftowed on us by 
the REVOLUTION ; and we think, with him, that thefe bleffings 
may be IcA, in conietjuence of a generiil depravity of manners and 
principles; of which many fymptoms are already but too apparent : 
fuch as, a decay of Chriilian piety-- >a general profanation of the fab- 
batji — and an open and avowed indulgence in fornication and adul- 
tery, while offenders in this ^ameful pra£Hce aire as well-received, and 
as much careifed, aa tl^e moft virtuous and modeft characters. Add 
to thefe, gaming, which leads to duelling and fuicide. — He alfo 
mentions iht rotteuue/s and venality of our parliamentary boroughs, as 
a main fource of the wicked nefs of the age ; and he concludes by • 
calling on the bi(hops and clergy, the great officers of ftate, the 
nobility in general ; the learned fages of the law, the joftices of the 
peace, &c. &c. to concur in the good work of reformation. As to 
the'comm'oimlty, 4ie very properly advifes them to be frugal and 
quiet, ibberaod honed; to obey the laws; to befubje^ to the 

*j What ! blemiJfHs in ou^ Liturgy 1 Surely, ttus mult be a flip of 
the pen :' e'ven the pen of orthodoxy I 


S c R M o H s in CmmUnoratiSn if thi Ri^ktUn. 1^9 

kigber po#m ; tnd, above all, to bepunfiaal in the difcharge of their 
duty to God.— On thewhole, ive fcrople not, with the few excep« 
tioBS alieady hinted, to recommend this as a plain^ ferious, perti- 
*aent, well intended, and nfefal difcourfe. 

IL In Commemoration of the great Storm of Wind, Nov. 27, 1705* 
and of the more dreadful Storm which threatened the De^uAioa 
of Britifh Freedom, at the Eve of the Revolntion : preached in 
Little Wild-ilreet, Nov. 27, 1788. By Samuel Sxenner, D. D. . 
8vo. IS. Buckland. 1788. 

The Account which the Dr. gives us of the above mentioned tem* 
peft, iu vaft extent, and the damage done by ic, is hardly credible, 
did. he not aiTure us, that be took it from a refpedable writer, who 
fnppofes it to have been one of the mod tremendous (torms recorded 
in hiftory. The land, the houfes, churches, trees, and rfvers^ 
feverely felt its fury. On a moderate computation 8oco perfoof (in 
this country) loft their lives ; among whom, Dr. Kidder, BKhopof 
Bath and Wells, and his Lady, were cruOied to death by the fall of 
their own houfe. In one level 15,000 fliccp were drowned ; and 
the writer before mentioned declares, that he bimfelf reckoned 
17,000 trees torn up by their roots in Kent, and, when tired witk 
the number, he left off reckoning. In fhort, the damage, be affirms, 
exceeded that of the fire of London, which Was edimated at four 
millions. The preacher proceeds: 

* We have jufty>// the horrors of the dark and difmal night that 
preceded the 27th of November, 1703, when ihe winds blew, the 
ikies blackened, the earth (hook, and the hearts of men failed them 
with difmay ; and we have enjoyed the htppy calm that fucceeded it. 
Let us now feel the horrors of that mpre dreadful tempeil, whieh 
was impending on this country in the year i638;- and let us fiiare 
wit& our pious anceiiors in the joy they felt on the evev memorable 
5 th of November.' When William the Third "came, faw, and 
conquered,*^ ' tyranny turned pale, the *arm of defpotifm was un- 
nerved, bigotry (kulked into filence, perfecution fied, and the black 
deiignsof che fons of darknefs were fruArated.' 

Having defcribed, in pathetic terms, the dreadful fitaation to 
which we were reduced by James II. and our glorious deliverance by 
King William, Dr. Stennet proceeds to make fnch obfervations as 
t^crf Briton will readily adopt; and with which we fliall con- 
clude our account of this ienfibie difcourfe. * Let us recolle^b, with 
heartfelt joy and gratitude, the ineftimable bleflings- we have en- 
joyed under the mild admini^ations of the two Princes of the houfe 
of Bronfwick, who have already reigned ;— and that happy confirm-, 
atioa and enlargement which ou^ religious liberties have received 
under the reign of his prefent Majefly. And while we tenderly ftei 
with him and hit affliAed family, in the moomful providence 
with which they are now vifited, let ns offer our fervent and repeated 
prayers to God, that tranquillity may be reftored to his foyal bofom, 
that he may again aflume the reins of government vyith diftinguiihed 
glory, and that, in the meanivhile, the deliberations of our great 
men, under the guidance of Heartn, maybe dircJlcd to the hap- 
pieft iflne.* 

3 lU. Tb 


III. Tht PrtMctfht rf tbi Rii^lMtim ^JJifttd and nnnAnhi^ mti Ui 

Ad<vantagis ftaud^ in a Sermoo preached at CaiUc Hediagi«iii» 

Effcx, Nov. J, 1788. By Robert Stcv^nfo'q. 8vo. 1 a. DUtjr. 

Taking for his text, Pfalm Ixxv. 7. Mr. Stevenfmr ]iere ftttet the 

grievances under which oaf aoceftors laboured, in the reign of 

James U. the methodti by which, bnder Providence, the Rerolir- 

tion was efftfled, and the advantages derived from it,«— which we 

^11 enjoy. Hb enlargement under thefe feveral heads is penineBt 

and jodidous. 

Single Sbrmons, §h oihir Occejkns. 

I. Jt Sermon preached in hts Majefly^s Chafil, JPhitebatt^ at the Cpm^ 
ficraiton 0^ William Lord Bifhop of Chefter, January 20, 1788. 
^^ HouUonne Radcliffe, D. D. Prebendary of Ely, &c. 410. 

. IS. Rivingtons, &c. 

The inftitution of epifcopacy is in tdis difcourfe vindicated, not 
merely on the ground of its high antiquity, expediency, and ufefui- 
nefs, but on that of Apoflolio authority. The reader will not expeA 
that in a difcobrfe of this kind, much new light fhould be cail on a 
fabjed which has been fo often difcufled : but he will find the arga^ 
|nents ingenioufly dated ; and the difcourfe is well written* 

II. Preached at the Primary Vifitatton of the Lord Bifliopof Wm- 
cheiler, in the Cathedral of Winchefter, July 14, 1788, by the 
Rev. Edmund Poulter, M. A. -Redor of Crawley, &c. 410. is. 

Mr. Poulter thus begins his difcourfe: * If the fnlleil fenfe of the 
diftance, great between any fingle perfon in this a/Tembly, who might 
have been called upon to perform this duty, and the reft, but4>e- 
twetn myi^M and you, infinite, give me any claim to your attention, 
who afptre . not to yotir applaafe, t have that claim to fucb beneficial 
compromife; for I fhould confider it dill as fome degree of praife 
> hence to have avoided cenfure here.* This is a fpecimen of the em/- 
harrajftd fyle\ but, with many, the arguments which Mr. P. employsr 
will be more objeded to than his langoage. His difcourfe is ex- 
tremely open to animadverfion. We do not call in queftion his fenfe 
or learning, but his fond partiality to the Liturgy has induced him to 
reafon ^tiy inconclufively in its fivoor. Attempting to prove too 
much, he hurts his caufe. The Liturgy is certainly excellent on the 
whole ; but to reprefent it as f^Jfiffing e^utn fnpirUr pncifion to tht 
Scriptures^ as halving nothing apocryphal in it, and as fo compofed that 
no perfon can doubt whether any onepajft^e in it he framed *witb lefi ««• 
thority than the refi^ ivitb lefs mccwracy infertody or 'witB left frecifitm 
retttined, is furtly faying more of it than it merits. The compilers, 
ac the Reformation, deferve great praife for what they did, confider- 
ing the prejudices and habits with which they had to contend ; bat ^ 
we cannot fuppofe that they left the work perMt. Mr. P. may ob- 
jcA to the flighiifi alteration, and confider the frequent repetition of 
the Lord's Prayer as a particular excellence » but we muft continue to 
think that were the Lkurgy itiikdL, and its redandaadcs lopped off, 
it would be improved, 

lU. The 



HI. ne Condua and Doom of falfe Teachers. By John Dick, A, M* 
- ^ '* Bvo. '6d. Edinburgh. 1788. , ^ 

Not ill written, in point of llyle ; but* the author appears to be 
either very ignorant or his fubjcd, or under the over- bearing influ- 
ence of prejudice and party zeal. Are all perlbns heretical, and 
falfe,- who do not aflent to his creed, or that of his church ? Or, do 
not many rank 'among the bed of mankind, who hold principles 
▼ery diffident from thofc of Mr*. Dick ? and who, we might add, un- 
derhand them better ? The difconrfe merits reprehenfion, becaufe it 
may deceive and miflead^ unwary and well-difpofed minds; at the 
fame time inflaming them with bitternefs and wrath, under the idea 
of religious zeal. 

IV. 'Preached bcYorc the Governors of Addenbrooke*s Hofpital, /one 
28, 1787, at Great St. Mary's, Cambridge- By T. Ptrkiafba, 
M.A. F.R.S. Fellow of Chrift'a College, Cambridge. 410. js 

This IS a very good difcourfe, at once political and icriptoral ; 
urging on the readers the exercife of humanity and charity (from 
Luke, X. 37.) as men^ chizens, and Chrifiians. The ftylc is ^died 
and correft, perhaps in an inflance or two rather obfcore. Jt is 
fhort, but thofe wlio perufe it with attention, will probably flnd Ic 
(without a dired appeal to the ^flions) both convinciBg. and pef- 
fuafive ' The ftate of the hofpital forms the greater part of the 

V. Preached in the'Parifli Church of Old Swinford, Wotceftcrihire, 
30th March, 1788. By the Rev. L. Booker. 410. is. 6d. 

A farewell dircdurfef from Philip, iv. 8. 10 which the author 
particularly recommends to the parifhioners, an attention to Sunday 
jfcho^hf and to another inilitution which he calls Feaaie Societies, 
bat the prefent management of which he entirely reprobates, in a 
note. The Sernion is publiihed by requcft, and very well adapte4 
to the defign. 


++f The letter iigned Timothy Taferwit, is a piece ofveryjlender 
wit indeed ! Its meaning keeps pace with its' pleafantry ;^ and its 
poiiteitefs does not fall (hort of either.— Need we take farther no« 
tiee of this knfght^rrant. Who enters the lifts in defence of Mrs. 
Stewart, ahasRodd?'-Wtth whom, by the way, it is impoflible fot 
tts to have any quarrel. If (he is in diltrels, we are forry foif her, 
aotonlyasa woman, bur as u vfoman of dtfiiiguijhed alflities : and 
we heartily wi£i that her fu€erings were at an end. 

I ^ ■III 

*0* Amicus Conftatu will fee, by the public adveitifements, that 
I>r.-*Caiapbell's*book'is~ya^ /tfii^^f^. In anfwer to his iaquir/ 
* Who is the aathor of the Hiflory of England in a Series of Letters,' 
4c. i ' We alwaiys onderftood it to be the work of that egregiout 
book'inakei^ the late Dr. OoldfmiU^; ihough b/ JMoy (pp what 




ErottD^s we know not) afcribe d to a celebrated literary Lord. — Ttie 
itnc Correfpondeot evpre^es bis doubu ' wbetber CaoDiogbam, 
author of the Hiftory of England, lately pabliihed by HoIliDgberry, 
(fee Review, vol. Ixxviii. p. 89.) be^ the editor of Horace.' Man/ 
conjedlores have been ilarted on this head ; but we have not been 
able to obtain any certain information. If any of our Readers 
would be kind enough to anfwer this inquiry, we fhall readily giv« 
cur circulation to the intelligence* • 

To the above correfpondent we are obliged for the hint of men* 
tioning» in future, the number of pagifs contained in the feveral 
publications that come under our- notice: a circum fiance that, no 
doobt, will be ufeful to many of our readers, and which is become 
the niore neceflary, from the ihamefnl prance of fome authors and 
publiihers, who make no fcruple of rating (txpenny pamphleu at 
eighteen pence* two (hillings, or even half a crgwn. 

*f* We are obliged to Maj9r Brebm for the honour of his very 
fcientific letter ; but the plan of our publication forbids its infertion ; 
our pardctilar obje^l being the review of printed works, already be- 
fore the Pub]ic.*-The Major's learned fpeculations will, no doubt, 
be very acceptable 10 fome of the Magazines: in the moft refpeAable 
of which, they woold appear with propriety* 

X\X Inquiry may be alTured that Lord Rawdon did «•/ fend the 
account of Mrs. Stewart's cafe. Nor is it in the power of ant per- 
80V, of whatever rank or confequence, to influence, 10 any degree, 
an article in the Monthly Review. We have given » with impar* 
tiality, our ff ntimcnts on Mrs. S.'s publication ; and what we have 
written is hft with the Public. 

f f ^ We cannot tnfcMrm our Correfpondent where the Difpw/afc* 
rium FuUenfe is to be bought. The copy ufed by us was tranfmitted 
from abroad, to a private perfon. 

•J* J. B**» obliging Letter, dated from ' near Wakpfield,* mea* 
tions [from Lackingion's Catalogue] Dr. Ellis's *« Knowlegeof Di- 
vine Things from Revelation, &c. 1771." with the following note ; 
•« This work is very curious, very learned, and exceedingly entei-- 
taining and inftrudtve. It ran through two very large editions, 
without being inferred in any Review, or any, way advenifed.'**-> 
There may be fuch a work; but our plan does not extend to books 
which are publifindj as the IriQiman (aid, in a frivate manner. 

\^X The impertinent Letter, relative to Mrs. Stewart's cafe, and 
lb claflically figned Omnes Veritas, is unworthy of further notice. 

ty Other Letters in our next. 

Review for Jan. p. 63, \, penult, dele the word * agreeably J* 
F. 690. of the lad Appendix, line 31, for * gyp or plaiflcrs,' read 
gjfs Qiplaifier^ 

t HE 


For MARCH, 1789. 

Art. I. Tie ilujbandry of thi Anchnts. By Adam Dickfon, A. W. 
lace Minifter of Whittingham* 8vo« t Vols. 12 8. Boards. Ro« 
binfons, &c. 1788. 

MR. Dickfon is well known %% the author of t refpeAaUe 
treatife on agriculture^ publiflied many yean ago*« He 
wa»y we are told, in a Ihort account of his life prefixed to this 
work, a man of a very lively appjreheofion, an ardent mind, 
and clear and found judgment. Having received a liberal edu- 
cation, and being peculiarly addidled to the ftudy of agricul- 
tufCy he contemplated, with particular pleafure, the Latia 
iUi Ruflica fcriptans^ appreciated their merits, and in the lei« 
fure that a rural retirement affords, compiled the prefent per- 
formance for the benefit of his countrymen : and it muft be 
admitted, that by fuch helps, not only the mere EngliOi reader 
will have it in his power to become acquainted with the model 
of hu(bandry and agriculture pradiifed in ancient Italy, but that 
even daffical fcholars may,, pccafionally, participate in the ad« 
vantage; for, as the editor obferves, * the author's perfedknow" 
lege of the fubje^t^as enabled him to clear up manv difficulties, 
which the learned commentators on the Rei Rufttta firiptnts^ 
being entirely ignorant of huibandry, had rendered more 
obfcure; while hi$ (kill in modern agriculture enabled faioi 
to make a judicious comparifon between that and the prac- 
tice of the ancients.' The author himfclf concludes his own 
Preface by Qbferving, that he * not only expels attention to his 
work from the ingenious cultivators of land, and from the 
many focieties now eftabliOied through Britain for the improve- 
ment of agriculture ; but he likewife hopes for the approbation 
of all the antiquarians of the kingdom, to whom be has opened 
up a mine of genuine Roman antiquities, that has hitherto been 
Ihut, except only to a few.' In this laft particular, our opinion 
entirely coincides with that of the author; and though we are 
not (b fanguine in our expedlations of the benefits which the 

i » ■ ^ ■ " ■ . ■ ■ 

^ See Rev. vols, xxxiii. and xILs 
Vol, txxx. O praflical 

1^4 Dlckfon'j Hujhandry tf ibi JncuniK 

practical agriculture of this country will derive from his treatife^ 
we yet think that it may be of fome degree of utility ; and were 
it for nothing more than fatisfying the curiofity of farmers, who 
are unable to read the aneient Roman authors^ by giving them 
fome notion of the rural management of that celebrated people, 
we cannot doubt but it will be favourably received by the public. 
Mr. Dickfon has fpared no pains to render it fAilti and intelli- 
gible, by comparing doubtful paflages with references made ta 
them by other authors^ and thos correding^ in many cafes, the 
errors of tranfcribers, which tended ^o render certain pafiages 
'obfcure, even to the moit learned commentators* 

The plan which Mr, Dickfon has adopted, is to arrange the 
objeds of rural oeconomy under different heads, and to coiled 
what occurs under each in the different Roman writers ; fo that 
the whole that is faid by them concerning it may be feen in one 
point of view. By this plan, many repetitions neceflarily occur, 
as later writers frequently copied nearly the words of their pre* 
deccflbrs : and as our author has tranflated the feveral pafiiges 
with all pofSbie accuracy (fubjoining the original in the notes}, 
the work of courfe becomes more languid and prolix, thai) would 
have been requifite in an original compofition, where a fcrupu- 
lous reference to authorities was not of eflential importance; 
.though its accuracy and authenticity are thus proportionallj 

That the reader may have an idea of the objeAs treated in 
this performance, we will enumerate the contents, adding a few 
explanatory obfervationsf, where they appear neceffary. 

Chapter i. treats of the Ftlla ; — the name given by the ancient 
Romans to the houfe and other buildings belonging to a farm. 
The writers on agriculture have taken care todefcribe the ficua* 
lion beft adapted for fuch buildings, the proportion of extent 
they (hould bear relative to the farm, and a variety of more mi- 
)iute particulars, with a degree of exadloefs that will appear un- 
necefiary to modern readers, who do not advert to the difference 
in the oeconomy of rural affairs in ancient and modern times. 

Chap. II. treats^^ the perfons employed in agricultttrem This we 
confider as the molt curious and important chapter in the per- 
formance, becaufe it (erves, rn fome meafure, as a key to the 
whole; and therefore it ought to be ftudied with particular at- 
tention by every one who wi(hes to obtain a clear view of the 
rural oeconomy of the Romans, or to comprehend the fcope of 
moft of the diredions that occur in the writers on that fub« 
je£k. The attentive obferver will here perceive, that there is a 
wide and eflential difference bejEween the general management of 
eftates in modern Britain, and in ancient Rome, and that ia 
confequence oT this circumftance, the general train of diredionB 
chiefly iniiAed oa by ancient wriursj relate to particulars that 


Dickfon^ Hujbandry ofth AmtnUl ' Igj 

ve^ comparatively, of fmall importance in modern times. That 
clafs of men which we denominate farmers^ was fcarcely known 
Hmong the Romans ; and indeed they feem not to have formed 
an idea, at that time, of the mode of parcelling out land, now 
generally adopted among us, for a certain fpecified rent. In 
general, the proprietors of land in the Roman territories, like the 
proprietors of land in the Weft Indies at prefent, ftocked it them- 
ielves, and it was cultivated by means of hired fervants, flaves, 
and cattle, difpofing of the produce for their own account; and 
though in fome cafes they^aid the fuperintendent of the farm 
by allowing him a certain proportion of the free produce, — yet 
even this ftep to improvement feems to have been rare, and the 
fuperintendent himfelf received for the moft part a (lipulated 
fum per annum^ by way of wages ; the proprietor only vifiting 
the farm occafionally, and checking the operations of his fuper- 

From thefe circumfiances it neceiTarily follows, that many 
cf the precepts of the Roman authors on agriculture would be 
calculated to inform the landlord how he ought to choofe his 
fervants, and how he Oiould check any impropriety in their con- 
dud during his abfence. Hence we find multiplied direc- 
tions, wonderfully minute, refpeding the kind and quantity of 
work that (hould be performed by the men and animals on the 
farm, — the nature and quantity of their food,*— the exadt time 
of fowing different feeds— the quantity of each to be allowed to 
a given quantity of ground,— and many other particulars well 
calculated to enable the proprietor, who only occafionally vifits 
his farm, to interrogate the bailifF, and to judge of his accounts. 
By bearing thefe things in mind, the reader will be enabled fatif- 
fadorily to account for many particulars that occur in thefe an- 
cient writings, which would otherwife appear to be unimportant. 
Mr. Dickfon, although he has not entered into thefe general 
views, has been at great pains, in this chapter, to explain many 
particulars relative to the private life and domeftic oeconomy of 
the Romans. 

As a fjpecimen of this work, we fhall fubjoin the following 
quotation, which refpeds a fub)e£t that has lately been a good 
deal agitated ; vi%. the management of flaves. 

* Cato informs us, what quantity of bread and wine, &c. and 
what clothes, were given to labourers. 

' Of bread, he fays, each labourer was allowed at the rate of three 
pounds averdupois, or of 3 pounds \z ounces averdupois, in the day, 
according to ^e feverity of their labour. ** During the winter,** 
fays he, " the bailifF (hould have four modii of wheat each month, 
and during the fommer four modii and a half; and the houfekeeper, 
or the bailiff's wife, and the fhepherd, fhould have three. During the 
winter, thejiaves (hould have four pounds of bread each in the day; 
from the time that they begin to dig the vineyard^ to the ripening 

O z Qi 

196 Dickfon'i Hujbandry of thi AnctenU* 

of the figSy they (hould bare £ve pounds each ; after which the^ 
fiioold return again to four.'' 

< To this bread, there was a daily allowance of wine ; during the 
three months that immediately followed the vintage, the feryanu 
drank a weak kind of wine called Lortt: the manner in which xh\% 
liquor was made, is defcribed both by Pliny and Columella ; and, 
from the defcription given by them, it may well be fuppofed to be 
^as good as the fmall beer given to fervants in Brhain. It does not 
appear that the Roman fiaves were much reftrided in the quantity; 
Cato mentions no meafure, he only fays that they have this to drink 
for three months after the vintage. He proceeds in this manner : 
** In the fourth month> each ihould get a^Mi/^/iof wine in the day^ 
which is at the rate of %\ c^mgii in the month ; in the fifth, fixtb^ 
ieventhy and eighth months, each Kfextary in the day, which is 5 
tmgii in the month ; in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh, each 3 bi* 
tmna in the day^ which is an amphora in the month. More than this, 
at the SatMrnalsa and Compitaha, even each man a congius. The 
quantity of wine for each man in the year is eight quadrentaU ; how- 
ever, as addition mult be made according to the work in which the 
Haves are employed, it is not too much for each of them to drink 
ten quadrentals in the year." This allowance of wine, it mnft be ac* 
knowledgedy was not inconfiderable, being at lead 74 gallons in the 
year, or, at an average, 1.62 parts of a pint in the day *. 

* Befides bread and wine, the flaves got what was called pulminta" 
T$tm^ which anfwers to what in ibme parts of the country is called 
kitchin\^ For this purpofe, Cato recommends the laying up ai 
many fallen olives as can be gathered ; afterwards the early olivea 
from which the fmalleil quantity of bil is expeded ; at the fame time 
obferving, that thefe muft be given fparingly, that they may laft the 
longer. When the olives are finifhed, he defires fait £i(h and vinegar 
to be given, and, befides, to each man %fix$anui of oil in the month, 
and a modius of fait i« the year. Columella for this purpofe, direds 
apples, pearsi and iigt^ to be laid up : he adds, if there is a great 
quantity of thefe, the ruftics are fecured in no fmall part of their 

.. n^eat [ciiaria, u e. food] daring the winter, for they ferve for 

* Cato likewife makes particular mention of the clothes of the ilaves : 
-•* The veftments of the family, fays he, a coat and a gown 3^ feet 
long, ihould be given once in two years ; whenever you give a coat 
or a gown, firft receive the old one $ of thefe make cenfues [a kind 
of bed cover]. Good (hoes ihould be given once in two years.* 

Mr. Dickfon then proceeds to make a comparifon between 
the expence of a Roman flave and a labouring fervant in Great 
" ' ' I • ^ . . ■ ■ ■ ■ 

* Tht congiuj contained 207.236 cubic inches. The other mea- 
fures may be computed from thb. The Engliih pint contains i% 
cubic inches. 

f The word kitchtn in this fenfe was quite new to us; on applying 
to a Scotch gentleman for aififtance, he fays it denotes a better kind 
oi food, or honne houcbe, to be eaten with bread by way of relilhy 
Very nearly iimilar to the meaning given to it by Cato, in the paflage 
th^t immediately follows in the text. 


Dickfon'i Hufbandry rfthe AticunU. 197 

Britain, and as, in drawing this parallel, he dates the way of 
maintaining fervano in that part of Scotland where he refided 
(Eaft Lothian), we prefume it will not apprar much lefs curious 
to moft of our readers, than the account of the Romans. 

* Having thus,' fays he, • gi^n (bme account of the expence of 
labooring flaves among the Rom^s, it may not be amifs to compare 
this with the expence of labouring fervants in Britain. The annual 
expence of a flave ariiing frogi the purchafe, I have already obferved, 
cannot properly be rated at le(s than 7 /. 4/. This, 1 am perfuaded, 
will be confidered as vtty high wages, taking the kingdom in gene- 
ral, even in this age, in which they are much higher than at any 
former period * ; and the rather, when it is confidered, that money 
at Rome, in the time of Columella, giving ^//r centum per annum, 
ihows that there was not To much currency as with us at prefent ; 
and confrqueatly that the fame fnm was of more value with them 
than with us. It is not eafy to determine, whether the meat given 
to the Roman flaves, of the kind that has been mentioned, is equal 
in value to that which is given to our labouring fervants ; the re-^ 
dttcing thefe, as nearly ^s is poflible, to quantities of corn, is tht 
bed way to form fome judgment.' At prefent, a labourer's meat in 
the labouring counties of Scotland, muft btj reckoned highly rated 
at two pecks, or 17. 57 pounds averdupois of oatmeal, and one (hilling 
in the week. A Roman flave had of bread equal to 51 modii of wheat* 
with ten quadrentah of wine in the year, and, befides thefe, fome- 
thing for kitcbin. This laft, according to the account given of it» 
cannot be reckoned much worfe than any quantity of victuals that 
can at prefent be purchafed for one fliilling in the week. iF this ia 
allowed, we have only to compare the bread and wine given to the 
Jloman flave with the oatmeal given to a Scotch labourer. Now, it 
may be obferved, that the flour neceflary to make op the daily al- 
lowance of bread to the Roman flave, would weigh about 2.39 parts 
of an averdupois pound; and that the allowance of oatmeal in the 
day to the Scotch labourer amounts to about 2.51 parts of a pound* 
fame weight. The flour, of which the bread for the Roman flaves 
was made, having all the bran in it, is not fo fubflantial as the fame 
weight of oatmeal ; but when the allowance of wine is added, it 
mull appear both more fubflantial and more valuable f. 

' In Britain, the wages and viduals mentioned are the whole of 
the expence of a labouring fervant to his mafler; but in July, be- 
fides the original price of the flave and his maintenance, the mafter 
was obliged to provide him in clothes. The value of thefe, accord- 
ing to the account given by Cato, would not be an inconfiderable 
addition to the annual expence : fo thdc, upon the whole, we may 
conclude that the expence of labour among the Romans was as great, 
if not greater, than m Britain at this day.' 

* The editor warns the reader to t^e notice, that this work was 
completely finiflied for the prefs, by Mr. Dickfon, at leafl a dozen 
years ago. 

f The ingenious author, in a long note, follows this calculation 
with great accuracy; we regret that our limits fprbid us to in« 
fert ic. 

- O 3 la 

^9^ Dickfon*j Hvjbaniry of the Anclinisl 

In this calculation, Mr. Dickfon has been guilty of one over^ 
light. ]ple fays above, ^ the expence of labour acndng the Ro* 
mans was as great as in Britain ;' — he ought, however, only 
.to have faid, the expence of a labourer; for it does not appear, 
from any pare of this calculation, what was the quantity of work 
performed by the Roman flave, or what proportion it bore to 
that ttfually performed by the Britilh fervant ; and we are ia« 
clined to believe, that if this particular had been adverted to, die 
comparifon would have turned out a good deal more in favour of 
the latter. 

Chap. III. Of foil in general, and the qualities of a good foil. 

Chap. IV. Of the different kinds of crops raifed by the Ro- 
mans, &c. 

Chap. V. Of the maxims of the ancients, and fome general 
diredlions to the farmer, in his operations. 

Thefe inaxims chiefly relate to the impolicy of having large 
farms, and the advantages of redding upon them. — Example: 
•' Whoever would buy a field, ought to fell his houfe, left he 
delight more in the town than in the country. He who is very 
fond of a town houfe, has no need of a country farm." — •* Nei* 
ther the aifiduity of the bailifF, nor the power and willingn£(s of 
the mafter to lay out money in improvements, are fo efFedual as 
this one thing, the prefence of the mafter; which, unlefs it is 
frequent with the operations, it will happen to him as in an ar- 
my when the General is abfent, all things will be at a ftand." 
The other maxims evidently allude to the fyftem of oeconomy 
vi^hich we have already fpecified. 

Chap. VI. • Of fchemes of management, and fucccffion of 
crops.' — We here learn that the Romans, like the moderns, be- 
lieved certain crops were exhaufting, and others ameliorating, to 
the foil — which are fpecified. But the greateft fingcilarity, and 
what fome will think gives no high idea of their Ikiii in agricul- 
ture, is, that it is a genCTal rule in Italy to fallow and crop their 
'ground alternately ; that is, one year it carried a crop, and the 
next year lay fallow. By fallow here is meant, being allowed 
to remain uncultivated ; for the Romans feem to have had fcarce* 
]y any idea of what we mean by a complete fummer* fallow. 

The fucceeding chapters in the firft volume — which treat of 
dung and other manures, inftruments of agriculture, and the 
way of ufing them — contain much matter of curious fpecula- 
tion ; but Itttle that could prove interefting to anjr of our read- 
ers, except to thofe who have a particular predile£lion for re- 
fearches of this nature, and to whom no abridgment could afford 

The fame obfervatlon will apply to the whole of the fecond 
volume, v^hich treats of the feafons of fowing — choice of feed-— 
method of dcftroying weeds — the culture of particular crops, i?/au 

U Triticum^ 

Dickfon*/ Hufiandry bfthe Aricientsi ' 19$ 

TrUtcum^ FoTi Hordiunij Ligumtna, Medica^ Rapa^ Naput^ Linum^ 
ff^ilows'^ — the management of meadows — hay-makttig — inclofing 
—reaping— threfliing, winnowing, and preferving corn — con- 
cluding with a chapter on the management of oxen, and a 
comparifon between thefe animals, as beafts^f labour, and horfes, 
by Mr. Dickfon ; which parallel, he, as ufual, concludes to be 
greatly in favour of cattle ; though, on this head, we think all 
circumftances have not* been taken into the account, and there- 
fore we have our doubts of the juftnefs of the conclufion. But 
it would lead us too far, were we here fully to explain our rea- 
lms for them. 

Though Mr. Dickfon deferves a high degree of praife for the 
unwearied application he has beftowed on illuftrating the various 
particulars relative to the rural oeconomy of the ancients, and 
though the modern reader will be furprifed at the minute at- 
tention which their authors have beftowed on a great diverfity 
of particular objeds, yet he will too often have occafion to re- 
mark that the mode of reafoning introduced into phyfical difqui- 
fitions by the immortal Bacon^ had not been difcovered before the 
era in which tjiey wrote. He will confequently find, thzt faffs 
are often aflumed, without any attempts to authenticate them by 
experiment, and of courfe, very abfurd notions are gravely pro- 
pagated as undoubted truths, and retailed by one author after 
another, with the moft implicit faith ; fuch as, that *' old bro- 
coli feed fown produces turnip, and alfo that old turnip feed 
produces brocoli." — " The cole,*' fays Columella, •* when it has 
four leaves, ought to be tranfplanted ; but its roots muft firft be 
anointed with liquid dung, and wrapped round with three fillets 
of fea weed, and in this fituation put into the ground. This 
makes it moifien more eafily in boiling, and preferves the green 
colour without nitre." — ** The Greek?," fays Palhdius, " aflcrt, 
that the feed which is fteeped in capons blood is not hurt by de- 
ftrudlive weeds ; — and that if fprinkled with water that has nitre 
diflblved in it, it is [that is, the produce isj more eafily boiled." 
— ** The nature of the foil," fays Columella, ** changes the feed 
of both ; if the Rapa are Town in the foil difierent from their 
nature, in two years they are changed into the Napus; and^t;/V# 
vtrfa** — ** It is allee;cd,'* fays Pliny, ** from a liice obfervation, 
that, if they [the Napus and Rapa\ are fown between the times 
mentioned on the fame day of the moon on which the firft fnow 
in the preceding winter happened to fall, there will be an extra- 
ordinary crop."— The dire^ions for fowing on fuch or fuch a 
precife day of the moon's age, as being neceflary for infuring a 
cxop — for preventing the plants from being hurt by mildew- 
by fnails and other vermin— ^are innumerable, and invariably iji- 
culcated with the moft folemn gravity. Thefe, and many other 
iimilar particulars, fufficiently ferve to (hew thatfa6)s relating to 

O 4 agriculture 

200 Lady Cnvtt^s Joutntj thnf iht Crimea U Conflantinopk* 

agriculture were not in ancient times afcertained by experiments^ 
which is the only fure teft of truth ; and that therefore they can- 
Bot be relied on* 

We repeat, however, that, as matter of curioficy, the volumes 
before us claim a confiderable degree of merit. But confidered 
in point of utility to the Britifh farmer, we cannot ra^ ihem 
very highly. 

In almoft every page of the work, the benevolent views of the 
author are apparent. He is careful, in every cafe, to compare 
the ancient and modern pr^£kices, and on thefe occafions, he aj[- 
ways correSs what he deems to be erroneous in modern timest 
In the courfe of thefe remarks, many allufions are made to pre- 
vailing opinions in the author's time with regard to the manage- 
ment of eftates, efpecially in North Britain. Many of thefe 
opinions have long ago given way to others $ and inftead of 
thinking that only ten or twelve years had elapsed fince the 
work was written, as the editor hints, we (bould rather fufpeAi, 
from the general fcope of the remarks, that it had been chiefiy 
penned twenty or thirty years ago. Probably the greateft part 
of it was then written, though it may have received the autfaoi'a 
laft touches at the time which the editor mentions. 
^ The claiScal fcholar, and the man of tafte in polite litenture^ 
will not find that the language of this publication pofleiTcs all 
the elegance he could wi(h ; it is full of Scottifh idioms, and 
abounds in phrafes that will be unintelligible to the Englifh 
reader*. The editor ought to have had thefe bleinifbes corn 

Art. II. ^ Ajournrf through the Crimea to ConfianttnupUn In a Series 
of Letters from the KJgbt Hon. Elizabeth Lady Cpaven, to fai« 
Serene Highnefs the Margrave of Brandebourg, Anfp^ch, and 
Bareith. Written in the Year mocclxxxyi. 4to. 332 Pages. 
188. Boards. Robin fons. 1789. 

• A J°"''"^y through the Crimea to Conftantlnople' is a title, 
X^^ like that of many plays, rather founded 00 a popular 
part of the performance, than calculated to fpecify the real fub- 
yOi of the work. The binder is, indeed^ direSed that * the map 
of the roads of the Crimea is to face the title \ but there are not 
above forty pages in which it is at all necefHry for the reader to 
confult it. The prefent fcries of letieis contains the narrative 
of a tour from Paris, through the fouth of France, 'as far as to. 
Bologna in Italy ; where the receipt of certain letters change the 
courfe of the fair traveller from a fouthern direction to the north; 
and (he proceeds through Venice, to Vienna, Warfaw, and 
Pcteifburgh : — thence, by Cnerfon, through the Crimea, by fca, 
to ConAantinople i and then through Bulgaria, Wallacnia, and 


Lady Craven*! Jouriuy thro* ^i Crimia fo ConJIoMtimpl^. aO| 

Tranfylvania, back again to Vienna, where the journal con- 
clodcs ; leaving Lady C. preparing to fet out for Anfpach, tQ 
vific his Serene Highnefs : to whom (he had obtained permiffion 
to addrefs her Letters, during her tour, in the charai^er of her 
brother ; and to whom (he writes with due refped, and witii 
a more than fylirly affe^^ion. The ftyle^ is, according to the 
chara£ter of letter writing, natural and eafy ; but, after the maih- 
ner of Sterne, broken into daibes : which, we are forry to obferve^ 
are now quite in fa(hion, and too much thi %»ay oftbt world. Some 
da(hes, however, are continued, without interruption, for feveral 
lines together ; and their probable fenfe is fomec imes to be coU 
leded from the context which produces them. Of thefe, per* 
baps, we (hall take more notice, before we difmifs the Letters. 

One great objed in view, in publKhing this correfpondence, 
appears to be an effort to wipe away (bme unfavourable imputa- 
tions at home, and to manifeft the refpefl (hewn to the writer 
abroad. The Dedication may ftridly be coniidered as the firft 
letter, though the laft written; and it tends to (hew that there 
exifts a fpurious Lady Craven, who on the continent, as weli at 
at home, like a Birmingham coin, has long paiTed for the fter- 
ling impreffion. The Letters convey much inftrudtion, and af^ 
ford confiderable entertainment ; at the fame time that they ex- 
hibit many proofs of good fenfe and vivacity. This general 
opinion will, probably, appear well founded, from the following 
inveftigation of their contents. 

In the firft Letter, dated from Paris, Lady C«, thus writes and 

* I have fentyoo fome EngliOi garden feeds, which were given me 

by Lady . I hope when you* are eating your fallads this fum^ 

mer, you will think of your adopted fitter, and believe that // muft 
be very good reafoos, that deter her from vidting Francooia, Jo pre- 
Itrence to all other places. — — — — — — 

* I have the honour to fubfcribe myfelf yoor ytry affedionate fifler, 
faithful friend and fervant.' 

• I flept at Orleans laft night-^and as the weather is extremely 
bot, I relied in the middle of che day at Blois, where I examined the 
royal Chateau^ a houfe compofed of different orders of archicedore^ 
bailt at diFerent periods of time, and by various perfons. The moft 
modern addition has been made by Gallon Due d Orleans, wha 
choie to place an Italian llrudure in the midA of the various irregu- 
larity belonging to the ancient Gothic, one part of which was built 
by Francis the Firft. — The ornaments of this (fcveral of them) were 
to me as incomprebeniible as Egyptian hieroglyphics would have 
been. I wiftied my friend Mr. W. at my elbow, whofe knowledge 
in, and tafte for the Gothic, might have explained them, — The por- 
ter who conduced me ahout^ feemed a good hiftorian for a perfon pf 
^UcoadicioD.^I need not (ell you, how many exiraordioary per- 


tOf Lady Crarcn*! Jmimey thrc* thi Crsmia to Conftanttncplel 

lenages and events this chateau called to my mind. — If the confufioa 
which ambition naturally creates in hiilory, (hoold at this moment 
prevent yoor memory from pfacing them before you — I refer you to 
the Ncwveau Vojage de la France, far M, Piganiol tie la Force^ who 
gives a curfory account of Blois^ and- this chateau — but he does noC 
fay, what I can a£ert, that fo many per fens have fcraped the (lone on 
which Henry Doc de Guife's blood fell, that there remains but one 
iialf of it.— My old conduAor told me, thofe who prefer ved the pow- 
der as a relic, were people related to the Gnife family^ and Cttrious 
Cravellers— >I was not one of them——*' . 

' Every body lad year, that would be quite *a PAu^laifi at Paris* 
bad to wait on them, what they called a Jakay, a lutle boy with 
ilraight, lank, onpowdered hair, wearing a round hat— and this 
groom -like looking thing waited upon them at dinner, and was fre* 
quently lluck up with three tall footmen behind a fine gilt coach.-^ 
It was in vam for me to aifert to fome grave old French people that 
jockey meant riding groom in a running-horfe ftable ; and that no 
grooms ever waited upon us, nay fcarcely ever came into the houP?, 
and certainly nothing but fervants, as well drefTed and powdered as 
the French^ waited upon us, or went behind our carriages. They 
ainfwered, it mud then be a new faihion, for it was Utut-a-fait k 
f Anglaife'^'et comme oufe/ait a Londres ' 

Letter xi. contains fome account of, and refle£lioos on ^ the 
much-famed Fontaine di Vauclufe* 

< I let out from Avignon in the middle of the day, and arrived at 
• town called Lille, where I took a French pod-chaife, and went in 
it by the fide of the Sorgue's clear dream, till the road was too nar- 
row for the carriage to proceed; I then walked. in a narrow path 
v'inding round the immenfe rocky mountains to the left, with the 
fiream rapidly^iVr^ by me to the right, about a mile, till a cavern, 
pretty much in the diape of thofe which lions come out of in an 
opera, prefcnted itfelf to my view, and from that flows the river. I 
am told it is an unfathomable abyfs« Why it is called a fontaine, I 
am at a lofs to guefs. 

* Mondrous rocks rife over and on each fide of this* craggy arch ; 
thefc fecm to bend forward to meet or crufli the curious. — Which- 
ever way I turned ray eyes, 1 faw gigantic and fantadic fhtper, 
which nature feems to have placed there to adonidi the gazer with a 
mixture of the melancholy, terrible, and cheerful ; for the clearnefs 
and rapidity of the river makes it a lively objedt, and where there is 
a flat place on the banks, though not above a ftw feet in circum- 
ference, the pcafants have planted trees or fo^ed gardens — you lift 
«p your eyes, and fee the mod perfed contrads to ihem — the birds, 
which hovered towards the upper part of the rocks, were fcarcely 
perceptible. In looking into the cavern, it appears horrible and 
gloomy; £ could almod have fancied the river ran thus fad, rejoiced 
to quit the manfion from whence it fprung. No wonder Petrarch's 
fong was plaintive, if he courted his Mufe with this fcene perpetually 
before his eyes; Love and all his laughing train mud fly the human 
imagination, where nature difplays her features in the majedic and 

-riblc dyle, and I wa4 \tjy glad to find fo good an cxcuie as this 


l^dy Cravcn'i ^ourmy xM tht Ctlmia i9 ConflantlnopU. 20j 

fituatibn for Petrarch's eternal complaint— till now I was puzzled to 
guefsy how a man of his fenfe could pafs the greatell part of his life 
in eternizing a lady's Contempt of a faithful paiTion— but I now be- 
lieve there was no Laura—or if there exifled one, he found in either 
cafe his imagination particularly turned to poetry, and that of the 
Melancholy kind ; in this, probably his fummer's refidencey I who 

you know and have as playful a Mufe as ever fmiled 

upon mortal, fat examining the aftoniihing pi^ure before me f»itli « 
filent reverential fort of admiration — and ftould have remained theat 
till night, if I had not been informed that it grew very late, and I 
mad fee the pidlures of Petrarch and Laura in the chateau of the 
Marquis de Chamont, which is a miferable houfe a few fleps from 
the Fontaim. Thefe pidures are very modern— probably as like yo« 
as the perfons they were drawn for.' 

From Hyeres are dated four Letters ; one of them containing 
many, long and Ihort verfes on a French pamphlet concerning 
the late memorable iiege of Gibraltar. Thefe verfes difplay 
inuch loyalty, but not quite fo much poetry. 

The laft of thefe four letters is the mod valuable ; and coa* 
tains fome interefting intelligence. We (hall therefore iraa- 
fcribe it ; 


* HVERES*, Augull24> I785* 

* Dear Sir ! I am extremely furprifed that invalids, who fly to the 
South in winter, do not choofe Hyeres in preference to Montpellier 
or Nice : it is true, that it is more folicary than either of thefe places; 
but lam fure, by the accounts I have had of the laft, its lying, gof« 
iiping, mifchievous ftyle of the fociety muft be a moil horrid thing for 
nerves fhalcen by illnefs. There is an uncommon clearnefs in the 
air here; the iflands appear to the eye to be not above three miles 
diftant, and I am afTured they are feven leagues — Provifions are ex- 
cellent here, particularly fi(h; among thefe the John-Dory and the 
Red Mullet are of an amazing (ize, and excellent.— 

* There is very feldom any rain at Hyeres, and the rides of the 
environs are the mod beautiful that your imagination can form-* 
particularly one towards the refidence of a Mr. GlaHiefe de ^i. 
Tropes — who has near his houfe a beautiful large valley betweea 
the mountains, which he might with little expence turn into a 
charming park with a river running through it.— You muft not fup- 
pofe from the want of rain here, that there is no verdure, or that the 
orange-gardens look burnt by the fun ; the natives of this happy 
fpot are extremely ingenious in turning ts^x"^ little fpring that comes 
from the mountains (and thefe fprings are numerous) over their 
fields and gardens, fo that the conftant want of rain here is the very 
reafon why t\ti'^ vegetation never fails of being refrefhed perpe- 

* Put all thefe circum (lances together, with another, which I think 
iQoft weigh with every reafonable perfon, out of their own country, 
which is, that provifions are Mtry cheap, and you will agree with me, 
»■ ■ ■ ■ » • I 11,, 

♦ Near Toulon, 



ao4 Latfy Cravcn'j Jotknty tM tbg Crimea to ConJlantinopU. 

that Hyeres b a very good place for aa inralid to pafs a winter 
ia ' 

♦ Pisa Baths, Sept. 17. 

* I could not help reflefling in, one of the fineft palaces at Genoa 
en the want of tmity and Tdtr^ the two principles on which good 
tafte is foonded, that is ever difcorered in (he dreis and ornamenuof 
p{! kittds which foreigners hav^— — 

• * 1 had pafied through an immenfe faite of room's » each more mag- 
nificent than the other; when coming into the bed-chamber of the 
milirefs of the hoafe, her drefs which (he had pulled oS the night be- 
fore, even her bracelets and rings, lay upon a table, and I can with 
truth afTert" no village-girl conld have adorned herrelf with more 

snean, ordinary, paltry finery than was exhibited The heir to 

fhis noble honfe, a child of about two years old, that had taken a 
fancy to my lo6ks, and accompanied me through the apartments^ 
was drefled like wife in a coarfe coloured linen—— - 

' Thefe circumflances were, fuch contrails to the hoafe, that k 
brought to my mind a hundred examples of the like in France, where 
cften, to get at the rood elegant ffule di fomfagnie, you are oblige4 
to pafs through a dirty antichamber, where jr0« are forced to hold up 
j99r * petticoats, that you may not fweep into the inner rooms a 
load of filth In the jflreets you meet a magnificent carriage, at- 
tended by fervants in coftly liveries, drawn by a pair of dog-horfes^ 
the harnefsof which a hackney-coachman would not ufe with qs— 
and frequently at Paris the fined hotels have their architedure dif- 
graced by the black funnel of a temporary chimaey, running out at 

• window, or through a cornice 

* I'befe incongruities cannot be imagined, nor believed, bnt by 
thofe that have feen them — With us, cleanlinefs conllitutes our fkti^ 
elegance; and fitnefs of things is next confidered — and 1 believe it is 
the combination of thefe two circumflances which enchants foreign- 
ers oi fcnfe and parts fo much in England—* 

* hw Eneiifh perfon (in Italy) meets with homage little (hort 

of admiration — The \try fhopkeepers and peafants look in my face, 
and fay — Cora — Cara IngUfe — 

* Thefe baths (at Pi fa) are very g'od for palfies, paralytic di(^ 
orders, gout, rheumatifm, and fcrophulous complaints; Pifa and 

/Lucca are near — Pifa, I find, the Grand Duke ^t^^xt to Florence— 
I ihould think an invalid might pafs a comfortable winter here«-* 

By unity and arder^ in this Letter (xx.), we fuppole that ber 
Ladyflitp would imply confijicncy, 

' The poftfcript to the twenty-third Letter [from FlorcnccJ 
contains the following pleafing remark : 

« On looking over my letter, I find that I have forgot to tell you, 
the only ohjedl I took notice of from my coach, going to Florence, 
was the moon ; it put o>e in mind of what \At* de CaraccioU fays, 
f^t la June de Nafhs <vaiait hitit U /oleil d*Angleterre'^\iQ9itscT^ our 
Engliih fun has but one fault, notwithflanding the Marquis's witty 
^ ■ ■ . . ^ . - 

* Lady C. forgets that ihe is writing to a gentlem,an« 



Lady Craveo'i youme^ thtif tU Crimid U Con^ntin9ple. 10| 

reroark ; and that is the fame that an Eoglifli mind has— peeping 
through a cloud too often.- * 

* I coald not help obferving that all the handfome Fforentines are 
rery like the Englifli — an effed perhaps of the great partiality the 
Italian ladies have for my country people— what I mean is, that a^ 
they have conftantlj fo many Engliih people here, their looking at 
them cenftantlf may very naturally occafion the likenefs 

* The Italian ladies are very good humoured, which is more thaa 
I can fay for (heir neighbours the French ; and they have likewife 
more natural civility to ilrangers ; for they do not ftare at them, and 
whifper to one anotner, fo as to leave no doubt to the Angltu/t that 
her drefs is criticifed ; but they fpeak to her, and if they remark any 
thing new to them, they do not tell her, a tCeft pas ala-ufdi-^h^ix 
they fuppofe it is the faihion of the country (he is come from — - 

* The fovereign might make Florence a paradife ; but he keeps no ^ 
' court— There is nothing about his manner of living that betrays 

either the gaiety or magnificence that naturally belong to royalty— 
A ay perfon whofe rank fuits prefentation might be prefented to the 
Grand Duke or Duchefs— but I ihall certainly not be fo; for fove« 
reigns, like the fun, fhould cheer with their rays the people who 
look up to them ; and when they choofe to hide' thofe rays in a cor* 
oer, ftrangers mud be very fooliOi to go and feek them out, difturb 
their privacy, and gain neither pleafure nor amufement by it — .' 

In this paflage, it is obfervable that her LadyQiip gives % 
ihrewd reafon for her tiH being prefented at Florcnas. 

' I have been obliged again to aflure the French, at the French 
mtnifler's table the other day, that Sir George Elliot (Lord Heath* 
field) was not born of French parents 

* Sterne's adventure about Yorick, I have now good reafon to be« 
fieve was a fa£t ; for I was afked too by a Frenchman if Sir Joihua 

He^nolds did not build St. Paul's. 1 thiuk Frenchmen ihobid 

never quit Paris ; for they do not choofe to be acquainted with tho 
chronology or genealogies of any other nation but their own. — The 
only thing which feems to delight the French miniiler here is, that 
the bridge over the Arno, which is juft before his windows, puts him 
in mind of thp Pont Neuf at Paris— the only obfervation I have ever 
heard hini make' upon the beauties of this town—* 

* ^bere is a charming ride here about a mile from the town, in a 
wood of the Grand Duke^s, called the Calhins (where the ladies 
walk, or go in phaetons, called here i?/r^^/i)— but its chief beauty, 
the moft enormous firs I ever beheld, are now felling. — • — «^ 

Tbiri is alfo a dairy, where cream, milk, and butter are fold, at a 
royal price indttd—Then is an excellent invention in it to keep the 
milk fwcet in this hot climate— the pans are placed in a trough or 
frame, full conftantly of frefh water, which runs in at one end and 
out at the other.— Talking of inventions too ; I wonder why in ail 
great cities they do not copy one from the clock in the Piazza di gran 
^Duca here — the figures (hewing the hour are tranfparencies, with a 
light behind them ; fo that in the darkeft nighty the fober citizens 
can fee what hour of the night it is ■ * 


lo6 Lady Crtvcn'x Journey thrtf th Crtmta U CmJiamiMpUl 

In Letter xxviir. the fair traveller fays, * whoever wrofd 

L. M ^'s Letters (for (he never wrote a line of them) nlif* 

reprefents things moil terribly.'— -We are inclined to think that 
Lady Craven is mjiiaken in both thefe particulars ; efpecially ia 
the nrft. See our feventieth voluoie, p. 575, where we have 
mffirted the authenticity of the firft three volumes of Lady M. 
W. Montagu's work $ and where we have alfo related the ftory 
<if the fabricafim of iht fourths 


• The Emperor gives a private aodicnce for ladies that arc pre^. 
firnted to him. There was only ntyfelf and the lady who accom- 
panied me that went into his room together; we met a Priocefs , 
Eilerhazi coming out. — ^The Emperor was clofe to the door; and 
after bowing very civilly, he made us fie upon a fofa — and flood the 
whole time nimfelf; I (laid three quarters of an hour; there is 00 
occaiion to fear (laying too long ; for when he cannot fpare any more 
time for the audience, or for any other reafon choofes to end it, he 
wery civilly fays, he will detain you no longer, you then get up, 
and go to the door, which he opens himfelf — and thus ends the 
prefen cation— I think much more agreeably than to anfwer any 
queftions a fovereign choofes to make before a hundred people tbat 
are within hearing in the circle of a drawing-room — who generally 
tepeat what they hear, according to the folly or malice they pof- 
fefs— and I fhould think it totally impoflible for a monarch to con« 
▼erfe with any fatisfadlion furrounded by fo many ears, which have 
cfien no brains belonging to them — The Emperor is like the Queen 
of France, and the only thing that genei^ me at all was his not 
being fcated—He converfes politely and agreeably * 

The xxxift Letter, from Warfaw, affords much entertainment 
and information. We (hall extraA from it Lady C/s relatioa 
of her interview with that truly wife, excellent, and venerable 
Prince, the King of Poland : whofe partiality for England, fo 
patriotically related by her Ladytbip^ and fo well known before^ 
makes us laudably vain. 

Our fair traveller thus fpealcs of her prefentation : 

• The King received us in his fludy ; I was accompanied by the. 
Grand Marcchars wife, who is one of the King's nieces— You, Sir, 
do not fpeak better French and Engllfh than that amiable Sovereign 
— he told me he had been in England thirty years pafl, and afked.; 

me if Mr.W--- was flill living— Not only living, I replied. Sir, 

but in good fpirits ; for I have a charming letter in my pocket from 
him — He faid, if there wa^ nothing imprudent in his requefl, he 
would afk to fee it. He imagined Mr. W.'s * flyle mufl be uncom- 
mon ; I gave him the letter— he put it into his pocket after reading 
it, and told me, as his filler, the Pfincefs of Cracovia, did not under- 
(land Englifh, he fhould tranflate it into French for her; and if I 
would dine with him two days after, he would read me his tranfla- 
tion, which indeed fyffrifed me — He mud be a very eiegant writer 

♦ Mr. Walpole's. 



Lady Craven V Journey thro\ the Crinaa to ConJhmlrt^pU. %tj 

hi eveiy langnai^e he cbooies to profefs — I wi(h I had dared to have 
aiked him for a copy — Well, ^ir, he is the fecond perfon I have feen, ' 
whom I wiihed were not fovereigns— for it is impoflible that the 
many difagreeable perfons and circum dances that furroand them, 
fiiould not deprive them of the fociety of people who, facrificing 
only to the Mufes, are better company than thofe who only facrifice 
to ambition, when they ^iTe their time to fovereigns— We were onlf 
fbarteen people at the King's dinner, and we converfed as cheerfully 
and as rationally as if we had not been at a court 

* The King, in hb face, is very like the Duke Of Marlborough; 
and there i^ an elegance in his language, with a foftnefs in the tone 
of his voice, that pleafes the ear to the higheft degree— -»' 

• The King has a manner of faying things oUiging or i?attcriog, 
peculiar to himfelf— he tells me he thinks jw/«, animals ♦,. trees, every 
thing, in fhort, that takes its birth (in) or is produced by England, 
is more ptTh€t than the produce of other countries— the climate, the 
foil prolxibly, he fays^ may occafion this ; his partiality to the £ng« 
]](h, together with your's. Sir, would make roe prejudiced in favour 
of my own country, if I could love it better than I do— but the word 
comfort, which is underftood there only — has long (lamped the value 
of it in my mind * 

Letter xxxiii, from Peteffburgb, prefents to us fome reflec- 
tions which are not the lefs pleafing, on account of their be;ng 
fo totally uoexpeded from the pen of a fafbionable woman of 
quality : ■ 

' The Empreis and the Princefs d'Afhkow are the only ladies who 
wear the Ruffian drefs ; it is I think a very handfome one ; and I am 
more furprifed every day, that nations do not each preferve thei^owll 
faihions — and not copy one country that is at prefent only the ape of 
^vtry other — From Cherfon, the new town on the Turkifh frontiers, 
which is 1600 miles from hence, are brought many provilions; from 
Archangel likewife this town is provided, and from Aftracan on the 
Cafpian Sea, near two thoufand miles^ all the dainties, fuch as grapes, 
peafe, beans, artichokes, are brought — It is natural to fuppofe, that 
the neceflaries of life are dear, from thefe circumdances ; but fome of 
them are extremely cheap-^and I believe RuiTia is one of the cheap- 
en countries in the world to live in ; if French wines and fafhions» 
and Engliih comforts, can be difpenfed with»-To thefe laft I never 
felt fo much attachment as at this mpment^Dii«i It ligne Anglais^ a 
<]aarter of this town> where the Englifli merchants live, I find Eng- 
liih grates, Englifh coal, and Engliih hofpitality, to make me weU 
come, and the fire-fide cheerful — I have oever yet been fortunate 
enough to make any acquaintance in the world of commerce ; but 
if all Englifh merchants and their families are as well informed 
and civil as thofe I find here — I (honld be very glad to be admitted 
into the city of London as a vifitor, to enJ4y a little rational conver/a- 
tion, n/jbicb at the court-end is feldom to be found^^How fhould it be 
otherwife ? A little Latin and Greek in the fchools of Weftminiler 
and Eton, and a great deal of vulgar rioting, make our young men 

• What arc ww, my Lady ? 

a flrange 

a firaoge mixtore of pedantirm and vice» which can oaly prodacft* 
impodence and folly— Thus tutored, atfixteen they are turned upoH 
the hands of fome unhappy man> who is to prefent them at foreign 
courts, with no other in^ovement or alteration in the boys heads^ 
than that of their hair being powdered and tied behind—*' 

i— - * Indeed, Sir, tiit de^alice which i^ produced by the cleanii-' 
■efs and order feen with us, is found nowhere oat of England ; here 
the houfes.are decorated with the moft fumptuous furniture from 
every country — ^but you come into a drawing-room > where the floor 
is of the fioeft inlaid woods, tbrwgb a ftaircafe made of the coarfeft 
wood, in the rudeft manner, and (Unking* with ilirt<^The pofttliont 
wear (heep-fidDs — and at a ball, when a nobleman has propofe^ his 
hand to a fair lady— he often kifTes her before the whole compan^-^ 
M propos to this cufiom— I mnft tell you an anecdote of •- -^ 

' Thus yon perceive he was nearly in the fame predicament as the 
Chevalier dans la Fee Urgele*— and might hav^ faid, P^tr mt tmijifr 

The dojhii in this laftextrafi are arch and eloquent. 

At the end of this Letter, or, rather, at the beginning of what 
Jhould havi ban numbind xxXiv,. Lady Craven gives a curious 
converfation, in French, with the Swedifh mintfter, which pre- 
vailed on her to give up the thoughts of returning to Germany^ 
through Sweden and Denmark ; ' and determined her to go 
through the Crimea to Cpnttantinople, In this Letter are like- 
tvife the following fenfible pafTagcs : 

' There are ladies here whom I (hall be forry to quit ; who in 
Touth are pofTefTed of many talents, and with whom I could form an 
agreeable fociecy; Italian mufic, the pedal harjp, and our Bngliih 
poets are perfedlly underdood by them ; I think often I can trace 
Ofccian features among the females of this country, and the fubtli 
fwic of the Greek in the men ; that pliability of genius which caufes 
them to fpeak fo many different languages well, and adopt all the 
inventions and arts of other countries that are good 

< I am fpeaking withont any partiality, dear Sir; but I do not kt 
here the prejudices of the Englim, the conceit of the French, nor the 
flifF German pride— which national foibles make often good people 
of each nation extremely difagreeable. I am atfured the Ruffians are 
deceitful— it may be fo; but as I do not deiire to have intimacies, I 
am much better pleafed to Hnd new acquaintances pleafant and civil, 
than morofe or pert ' 

Letter xxxv. from Mofcow, contains a learned (ketch of the 
biftory of the Crimea ; and the two next epiftles are dated from 
Cherfoo, the firft fpot on. her ladj^fbip's map, that fbe vrfitedy 
%tii iituated on the fioriilhenes, which falls into the Black Sea i 
and which Lady C. was obliged to crois, in oider to proceed 
to the Crimea. 

Having eroded to the fhore oppofite to Cherfon, and en<» 
tered the Crimea, we have, in Letter xxxvxii, a defcrip- 


Lady Cr^el^'i Jwm^ tW iU OimMi to Cktu^tinafti. ao^ 

tionof traveUing poft inTarcary,; for which we muft refer to 

Letter xxxix, from Kara(bayer, gt?et a defcription of the per* 
Ibrmance of the national Jongs ^ by the Ruffian peafanta; and 
Letter xl. contains a relation of a itiock battle between the Cof** 
facki: both of which are yety entertaining} but we cannot 
A>ake room for them. 

Letter xtiii. from Sevaftopole, a port in the Crimed, gives a 
pidurefque outline of the lingular and f^riking fcepery prefented 
by the coaft, the harbour, &c. and concludes with fome liberal 
r^cdKont, which do honour to the writer, both as a lover of her 
OWB country, and as a citizen of the world. 

The poftfcript to the forty-fourth Epifile is curious on ac- 
cetfnt of the dafl)i$ : 

* You may think me very odd in faying a voyage is a bitter draught 
to me— -you will be much more furprifed when I tell yoo» I hate tra« 
veiling; but you know why I travel —.,— •— — 

' And as I do, I am determined to fee that place where the capi- 
tal of the world ought to be placed i when I am fick at fea, I ihall 
think of that— and t^at according to a vulgar Englifh faying, the 
lonseft way about is the neareft way home * 

Letter Xlvi. from Pcra [a fuburb of Conftantinople]. 

* As to women, as many, if not more than men, are to be feen in 
the ftreets— but they look like walking mummies— A large loofe rob« 
of dark green cloth covers them from the neck to the ground, over 
that a large piece of muflin, which wraps the (boulders and the arms, 
another which goes over the head and tyt% ; judge. Sir, if all thefe 
coverings do not confound all ftiape or air fo much, that men or 
women, princelTes and Haves, may be concealed under them. I 
think I never faw a country where women may ^njoy fo much liberty, 
and Ute from all reproach, as in Turkey — A Turktfh hnfband' that 
lees a pair of flippers at th.e door of his harem^ mud not enter; his 
refjpcdl for the fex prevents him from intruding when a ftranger is 
tkere upon a viiit; bow eafy then is it for men to vi(ic and pafs for 
women— If I was to walk about the flreets here, I would certainly 
wear the fame drefs; for ihe Turkiffa women call others names, when 
they meet them with their faces uncovered * 

* Boats here are to be hired as hackney-coaches are in Lon- 
don, and all very beautifully carved, mod of them with fome gild- 
ing ; the (hape of thefe boats is light and beautiful, and the Turks 
row very well, which is a thing qoire incompatible with the idlenefs 
i^ifibli in al! ranks of people — I faw a Turk the other day lying on 
cufhions, ftriking flowly an iron which he was ihaping into an horfe- 
ihoe, his pipe in his mouth all the time — nay, among tt^e higher 
order of Turks, there is an invention which faves them the trouble 
€>f holding the pipe, and thns the fmoaker has only to puff away, or 
let the pipe reft upon bis under lip, while he moves his head as he 
pfeafes — Perhaps, Sir, it is lucky for Europe that the Turks are idle and 
ignorant — the immenfe power this empire might bavci were it peopled 

Riv. March, 1789.. P by 

tia Lady Cmtn^s Jdurmj^ikn* A$ QrimwH Ctt^kmtinaplk 

hf the indiiltrioiiy and anbkioui, would tmkt it tli« mifttvft of iStt^ 
world — Ac prefeDty it only fervca as a dead wall to intercept theoom- 
wutrce aad battles whicli otber poirert might create one atiother — * 

* The Sultan has the higheft opinion of the ff nie and conn^ oi 
die Capitan Pacha ; when he quits Conftantinople the fovereigfl 
shinks his capital in danger— Bat I £nd all ranks of people agree m 
his having introduced a better police for the town than hi'therta 
exided — At %^tKt ibme j^niflaries not doing their duty properly, he 
had four of thM flung into k. Four §»€9mrager la autfti^ as Vol- 
tfiire has obfervedm^ another occaiton^lfe is always accoropaniedi 
by a lion, who follows him like a dos^The other day he fufl^ed' 
him to accompany him to the Divan, but the minifters were fo ter- 
rified that fome jnmped ont of the windows, one was near breaking" 
his neck in flying down flairs, and the High Admiral and his lioo 
were left to fettle the councils of the day together— >—>' 

The XL vntb Letter contains oaaoy, ?ery many- lines of dufint^ 
which are rather unintelligible* 

Some curious particulars concerning a principai harem, tbae 
of the Capitan Facha, occur in the xxixth Epiftle; but* they are- 
ib long, that, though it is much agatnft our inclrnationy we csnar 
only refer the reader to them. 

The fiftieth Letter defcribes the enviable, situation of the 
Turkilh wives. Whatever misfortuhes may.befalthe bufband,. 
or in however low a ftation of life he may be,^ the pelrfon of the wife 
is facred, free from all confiraint, infult, or reproach ; and while 
hi\^ abroad at hard labour,^ takes her pleafure in making vifits,. 
or in fitting at home * bedecked with jewels/ 
' The Letters from Athens contain many fprigbtly defcriptions^ 
and fenfible reflexions on the ancient and modern ftste of Greece 
The laft of them concludes in the lively manner following, not 
without her ladyfhip's arch da(hes : 

* The little Tarleton ♦ is an excellent failcr with a fair wind; but,, 
like all delicate little frames, is too rnucK fliakcn when (he meets 
with rough treatment — — — — — — 

« I remain^ my dear Brother, 

* Your affedtionate 

• E. C ""• 


— * It is {aid Varna j- was the place where Ovid was feat into 
ban Kb men t ; it might be io ; but the chief part of his exile was pafled 
in Moldavia;, the borders of a lake where he often walked havp be« 
come famous; the gentlenefs of his manners, and the fweet tone 
of his voice have been recorded from father to fon^ down to the pre* 
fent inhabitants of that part of Moldavia-*— ' 

Letters lxii. and lxiii. conuinan account of her Lady« 

* The name of a fmall frigate in which Lady C. was then fhiling. 
t A Turkilh town on the Sum of the Black Sca» called Romelia. 


Lady Cravcfl?/ jMritif iW thi Dirtmta U Ofnpantinopk. 4 i I 

IfeHf^oiT d^ a kJAd ^ up^r ftrvant, or creature, ofthe viCr^ 
called a TcHouadar, who ii^as cobifnii&aned by M. de Cboireiii 
(tiki French Ambairador)'^ and the Imperiat Miniffer, to attena 
and proteS her. But he proved fo la^y, mefcenary, treacherous^ 
and cowardly, that Lady C is provoked to fpeak ojf hiro^ and^ 
ilideed, of the 't'urks in general^ ia a ftyle^which is not very 
flattering to the <:halraaer of the ^ true beliilfifs*^ 

The Lxivtfar and the Lxvrh EpiftM, date^frbm Buctoreft^ hi 
Wanachia, ^v^ ah ikti^tH df fhe" hohdurs itki civitltfe^ p^id t6 
ilie faiir wind^i^. By flie Pi'litce a6d Prlntefs of Wdhchii ; oi 
whom we wi(h to give fome idea by tranfc^ibiiig Lady C/^ ac* 
count ; but our extrs^fls are already extended to fo great a leogtbf 
libat we muft refer the curious reader to the voluo^e itfclf. 

Letters Lxvi. and lxvx|. are dated from Herman(hidlf th<[ 
capital of Tranfylvania, in the dothinions of the Emperor of 
Germany. The firft contains ait account of the rough journey 
through the' dangcrdub road between Tranfylvania and Wal- 
lacbta. Tba ftcond prefents us with one inftance, among m.a^y 
cMhers, of (hb pofit^fs* bf the £mpeix)r« He Aid mfbrrticd 
Lady Ctiytti th^t fxt flfotild ^ay Her a vifit ; and cameV actoitl* 
ingly, on foof^ attended Mly by General BroWh. THii vSfit^^ 
which lafled t^wo hours and i half, w^ partly eApIbved in lo6k« 
ing 0V6r fhe ihap^, tut. #it1i which' her LadyATip' hafel been pre« 
lentedy ind «^i(h wliich He #a^ inudi pleaibd* 

We AMI} Hoiir trah)fi:ribe the concluding Letter (die Lxvititb)* 
entire, extepf a f6# fihes : 

' Vienna, Aug. 30, i^S^; • 

* I am arrived very fafely add pleifiiatly here, aad wak only dt^ 
layed upon the road oy the Compte de Soro, who infifted upon my 
dining with him— I think Hungary a noble coimtry, and only wants 
nav^cions made pcroft from the Adriatic to the Danube, to be one 
of the richeft and beft peopled countries upon^ earth. Torkiih idle- 
ne(s, which probably ever will remain the fame, eives a fine oppor- 
tunity for the inhabitants ot Hungary to become tne richeft and hap- 
pieft p^dple in the worId<-^If Pate had made me miftrefs df that par^ 
tkular fpot, f fhouM fbriti i flri£t alliailce with the Porte, afking 
nothing hat a IVee trade npon the Bia/ck Sea — Caii you conceive,. 
Sir, any thing fo comfortable as to have an immenfe wall or barrier, 
fuch Turkilh fopiaenefs cj^rates, between my kingdom and an am* 
bitions neighbour? — ^How I woald encourage Aiiatic fplendoar, fa- 
perftition, and laainefs, and never do any thing that could weaken 
fuch a barrier— Ambition, which often leads men into wrong paths 
in politics, may fuggeft to the Imperial courts that the Turks fhonld 
be confined to their Afiatic ihore, and' all European Turkey (hould 
belong to the Chriftians— but 1 am not Of that opinion ; an^l, after 
the fea, I would not wifh country with any other de* 
fence than that which Mahometan idlenefs could form — The Turks 
aire faithful to their treaties, and do not feek war under falfe pre- 

'' • ■— : 5 ' — ^ ^-n ' 

f A town on the borders of Wallachia, 

P z tcnccir^ 

ftia Tbi Hifi^ry rfthi Turki/b Empirt. 

tenets— Their revolted Padiat give them too much troabIe» oOtf* 

ilintly, not to make them defire eternal peace with their foreign 
heighbours— A gentleman with a fooliih troublefome wifs to maSce 
bis £re(]de uncomfortable) docs not go out of his houfe to (eek new 
^ifcOn tents— Such is the fituiiioo of the Porte — The perpetual dif- 
^uietude of the empire ftiakes the thinking Ti/rk find a comfort im 
the dull moments of reft he finds upon his carpet, fpread ooder the 
Ipfty planune— and we muft not wonder to fee fo nMny of them 
feemingly to enjby momentr* whkh to us woold be death-like fhi^ 
pidity. But as I am not the fovereign of uw coaatry* I will bet 
take up more of your time with my reieAioiflK but tell you that I 
found Prince Kaunitz here Meiy glad to fee me; he falutcd me witk 
^x^jtb ! njQut n/oila ma nohU Damt--—* 

• — • I Aall ftay only till I receive letters from -and ^ 

and dien fet out for Anfpach, where I (hall have the honour and* molt 
finite pleafure of paying my refpedts to /on, and afibring yoo im 
peribn how moch I am, dear Brother, 

* Your aifeaioaate Siller, 

* And devoted Friend^ 

The fl^anncr in which we introduced tbia work cathe reader, 
«od the rcfped with which we have attended her Ladyihip 
through the whole touTy leave little room for additional obfenra* 
tion* Mioutc critics might indeed cavil at font few circum- 
ftancef, and perhaps cenftire the ffcquent mixture of French 
and Englifli wofds and pbrafes; but^ eoofidering this feries of 
familiar letCcra as a correfpondence allowing a kind of trimicrrpt 
of common coriverfation, and recolleding that the Letteri tbeai«^ 
felves were fcareely tnteodcd for publication^ fuch liberties from 
a female pen arc nt-hom inexoifible. 

It feemed to be the candid way of exhibiting thie Tour, to per« 
mit the fiur writer to fpeak for taerfelf, which bas occafioned oar 
uncommonly numerous extrads. So far from fearing that they 
will appear tedious, we declare that there are many amufing 
paflTages, which . the limits prefcribcd to us, with refped to 
this article, forbad us to transcribe } and we will again venture 
to pronounce that thefe Letters aflfbrd a proof of a lively ima- 
gination and a good uoderfianding;— and that ibey are calcu- 
lated to pleafcy and never can offend. 

I'he work is ornamented with fix neat engravings of views, 
&c. bcfide the map of the roads of the Crimea. 
» ■ II 1 1 I I I ■ ■ ■ I ■ ■ I * I I ■ I — — ^ 

Art. III. Thi Htftory ef the Turkijb^ 9r Ottoman Emptre^ from Its 
Foundation in 1300, to the Peace of Belgrade in 17^0.^ To 
which is prefiKcd an Hifto'rical DifcouHe on Mahomet and his 
Surcefibrs. Tranflitcd from the French of Mignot. hy A. 
Bawkitfs, Efq. 4 Vols. 9vo. ll. 4s. Stock d ale i &e. 

IN the at^nals even of the moflf polilhed nations, a profeflor 
of morality and humanity will frequently be Aockcd at ttm 
17 means 

Tii JJSfi49j 9f the Tur^/b Bmpin. 113 

ilMaiit toployed to attain a political tml^ though that end majr 
in itfdf be unexcqKfonable : but in the hiftory of a fa^age race 
of men, whofe politics know not any law but that of force, and 
whoie force is impelled by fear, revenge, and wanton caprice, 
regardless of that law of nations which regulates, popular refent- 
meots in Europe, — ferocity and barbarifm ftain all their public 
z&u This truth is not only manifeft in all former hiftories 
wherein the Turks appear, but f ven in the tranfadions of the 
prefeot day. 

The Abbot Mignot is declared, in the Tranilator's preface, 
to be nephew to the celebrated Voltaire, and that it is natural 
to fappofe this work underwent the examination of the uncle, 
previous to its publication. We (hould as naturally adopt this 
fuppofition, did we perceive any ftroke s of Voltaire's^ pen in the 
performance ; but if ther^ were any flight touches in the ori^i- 
nal, they are loft in ihp ttanilation ; the language throughout 
being very penurious, an^ the narrative bald and dry. An in* 
ftance or two will (hew whether we do the language any ip* 
juftice. In the prefatory difpourfe on ^ahomet, which by the 
way, is a Ipofe, illiberal piece, we ^ informed that ^ in the 
courfe of his conquefis, the impoftor y)as liki tif lofe his life by 
an accident that (hould have unmafked htm to all bis follow- 
ers *.' In another place, a paragraph clofes with affirming 
that * the emirs*al-omra depofed the commander of the faithful 
as often as their intereft or caprice prompted them/^f/ A 
priiboer who made his efcape, * had time to get away before h« 
was fmnd wanting %.* As a fpecimen of greater length, we fliall 
produce the account of the inftitution of that formidable clafs 
of fol9iers called Janiflaries, by Amurath I. about the year 

' He eftabliihed the corps of janiflaries as we fee it. at this day ; 
and, by the advice of Kara Ali his grand vizier, he ordered, that the 
Afth part of the Aaves that (hould be made from the enemy (for the 
Turks call their prifoners of war by no 6ther name), Aiould belong 
to the fultan, and that thefe foreigners, havine embraced Iflamifm §, 
Ihoold form a new corps, which Amurath Bxci at ten thoufand men, 
but it was« afterwards confiderabi/ augmented. He divided them 
ioto odas or chambers, at the head of which he appointed particnlar 

♦P. xix. tP-*«»- t Vol. ii pv 322. 

^ « The Turkilh emperors regard all thofe that become Muflblmea 
#s fubjeds. SubmiiEon to the Alcoran implies always the privilege 
of naturalization. A renegade is fometimes prime minifter of the 
empire. There is no other rank in Turkey than that of employ- 
ments, and every Mnflulman, without diftindton, is capable of being 
appointed. The ilaves taken in war, or given by tributary nations, 
if they are brought up from infancy in the Muflulman religion, or iib 
military difcipline, either in the feraglio or in Tome oda [an inditu- 
cSon which they call a ebamSer]^ are much furer of fucceeding to 
kigh employs, than the inhabitants of towns/ 

P 3 officers, 

ai 4 7^ Hy^ 9f tht Turkijh Bmpiri. 

office rf , and he fabjeae4 the ^trhoW corps to « cUef, called aa wgM^ 
whu» by his credit and attthorky> faiecame one of the firft officeni of 
the empire* As Amurath wiihed to give this cqrps of inUj^Wf th» 
renown of great valour, he refolved to confecrate it by religion. The. 
£r(l enrolled were fent to a dervis, whofe holy life rendered hiia 
ticommendatti. As foon as thefe new foldiers were proflrated before 
Iiim, the filUary man, affeding a prophetic tone, and placing the 
deeve of his garment on the head of the firft of them : *' Be their 
name janiffarics," faid he, ** be their couAtenances fierce, their hands 
always vidorious, their fwords always (harp, their lances always 
ready to ilHke at the bead of an enemy, and their courage the cuufi 
^tbejr confiant profperity." Since thii period, they have always 
retained th^ name of janiiTaries, which figpifies new (bldiers, and 
their cap has retained the form of a fleeye. This foldiery became^ 
as we ihall fee in the (equel, very ofeful to the Ottoman empire, and 
ibmetimes fatal to iu mailers.' 

The name of Mahomet 11. fiands high among his country- 
men, on account of bis conquefts ; though, as the prefent 
Writer obfervcs, he was one of the moft perfidious and fan- 
guinary princes thaft biftory has handed down to us. The re- 
dudion of Conftantinople; and the extinAion of the Greek 
empire, extended hi$ fame to Europe ; and the complexion of 
that fame may be conceived from the following fiery, of his 
behaviour after the capture of Conftantinople } which we. pro- 
duce merely as a curiofity*: 

♦ ^ yonng Greek lady of noble birth, called Irene, hardly feven- 
teen years old, fell into his hands. A bafhaw had juft made her btV 
^ve ; bat ilmck with her exquifite beauty, thought her a prefent 
worthy of the fultan. The eaft had never before given birth to A> 
charming a creature ; her beauty was irreiiftible, and triumphed over 
the (avage Mahomet ; rough as he was, he was fbrced to yiem him- 
felf entirely to this new paflion ; and in order to have fewer avoca- 
tions from his amorous affidnides, he*pailed fcveral days without per- 
mitting his minillers and the principal officers of thearvy to feebrra*: 
Irene followed him afterward to Adrianopic, where he fixed the 
rpfidence of the young Gree!;. As for himfelf» on whatever fide he 
turned his arms, he would often, in the midft of the mod important 
expeditions, leave the command to his generals, and return on .the 
wings of love to Irene. It was foon perceived that war was no 
longer his reigning paiCon : the foldiers, who were inored to plunder. 
and accudomed to find booty in following him, murmured at the 
change. This diflatisfadion fpred and became contagions : the 
ofncers, as well as the foldiers, complained of his efieminate lifie : 
yet his wraili was fo terrible, that no body dorft undertake to fp^ab 
to him on that fubjed. At length, as the diicontents of the foldier/. 
were juH going to break out, N£ifl^ph4 baihaw, confalting o&l/ the 
£delity which he owed his mafter, was the firft that gave him notice 
cf the difcouries which the janiflaaes .held publicly to the prejudice 
of his glory. 

^ * Dr. Samuel Johnfon made choice of this flory, as the fobjefi of 

his only dramatic compofitiQn* 

i8 c Tho 

• ThelSfidly wfihi Turi^ Bmjnrt.. - tis 

^ Tin r«kaa ontiniiti fomt ume in a fallen and deep ffleiKe, as if 
im vtai cottfideiing in kimfolf what refolution he ihould take ; the 
only anfwer Mullapha received was, an order to fummon the bafliaws 
to-^UIenible the next day, with all the guards, and the troopa that 
were poSed aboiK the city, under pretence of a review; after 
' which -he went into Irene's apartment, and ftayed with her all the 
night. ^ ^ ' 

* Never did the yonng ^Incefs appear fo charming in his eyes ; 
never too had the prince (^ven her luch tender marks of his love be- 
fore: and in order, if pomble, to beilow new laflre on her beauty^ 
he defired her maids to. exert all their care and ikill in drefCtig her. 
Whea ibe was jthas iet out and adjured to appear in pablic, he took 
hpt by the hand and led her bto the middle of the aifembly ; when^ 
aeariQg oS the veil th^ covered her face, he haughtily alked the ba- 
Aaws around, if they had ever feen a more perfed beauty. All the 
officers, like trae courtiers, were laviih of their praiff s, and congra- 
tulaied him on his felicity. Upon which, Mahomet, taking the fair 
<^/eek by the hair with one hand, and drawing his fword with the 
other, at one ftroke, feparated her head from her body ; then turn« 
ifig about to his grandees, with eyes rolling and flafhing with fire: 
^his fuBordt faid he to them, ivbimvir I plea/et can cut a/under tie 
tki rf Uvi, The whole ai&mbly was ftruck with horror, and (hud* 
^gtt^ at the fight4 the dread they were all feized with, of being 
treated in ih» like manner, made the moll mutinous of them tremble; 
€:^try one thought he faw the fatal fword lifted over his own head ; 
bat if they efcaped his fan jg^ui nary temper at that moment, it was 
only tpieme bii revenge ibe tittir, Muftapha, as a reward for hia 
fiuthfol adme, was Sril facrificed, and on a ilight pretence; he 
caofed hio) to be ilrangled in the feraglio ; and in the looe wars in 
which he was afterward engaged, and that lalbd as long as his reign, 
Jie had the trael pleafure of difpatchin^ moll of the janilTaries one 
after another, who, by their feditious cries, had interrupted kis plea- 
fures, and atoaked his fury. Tranflator.* 

Tbis afFeding anecdote is added by, the tranflator, and if we 
tinderftand the paragraph preceding it, ia derived from Vertot ; 
Mr. Gibbon, in his fixtb volume, hinta at it among other 
fiories, that he does tiot believe*, and yet it can fcarcely be 
rcjeflfd for being injurious to the meoiory of Mahooiet. It is 
by no OKans clear, wbeiher the tranflator who produces ir, be- 
lieves it or not ; for after relating Mahomet's bruui treatment 
of the Gov^nor of Negropont and his daughter^ he adds, in an 
uninttlligibk note, * This fad, which the continuator of Cal- 
condilus reports from the notes of that hiftorian, hat given place 
perhaps to ths Jlmj of Irenti which no^ anoent hi/forian has tver 

fpoke^ ^*: 

. It ia but feldoni that tkc vniform dry details of unjuft and 
«percilefs wars^ and of the brutal intrigues of the feraglio, are 
oaiifrtnc4 with ^y thing of a fentimental or inftrudive nature ; 

. ., , ♦ Vol. i. p. 167* 

P 4 but 

a x6 ' Wilkcr'i Effaj on ihi Dn/s of thi Irtjh. 

bot the dilates of common fenfe will (bmrtimet even force Ibetr 
way into the palaces of def|)0C8, though to very little purpofe, 
18 in the following inftance : 

« During the firfi years of the reign of Achmet, b? was in eon- 
tinaal fear of being depofed. The examples of Muftapha bis bro* 
ther, and of Mahomet IV. bis father, were always prefent in his 
imagination. Though the profound peace which the Ottoman em- 
pire enjoyed rendered it no way difficult to govern, and the body 
of the nation, fatigued with the violent fbooln which it had experi- 
enced, feomed to reliih a neceflary repofe, the fuitan could not fee 
fome foldiers and e^endis a/Tembled, without fuppofing plots or con^ 
fpiracies. All the blood which be had fpiU to punifli the depofition 
of his brother, and to fecure the fceptre in his own hands, could not 
remove his fears for the future. In fine, Achmet experienced on hit 
throne that fear and perplexity which are the lot of tyrants. He re- 
newed the ordinance that forbade the foldiers, or even the citizens^ 
to walk more than four together in the flreets. The offenders were 
liable to a fevere baftinade : fome even were put to death on flight 
fufpicions. The emperor, always full of frightful ideas, fent one 
day for the mufti and fome of the moilacs of moft repuution, to afk 
of them the interpretation of a dream/ He (aid that he had feen 
his palace all in Hames ; and as be was making vain efforts to ex- 
tinguifh this terrible fire, and was himfelf on the point of becoming 
a prey to it, he awoke with terror. ** Great prince," replied the 
mnfci to him, " calm the nneafincfs with which yoo are agitated ; 

five over iheddine blood and terrifying yourfelf, and then yon will 
ave left frightful dreams," 

This was the fuitan who fo hofpitably received Gharlei XII. 
of Sweden at Bender ; and the ({range freaks of Charles at this 
place of refuge, profefledly copied frDcn Voltaire, form by i^ 
the moft entertaining part of this bifiory. 

The French author candidly exhibits his authorities^ and ap- 
pears to have bid recourfe to refpedable aiSftance, to render his 
work deferving of the public attention : but an European reader 
is little interelicd in revolutions brought about by Women and 

Art. IV. Jn hiftorical EJfay on the Dnfs of the ancient and modern 
Irijh: To which is fubjoined, a Memoir, on the Armour and 
Weapons of the Irifh. By Jofcph C. Waiker, Member of the 
Royal Irilh Acaden^y, Correfpondent Fellow of the Antiquarian 
Society of Perch, and Honorary Member of the Etrvican Academy 
ofCortona. 410. pp. 2Q0. 18 s. boards. Elmiley. 1788. 

THE antiquarian library is confiderably enriched by this 
publication, as Mr. Walker ^ems to have fpared no 
pains in the inveiligation of his fubjed'; having, he fays, In 
purfuit of information, * vifitcd the couch of the aged, upA pft*- 
tlentry Hftened to ** the tale of other times \* trimmed themidoigta 
lamp o^er many a dry annalift^ and pored with unremitting ec^ 


WalkerV EJfaj m ihi Drift of the Irijb. i i j 

Hmivotk on oiany a mufty mafiurcript. I explored the moulder- 
ing walls and ^^ long fiiunding ifles'* of clotftered fan^s^ for 
figures illuftrative of my fubjed ; nay, I even unbarred the 
gates of death, and entered the tomb in queft of evidences!' 

The work feems in part to confift of eiHiys read before the 
Royal Irifli Academy, and is comprifed under the followiag 
heads : An faiftorical Eflay on the Drefs of the Iriih* A Memoir 
en the Armour and Weapons of the Irifh* And an Appeadisr, 
divided into five articles ; birfide a number of additions and cor-' 

In treating the firft head, Mr. Walker fays he will not take 
upon him to determine how foon after the arrival of the Mile* 
fians,.the Irifli threw off their clothing of (kins ; but he is In- 
clined to think that the drefs which prevailed among them for 
fo many centuries, and even to latter times, was introduced into 
Ireland by thofe bold invaders: he then proceeds to defcribethe 
ancient dreft of the Irifli, with the different alterations whicl\ic 
underwent, in fafliion, materials, and ornament. 

The drefs of the ancient Iriflimen, fays he, confifted of the 
Trais^ or ftrait Bracta ; thefc were ftriped or plaid trowfers, be-' 
ing breeches and ftockings all in one, fitted clofe to the limbs« 
The Cota was a garment fimilar to that which we call a wajft- 
coat, open before, and falling fo far below the waift as to admit 
of being occafionally folded about the body, and made faft by a 
girdle round the loins ; the fleeves were fometimes. long and 
fometimes ibort. This garment was dyed yellow, with fafiVoa, 
or rather a kind of /iV^/n, that grows on the rocks. The teafoa 
for its being fo dyed, was to prevent the appearance of foU, con- 
traded by long wearing. Lord Bacon, in his EiTays, affigns 
another reafon* The IrUh, fays he, wear faflFroned linen fliirts, 
which continue long clean, and lengthen life; for faffron being 
a great binder, oily and hot, without fliarpnefs, is very comfort- 
able to the (kin* 

' The Cachal^ or Cecula^ was a kind of long cloak with a large 
banging collar or hood of different colours ; this garment only 
reached as low as the middle of the thigh : it was fringed with a 
border like flugged hair, and, being brought over the (boulders, 
was fattened by a buckle or broche. In the field of battle, it was 
made to ferve as a (hield, by being wrapped feveral times about the 
left arm* . The inbabiunts of Connaught, for many ages, wore 
BO other covering on their heads than the hood of the 

The CamMmsy or Filkad^ was another loofe garment, much 
sefembling the Cochal, m«de of €»arfe woollen cloth. The 
irifli romance writers of the middle ages give this garment to 
royal perfooa^ea, reprefenting it of a flowing length, and like 
^ regal robes oi ibe £aft, of a crimfoa colour. 

^ . - The 

%i9 Waieer*/ E0f m ihi Drefs $fthi Infi. 

The Barrad was a coniori cap, with tbc fdnt baogtiigdovia 
behind* The Scotch booBeC was alio fonneriy ufed ia £daad« 
The Druids wore on their beads, behiod an oak- leaved orowii, 
a gdldtn creTcenc, witb buttons at the extremities, throogh 
friiicfa a ftring was drawn to faften it $ feveral of tbefe crefcenta 
batrc been found in Ihe bogs. 

The Brog^ or firogue, was a kind of fl&oe without a heel ; it 
was «iade of the Ikins of beafts, faftencd to the foot, by a latchet 
or thong. The ancient Iri(h wore alio a kind of bufkin, or fliorC 
boot made of a raw flcin, the hair outwards ; it was laced, on, bo* 
fore, with thongs of leather. 

The early Iriih cherlfhed the beard with much folicitude; nor 
did ifaey leftrain the growth of their hair, but, throwing it back 
from their forehead, allowed it to flow about the neck in fuf- 
fiended locks, which they called Cokm^ or GMs. A ftatute of 
Henry Vill. which obliged them to cut off th^ir lock&, gave 
occa&on to a fong, the air of which 19 now univerfally admired. 

Mr. Walker fays nothing of the ancient dreft of the women, 
except that one of their ornaments was the bodkin for faftening 
thdr-hair } thefe bodkins were aifo fometirties u(ed as needles, iiA 
which cafe they had an eye. 

The firft innovation in the ancient drefs took place in the 
reign of Tighernmas, A.M. 2815, when that pnnce made a 
fumptnary law, according to which the different clailes of peoplo 
were to bediftingui(bed by the number. of colours in their gar« 
ments. Und^r the reign of Mogha Naadbad,. who was flain 
A.D* 192, a code of fumpcuary laws was enadsd, and the 
prices of the clothing of the difitreot ranks was eftimated, chiefly 
according to the value of cattle. From the will of Cormac^ 
King of Munftcr, andBifhopof Cartifle, intheioth century, 
we learn that the Irifb were then pofleffed of veftmeots of txlk^ 
and others embroidered with gold, filver, and jewels | they bad 
likewife gold chains, and other coftly ornaments. 

Mr. Walker then gives defcriptiont of the drefs of the Irifla 
at different periods, from the authority of monunKJats, ftatntes; 
and the teftimony of contemporary writers: aamig thefe arc 
Giraldus Cambrenfis ; the ftatute of Kilkenny, temp. Edw. IIL 
FroiflTart; the ftatute 24.Hen. VIII. Spencer, Camden, Sir James 
Harrington, Fyoes Morrifon, and Speed. ... 

In (he memoir on the armouf and weapons, the author tn« 
forms us that tbedefenfive armour worn by the aaoiont Irilb waa 
the CaUmhion^ a covering for the head, made of the Ada of ji 
beaft. On the introdudion of iron, htlm'eti of tbaomatal were 
ufed. The flat helmet of tbe time of Henry II. was introduced 
into Ireland, but gave ph^e to the Salet *. After the conqneft 
of Ireland by the Eoglilh, the comoMn Irifii tndM to the le^ 

' ' ' ■■ I . 1 ■■ I I I I I I I I ■ I H I t f 

* A kind of military cap. See Capt. Grofe on Aocient Armoar. 


Walfeer*/ Bffitf §n tbi Drtfi ^ tV$ Irifi. ' ai^ 

fiflanee of Iheir dotted hafa*, cxoept tke yeomea of t|ie knights 
mmd dqnires, under the fiibjedion of tbe Eogliflit trkofe lordi 
were cri>iiged hj the ftatule of Henry VIL to find them ialere^ 
and other armour* Body armoor of every kind wai nnknowa 
to rhe Irifli before the tenth century | the coat of mail is how- 
ever mentioned in the Brehon Laws, and by the ftatute of Henry 
VIL the Irifli gentry, as above menctoned, were dtreded to pro» 
vide their yeomen with jacks as wdl as islets ; they alfo worf 
tbe haubergeon* Corfelets of pure gold have been found in the 
county of Kerry ; thefe Mr. Walker rather thinks might have 
been left by tbe Spaniards, Who had a fortification . near thaC 

Refpefiing the fliields ufed by the Irifl), the author is not vtrj 
explicit; heYays, that but one metal fliield h«a been found in 
tbe bogs. Spencer fays they were long and broad, made witk 
wicker rods, and alfo defcribes round katbern targets, coloured 
red after tbe Spanifli fafliion, as being ufed in n)any parts of 
Ireland. The Pavice is mentioned in the ftatute of Uemy VIIL 

The pfienfive weapons werethe 8uf$rd^ the Siiha or dagger^ 
the Fiadhgha^ or Cranmuibb^ a fpear or javelin, chiefly appropriated 
to hunting; it was pointed with flint or bone, and with this they 
killed their prey; to the end which roa»ained in the hand waa 
affixed a thong of leather, by which cither the beaft was retained 
or the fpear recovered. As arts improved, the Irifli ufed metal 
headed fpcars of different forms, for throwing which they bc*t 
came famous. The Tmgb Caiba^ or battle aae, was another 
oSenfive weapon ufed by tbe Irifli, borrowed, as is fuppoied^ 
from tbe Norwegians ; the dexterity, fays Mr. Walker, with 
which it appears the Irtfli ufitd the battle axe, evinces their fond^ 
aeis for it. It was probably in order that thenf might deal the 
snore deadly ftrokes with this weapon, that, as tampion lelales^ 
they left the right arm of their children unchriflened. 

The Kranm Tabbatb^ wooden fling, or fling fixed to a ftafl^^ 
was alfo ufed by the 'Irifli ; which Mr. Harris, aa quoted by Mr^ 
Walker, conjedures to have been fimilar to that defcribed by 
Vegetius, as a ftaflF four feet long,, to which was fattened a 
fling of leather ; this being driven forward by both hands^ 
direds a ftone almoft like a wild afs. This fentence is fome^ 
what obfcure, as it fe^ms doubtful whether Mr. Harris means 
the animal called a wild afs^ nr the Onager, a nmchin^ named 
after it. Mr. Walker juft mentions the i^Xt as another wvappn» 
which be names a fling hatchet, but modeftly owns his ioability 
to 6efkh the queflion fo long agitated among antiquaries, f. r. 
to what ufe the Celt was appropriated^ whether that of a wea- 
pon or a tool. 

The Crannib^ Or club, at 4hc anthoT juftly obfervei> requuts 
no ^cfcription« 

MM WeflonV TrOifiaihH of ike Song o/DdmiA.^ 

Arebiry, Mr. Walker thinka^ was not ^fed bj the Irifli tiHtii# 
JEDglifli intafion ; divers lawsivere afterward enaded to enforce 
the pradice of it in the EnglUh pak, and for fuppl jing bow 
^ves. A fociety of archers long fubfift^ in Dublin. 

The ancient military machines were the Cran TaUkuU^ anen* 
gine for throwing ftones; and Tbi S$w^ a kind of movable 
hottfe of ftrong boards, ufed to cover the workmen in their ap- 
proaclfes to the walls of a town or caftle. One of thefe Sows 
was ttfed againft the walls of Lifchane, in the year 1599* The 
ancient Iri(b are faid to have likewife ufed the Carai^ or militarj 

Fire arms, Mr. Walker fays, were unknown in Ireland till 
u\t year 14J9, when fix mufquets were brought to Dublin from 
Germany, and prefented to Gerald Earl of Kildare, who armed 
his guard with them* 

The Appendix, No. i. gives a very entertaining account of - 
the cuftoms; manners, and drefs, of the inhabitants pf the Rofles» 
in the County of Donegal. 

No. 2. contains adefcriptive catalogue of the Iri(h implements 
of war in the collection of Ralph Oufley, £fq. 

No. 3. An account of three relics of antiquity found in Ire- 
land ; the firft a golden crefcent, floped like ad officer's gorget ; 
2d, A briven head, with a Angular head-drefs ; the 3d, a golden 
ring or amulet, with an Iri(h infcription, in Gothic charaders of 
the 14th century. 

No« 4* Statute of the loth of Henry VII. enabling that the 
fuhjeds of Ireland ibould hi^ve bows, and armour. 

Na 5. A lift of the plates, with obfervations ; in which Fig. r. 
Plate 1 2. is called a Knight Templar ; but on what grounds, it ie 
not apparent. We cannot fay much in the praife of feveral of the 
plates, particularly thofe reprefenting the human figure. The 
Frontifpiece, the Broche, and the plate of weapons, are thebeft. 

On the whole, Mr. VValke r has drawn together many curi^ua 
particulars, which were fcattered through a number of different 
authors ; and has given us defigns of divtrs ancient weapons and 
other remains of antiquity, locked up in the cabinets of the vir* 
tuofi. His work, therefore, we conceive, will give information 
to many of his readers, and pleafure to all. 

Aat.' V. Am Attempt to hanjlate and explain the difficnh Pajfagee 
iH'tbe Song of Deborah, with the Affillance of Kenoicotc's (Joila« 
tions» Rofli's Veriions» and critical Coaje^ure. By the Rev« 
Stephen Weftoo, £. D. Rc^Umt of Mamhcad, &c. 4tQ. 2 1* 
Payne, &c. ^788. 

IF the poetical beauties of the Song of Deborah are the objed 
of general admiration, the obfcurity which envelopes many 
paru of it ftill remains to be deplored by the critic, and th» 


WeftonV tramjhtim tf tbi S^^g tf IM&dii 111 

C^iftiiti* Spme light has, initci^ hecfi thrown oo it bf 
fcbobrs of difiiiigttiflied roputatioii^ >«ii4 particulafiy hy Pro-r 
leSbr Schniirrer^ in a Diflertation, marked 5y fouQd -karniog. 
and critical fagacity* Y^t much^ very much, ftill remains to be 
done^ nor (hould he who endeavours to perform it be charged 
with arrogance or vanity. The merit of good intention, at 
leaft, cannot be denied to Mr. Wefton; and if ke hath failed 
in an Attempt which always feemed difficult, and which thcf 
failure of fo many refpefiable writers has now rendered almoii: 
hopelefs, hit charader as a critic can receive no injury* ^e 
confers he has not often convinced us that his obfervatioos 
are juft, and we have fometimes feen, or thought we faw, 
reafons for pronouncing them erroneous. His intemperate ufc 
of conjefiure muft be condemned, unrefervedly, fince whoever^ 
on fuch a fubjefi, appeals to no authority but his own gueflest 
VicuTi a perilous rifle of being wrong, without the poffibility of 
eftabli(hing what may happen to be right. The praife, however, 
of learning and ingenuity we wiih not to with*hold from Mr. W. 
That he is entitled to k, will ix^deed appear in fome meafurr^ 
even from thofe paflages of his woik in which we flull ccnfufe 
him without apology, and diflent from him without referve. 

After enumerating fome of the a^oft remarkable tranflationft 
which have been given of verfe 2* and rejeiSing each in its turn, 
the author* proceeds to propofe and efiablifli his own. Inftead . 
of nijnfi he reads HDifl on the authority of the Vatican copy 
of the LXX. and tranflates the words *7N^a^*3 HDlfi jn93 
^ For the taking away the veil thai was in Ifrael.* He 
thinks that this reading agrees, admirably, yirith the exigenciea 
qf chcpalTa^, and may be defended from Ifaiah, xkv. 7. where 
the defirufiion of the veil fpread over all nations is the deftrucf- 
^00 pf the enemy and the opprefibr. The veil oa IfiraeU he 
ftys, means the terror of Sifcra and Jabin. We cannot aflenc 
implicitly to this emendation, and we muft remark tharthe word 
f)5'1D is very different from that which is ufed by Ifaiah. Ic 
fignifies properly Vilum diftirminans^ and is, we believe, iiv every 
paflageof Scripture where it occurs, exdufively applied to the 
veil of the Tabernacle, or the Temple, which feparated the Holy 
of Holies from the San&uary. But TO!QD Ifaiah, xx¥. 7. it 
vtlum fupimt ttgifis^ Ugumentum^ Ugmen. The word niy*i|) i* 
found but twice in the whole Bible, Judges, v. 2. and Deut. 
sxxii. 42. In order, therefore, « to rid us' entirelv * of a word pf 
uncertain import and no fmall difficulty,' Mr. W. after having 
expelled it from the former paflage, very kindly fieps out of his 
way CO fabftitate TVTSQ for it in the latter, on the authority of 
one Samaritan MS. He is of opinion that the veriioix of Aqui?* 
la, CLTTQ «tf0(Au( antowirx^iumy^ is grounded on this reading: an^l 
he rciidera the pbiafc rin*18 IffUHQ 9 ^piu pukijifntium^ aut 


acpanfimm. Inftead, Kowevcr^ of adopting Mr. W.'i tonjecv 
tureiy we are dtfpoAd to acqaiefce in the fe»fe whicfa SchAnrrery 
and afteir bim Kei^icott» haa affiacd to m jDd^ The Aiabie 

' ' ' 

r<)Ot , ^ ; fignifies in fummo fuU^ fummum apiu vel tmuit. 

Hence, protrablf, the naatit of (he Pharaohs, the Kings of fgypt, 
and bcn<te the Arabs cait the head or chief of a family or tribe 


^ ; • We think that two di£tind clafles of men are dearlj 

pointed Out; the common people and their leaders. In Judged, 
the people are marked by the ufual term Qj^t in Deateronomjf 
hiy 7 m and nD^» ^"d ih both paflages we would tranflate 
pflVng leaders. 

Vcrfe 8. for Wg^np D*n7tC nnn^ Mr. W. reads nha* 
B^ enp CiTPt* ' The Lord chofe JCcdcfli of the Weft/ 
Becattfb, fays he, we learn from the laft chapter that Barak was 
called out of Kedefli, and Kedefh of the Weft wadts no expla- 
nation. We cannot admit the charge of corruption againft this 
paffiige, not'withftandbg the confidence with which h is alleged 
by our critic : and his emendation appears^ to us not only unne- 
ceflSny, bat far-fetched and unnatural. 

Verfe vo. Mr. W. reads nO for ^ID ; aftd tranllatcs 
^D ^ ♦ifll^S not very elegantly we think, or even intelligibly, 
*^ Ye who fie ftill on a lufflciency.' 

Verfe n. Mr. Wefton juffly remarks that Ae interpretations 
of this yerfe are ihore obfcure than the verfe itfelf. We agree 
with him that D^SSHD VipD are to be conncdcd with IITB^ 
in the preceding verfe; and we think that he has properly tranf- 
lirted VlpD * above the voice.* In the latter part of the verfe, 
be Ays that rtp*lV means courage, military prowefs. Schul- 
tens and Schnurrtr had made the fame remark befdre, though 
he has not thought proper to flielter himfelf under ibeir autho-' 
rity. * Going down ro the gates/ fays our author, (hews the 
fecurity of vidory, in contradiftinAion to the aflertion in the 
eighth verfe. When the battle was over, and the enemy put to' 
ffighf, the^ troops returned, each to itsown jates, in fafety, and 
without annoyance, ** Dum latrocintis Cbananaorum dbnoxii 
grant Jfraitkiey* fays Schulztus in his Scholia on this chapter, 
•* muitas ttrb/s mnfatis munitas deferuerant^ aut in rupis etiam in-^ 
vias cenfUgirant : at nuncy its t;i^isy appidd fua npetituri irant, 
viliafyue vicinas ittmm habitaturi.** 

Verfe 13. is thus rendered by Mr. W. • Then When the rc- 
matader ddfceftded after their chiefs, the people of Jehovah de- 
fcended with me againft the mighty.' Funkina confiders T1^ 
a« the imperatWe,. and.rendera tt^ pafiagc thnr: 


Wefton*! Tran/IatkH of thi Song of Deborah. tzj 

Ja9i0 Afcmii:^. fi^porph ^d hrofi^ ! 

Gens' Dii itfienii intsr /$rUs ! 
Vcrfe ao. Mr. Wcfton onderftaiKit the expreffiofi ^ the Aare 
ID theut cooFfes fought agaioft Sifera' to adean^ that the ftart did 
jiof appear for biaa, ebit he was routed asd driven info the 
brook Kifhon in the dark. Thia iolerpretatioo appears to us 
MT firited to she grandeur of the expreffion, or to the fublimity 
of Ae firfr part of the vedc yOTnii D^DtJf \^ *'«>«» heaven 
flief fought/ do cmk pugnMtum tfi. PoSbiy there is fome allufion 
so the popotar opmion refpeding the influence of the heavenly 
bodies over humaii a&irs. Or mors probably, by that kind of 
paralleiifoi which is fo frequent in Hebrew poetry, the fenfe of 
both hemiftichs is the fame : and the whole, perhaps, refers to 
the vioieiit florm which Jofephus fays beat in the faces of the 
Canaanites, and deprived them of the ufe of thek moft for* 
fhidable weapons. Hence too, perhaps, fome light may be 
thrown on the next verfe, « The river Kifhon fwept them away/ 
According to Shaw, the river Kiflion is not large enough to pro- 
duce the efieds which are here afcribed to it, unlels we fuppofe 
it, like other torrents which defcend from the mountains, t^ 
have been fuddenly fwoUen by fome fuch ftorms- as Jofephua 

Verfe 21 • In the feeond clatife, Mr. W. omits the firft word 
^3_for tD^DYlp ^^^^s D^DHD— and tranflatcs, * The river 
Kiflion cut them' f^\ or literally, * as their cutting off was the 
river Kiflion.' This emendation appears to us inadmiffible* 
We think CS^OI^Tp is the true reading; and we would tranf« 
late C3»onp ^nj» on the authority of Simonis, tornmviSlo^ 


Verfe 15. HKOH r\y^[)'n DH^TJ? 7£D1 is rendered by 
Mr. W. * In a lordly difli, flic brought him cream.* Our 
readers will, perhaps, thank us for tranfcribing the judicious and 
6cisfa6lory note of Schnurrer, with which we fbzW clofe this 
article.— •* AErum videri pojftt^ hcmini tajfo et Jitibundo^ qui ad ■ 
tabrem r$frtgerandum^ Jitimque reftinguendam aqua hauflum petit^ 
butyrum una cum laSie offerri. Ferum HNCn noriy ut vu/go credit 
iUTy Hludjignificat quM nobis butyrum ejfy Jed ia£iis potius quandam 

Aiciintf coagulatum nempi feu oxygalam Atque ftc Jofepho etiam 

fua conjlatfidis atqui autoritas narranti (Archaeol. lib. v. cap. 6.)« 
fropofiium fuijfi Siftra ya'Ka iit^^opo; nin^ lac corruptum^ i. e. aci^ 
dum fa&um^ quedjujio copioftus haujium mox ebriitatem cum ardliorg 
f9mn$ Uli induxirit. Nimirum commodi objervat ill, Micha'elis in 
Not. ad Jud. iv. 19. cantelini laSiisy cum acidum fa£fumjitj earn 
tjji natmrant^ ut vino etiam citius ebrietatem arcejfat bibentibuSf nee 
Oubium videri poffe quin Heberus Kenita^ ex Arabica gente oriundus^ 
pomelos aluerit^ -Arabibui oninium maximo adamatos^ Sufpicatur 

"" itaquf 

.t24 Maty^/ Sirm^ns. 

itaqui Jaelem^ cum lac dor it ^ animum baikiffi huirUndi Slfer^T 
uic aiiter concipi poffi^ qui faHum JU ut impiratf pralis viGus^ 
miqui infugam pracipitem csnjtHus^ mox tarn pr^fmmU fomm fo^iri 
'f9tufrit. ^a viri altb. fintentia uii twiis vtbewimiir pUttt^ sta 
g&udemus itimn novum not Hit robur nncUiari nunc poffe audiariiaU 
Tambumiy Judai Hitffolpmtaui^** Sec. ' . 

The opinion of thefe able critics will, perhaps, receive addi- 
tional fupport from a cuftom which ftill prevails among the Tar- 
tars» They prepare from the milk of their mates a fort of wtoe 
which they call Koumifs, and which, we are tdd, deferves Co be 
celebrated for its healing as well as its intoxicating qaalitics. 
Sec M. R?v» July 1788, p. 35- 

AaT. VI. Strmons pnachid in tbt Britijh AmhnJJad»r^ s Cbapil^ at 
Paris, in the Years 1774, i775» 1776. By the late Rev. Paul 
Henry Maty, M, A. F. R. S. Under Librarian at <he Britifh Mu- 
feum, and fome time Secretary to the. Royal Society^ 8vo. 
10 s. 6d« Boards* Cadell, &c. 1788. 

THE author of thefe Sermons was well known in the literary 
world* His talents and cbara^er procuied him the office 
of Chaplain to the BritiOi Ambaflador at Paris. His ejUenfive; 
•equatnraoce with men qf fcience and learning, and bis per(i[)iia] 
sttaifHiients, rendered him well qualified for the pofts which he 
occupied after he became refident in England. ' In the capacity 
(>f a clergyman he appeared with credit and diftindion, and 
mighl eafify have arrived at preferment, had he not found it ae* 
cenary, from confcientious motives, to feparate from the church 
of England. In the year 1777, he publifhed his reafons for this 
neafure ; on which he declared, that he left the Eft^Jilbmeott 
sot becaufe he dlfapproved of fubfcripttons in general (for they 
fecmed to him both lawful and expedient), but becanfe he was 
diffi&tisfied with the Atbanaftan do^frint conarning thi Trinity^ and 
with the do^rincs of the Church concerning original fatypridiji^ 
nation^ &c. and becaufe he thought that fome jof thefe dodrmes 
firike at the root of all religion. 

After this unequivocal proof of his integrity, Mr. Maty was 
in a fituation which rendered the confiant exertion of his talents 
nrceflary to his comfortable fubfiftence. Among other ufeful 
labours, he undertook, and for fome years fupported *, with con* 
'-^-— - 

♦ As his father. Dr. Maty^ had done before him, near 40 years 
•go. The Dodor's work was written in French, and eniiiled Juur^ 
nal Eritannique, Wc forget whether it came tut monthly or qaar* 
tcrly . It was carried on for fome years, with general approbation : 
yet it was at lall difcontinucd for wax^i of encouragement fraai the 


Maty*j Sermons^ iX2$ 

fiderable reputation, though fmall profit, and almoft without 
affiftance, a Literary Journal. The public will eafily believe 
that^ thus circuoiftanccd, he would have little opportunity of 
maleing provifion for his family ; and they will not wonder that 
it has been thought expedient^ to print a volume of Sermons 
for their benefit. The work is publiflied under the refpe£tabl« 
names of " i:he Bijhop of St. Daviis^ Charles Peter Layard^ and 
Richard Southgati.*^ 

A volume of Sermons, introduced to the world under thefe 
^ircumftances, has, independently of its intrinftc merit, a power- 
ful claim on the attention of the public. Bat the difcourfes 
themfelves are, by no means, unworthy of publication. They 
jpoiTcfs much originality *, and are {^rongly m^arked with the 
peculiar charafter of the author. The fubjedls are chiefly prac* 
tical ; they are written with animation ; they breathe a liberal fpi- 
fit; and, though drawn up when the author was young, to borrow 
the words of the Editors, they * contain much which may edify the 
pious Cbriftian.' The foUov^ing brief extraA may ferve to (hew 
the author's manner. DifcoUrfing on Luke, ii. 13, 14. he fays : 

' Examine the morality of the GofpeU and you will find, that a 
country, in which it fhould become prevalent^ would need no other 
tie to enfure its profperity. It would be a community of brethrt n 
who would mutually afljfl, fupport, protect, and confole each other : 
it would be a land in which property would be only afcertained^ that it 
might be again more pleafurably communicated: it would be an aflb- 
ciation from the midfl of which charity would bani(hfirife,and exclude* 
lirft cover, and then exclude for ever a multitude of fins : it would be 
one comprehenfive, one feeling family^ in which honour, gratitude^ 
friendship, filial piety, love ; all the focial afFedioni would flourifh 
with the fame flrength, the fame frefhnefs, the fame purity, the fame 
unalienable cofiftancy that they had in the infancy of the world : ic 
would be the Jerufalem of our God, the Mount Zion where he would 
love to dwell ; the temple where he would fix his habitation and 
fecurity ; equal fecurity from foreign and domeflic foes, would atteft 
that his glory reded round it. 

* Who is there, indeed, who is there, independently of the refin- 
ance they would expert from a band of brothers, who is there would 
venture to attack a city conftituted and defended in fuch a manner? 

♦ A BROTHER Journalist having declared the 14th, 15th, and 
"idth Difcourfes to have been copied from Archbifhop Seeker, we 
have, on this occafion, turned to the Archbifhop's works, and in his 
ad and 3d volumes we found the three Sermons, .which had been 
UanfcriGed, with fcarcely the variation of a fingle word. — Had this 
circumllancc been known to the Right Rev. and Rev. Editors, thofe 
borrowed Sermons, we may be affured, would not have been here 
given to the world as the compofitio'ns of Mr. Maty: — who might 
have had reafons for delivering, from the pulpit, fome of Dr. Seeker's 
excellent Difcourfes ; but he could never have intended to publijb 
\hem, as his own. — We are ferry that he fuffered hii tran/crifu IQ^ 
Airvive him. 

Ktv. March, ijFp. Q^ Wh^ 

2%6 Lctchworth'i Twelve Dlfcourfes. 

Who la there would be intereHed in being jheir enemies, who (hould 
neither infult, defpife, envy, or refufe affiftance to any of their fel- 
low creatures ? If they had enemies, their ilandard would be the ge-> 
neral ilandard of the good ; and the Lord of hofls would lead their 
armies to the field. 

• Wherefore, alas ! then, wherefore is there fUll fo little of realitj 
in this perfpedive? And was it, indeed, rattier a wifh than, a pre* 
didion, which was uttered by the meflfengers of heaven ? Did they ia 
truth fore(ee, that men would m^kc an urrworthy ufe of this laft prc- 
fent, as they had done of all others? Did they anticipate ages dill 
more dark than any which had preceded them, and difcover tyranny 
and fuperflition ereding their joint dominion upon the ruins of free- 
dom, literature, and good-manners ? And were there no other pro- 
fpeds unfolded but the melancholy ones of a religion eftablifhed by 
jnafTacres ; and the fymbols of a God of love, changed into the fig- 
nals of havock and defolation ? 

* Far be it from us to fuppofe it. Thank Heaven thofe days of 
blood are only to be found in the impartial chronicles, which hold 
up the crimes of anceftors for the inftrudtion Of their defcendancs : 
and thank Heaven flill more, there is not a defc^ndanC but what 
bluflies at the recollcdion of parental ftains, and detefts the unchari- 
table principles which occaiioned them. This we owe to the pro- 
grefs of human reafon, and more particularly to the effeds of that 
improvement apparent in the reformation. What was done then, 
what, though imperceptibly almcft, has been done fince, even the 
works which our adverfarics have raifed to the honour of the living 
God ; the feeds of tolerance, compaiEon, and general benevolence 
which they have fcattercd amidIV the tares, contribute to perfuade us, 
ihat the re-eflablifhment of all things will approach in God's do^ 
time; and that our happier dcfcendants, at leall, will fee the fortu- 
nate aera we have been endeavouring to defcribe. Parents of this 
flattering hope ; inhabitants of this favoured ifle ; you, whofe fathers 
took fo adlive, fo honourable a part in the great work, we perfuade 
eurfelves that you will prove faithful to the blood from whence you 
fprung; that yon will be the fcremoft to lay afide prejudices which 
ftill difgrace Chriftianiiy ; to give examples of forgivenels to brethren 
who differ from you ; to pity, cherifh, confole, and enlighten adver- 
faries who have not had the fame advantages of a religious education 
as yourfelves. So ihall the common Mailer be exalted as hedefires; 
fo fhall ** Glory be to God in the higheft.** 

After the account which we have given of this publication, and 
its obje£t,ahe generous Public will not bedifpleafed at the unufual 
price of the volume, but will be happy in an opportunity of 
aiSfting the widow and children of a worthy man. 

Art. VII. Tivehe Difcourfes^ delivered chiefly at the Meeting- 
houfe of the People called Quakers, in the Park, Southwark. }ij 
the late Thomas Leichwonhb bvo. 4s. Boards. Richardfon* 

THE doArine of univerfal grace, of which a portion is 
given to every man, and by obedience to which be is en- 

Letchwbrth'f Twilvi Difeourfes. 2iy 

abled to fulfil his duty, h the leading principle of the Quakers : 
the difeourfes before ua chiefly inculcate this doArine, and at 
the fame time fliew, that every moral adion is wholly dependant 
on the Spirit which is fole dire£lor to every good work* Keeping 
this fingie point always in view, the preacher is every where 
confiftent with himfelf, and fometimes fo to fi^ch a degree, that 
he repeal the fame things, in different difeourfes, nearly in the 
fame words : for this however the editor makes aii apology, in 
the Preface. 

The Difeourfes were taken in (hort hand by a perfon not of 
the fame religious opinions with the preacher ; and when we 
confider that the Quakers difclaim all previous ftudy in com- 
pofing their fermons, we muft admire the energy of the language, 
although we cannot always aflent to the dodrines inculcated. 

Thomas Letchworth began his miniflerial labours at an early 
pieriod of life ra confumptive habit and an imperfect ftate of 
health in his youth, probably confpired with a difpofition natu- 
rally reflexive and ferious, to raife in his mind a ilrong fenfe of 
the vanity of human defires, and the great importance of a re- 
ligious life. The qualifications for the miniftry not being, ac- 
cording to the tenets of the Q^iakersj attainable any other way 
than by regeneration , which is the work of God,— -Mr. Letclv- ' 
worth, by ferious meditation, and continual waiting for the Spi- 
rit, bccaaie, at 20 years of age, an admired and ufeful preacher. 

The text to the nrft Sermon is. Men and brethren^ what Jhall 
we do to bi faved? It is a good compofition, and had been 
printed before, in Ireland', where it was attributed to another 
preacher. We call it a compofition, becaufe it appes^js to be 
tjie produ£lion of much ftudy, and not the extemporaneous efFu- 
fion pf extravagant enthufiafm. The following fpecimen will 
" fupport our opinion : 

• No perfon, -who fincerely believe* in the exigence of a God,^ ia 
a fature llaie, and in the awful dcdrinc of rewards and punifliments, 
can be indiiFerent refpeding what may be his lot, when he ihall be 
(lifpoiTefied of this frail tabernacle of clay which he now inhabits, 
and which is approaching to the period of its diiTolution. It cannot 
be; a matter of indiiFerenc^ to him, whether he (hall finally receive 
the irrevocable fentence of, Go^ye curfcd^ into regions of unfpeakablc 
mifery ; or, Come ye hlejjed of my Father , inherit the kingdom pre- 
pared for the righteous; — enter thou into the joy of thy Lord, and 
into thy Matter's reft. 

• This concern has prompted many to enquire what is e/Tentially 
lleceiTary for them to believe and pra^ljfe, in order to render them- 
ielvet proper objeds of divine complaceace, and furnifh them with a 
well-grounded hope of a happy and glorious immortality. 

. * The honeft and, fincerc in every nation under heaven, have 
formed different ideas of the requifuet of falvation; and they have» 
of courfe, purfued as dificient meafures to accompUih that deiirable 
';ind blefied end, 

CL^ • It 

aaS Hunter on the Difiafis ofthi Artny in Jamaica, 

* It does not appear to be my prefent bofinefs to particohrize an/ 
of the various fyftems of faith which are adopted by any party among: 
mankind. It is not to controvert matters, in which finceremen of 
various denominations moft farely believe, but rather to recommend 
^them to ftand open always to convidion, and to a flri& attention to 
thofe rules of condufl, which, on ah impai^tial examination, appear 
to them this moil agreeable to the will of Heaven T I«{hall therefore 
addrefs myfelf to thofe, in whatever religious fociety they are founds 
whofe honed inquiries have not yet been attended with fufiicient con- 
vidlion,— have not yet led them clearly to perceive what the terms arc 
on which their future happinefs depends, and are, therefore, looking 
one upon another, whilft this important queftion is found at leaflia 
their igarts, if not in their mouth. Men and brethren what (hall w«, 
do to be favcd ?' 

What we have here Iranfcribed ia the introduSion to the firft 
dlfcourfey the whole of which is in the fame ftyle. The other 
difcourfes are fimilarto this in language, and they all proceed oa 
the fame principle. 

The prefent performance will, doubtlefs, be acceptable to all 
perfo;is whofe religious fentimenta coincide with thofe of th^ 
author ; and every confcientious Cbriftian will receive inftruSion 
from the perufal of it. The neceflary gQvernment of the paffiont » 
and a firm refiftance of the allurementa to vice, are often enlarged 
on i and proper diredions are given for obtaining that holy dif<- 
pofition of mind which muft necefTarily. be produdive .of good 
workS| and influence every moral adion. 

Art. VIII. Oh/ervatioks en tbi Dtfeafts of thi Army in yawuuta^ 
and on the bell Means of preferving the Health of Europeans, in 
that Climate. By John Huntei", M. D. F. R. S. and Phyfician 
to the Army. 8vo. pp. 328. 5s. Boards. Nicol. 178s. 

DR. Hunter, wbo was fuperintendant of the military ^ofpitala 
at Jamaica, from the beginning 0/ the year 17819 to May 
1783, ha<:, in the prefent volume, given a minute account of 
the mod prevailing difeafes, which be there had an opportunity 
of obferving. 

In the introduction to his work, be defcribes ^he ifland ^ 
Jamaica, particularly the face of the country, the climate, the 
produce, and the ufual date of the weather. He next enume- 
rates the drfeafes to which Europeans are fubjed on their 
arrival in the ifland ; of thefc, the moft fatal are fevers and fiuxesi 
They are indeed concomiunts with armies in all parts of x\m 
worldt but in tropical climates they rage with peculiar violence.. 
Dr. Hunter thinks they feem to depend on the famecaufe, per* 
haps differently modified. They are, doubtlefs, tntimntely co^- 
nedted, for they are frequently combined together, often inters 
change with each other, and it rarely happens that one id epf« 


Huater m tbt Dlfiafes oftheArniy in JamaUla. 229 

^mic wtthoMC the other* Our author roppofes them • both to 
proceed from noxiowi exhalations from wet, lovr, and marfliy 
grounds. Wiiat art the peculiar properties of thefe exhalations 
18 perhaps not yet thoroughly underftood. By experience it is 
found, that fevers and fluxes are more prevalent in places 
abounding with thefe exhalations, than in thofe fituations 
which are free from them ; on which account, the exhalations 
are faid to be the caufes of the difeafes ; and the fad muft be 
admitted, although we cannot explain it. Befide the original 
caufe. Dr. Hunter confiders other circumftances which co-ope- 
rate with it either in producing or aggravating the difeafe, fuch 
as an exceffive ufe of rum, fatigue, hard laboar, bad or fcanty 
diet, long fading, diflrefs of mind, and expofure to rain. 

The precautions which are to be obferved in fending troops 
to the Weft Indies, and the means of preferving their health in 
that climate, are the next objeds of the author's attention ; ia 
treating of,which hp delivers many ufeful directions relative to 
the embarkation of the troops, their management during the 
voyage, their quartering after arrival in the country, their diet 
and exercife. In all thefe particulars, the calls ofvhumsnity, the 
interefts of government, and the fafety of o«r Weft India pof* 
felons, feem \o be very materially concerned. 

In the third chapter. Dr. Hunter defcribcs the fevers that pre* 
vail in Jamaica, which he divides into two kinds, viz. Remits 
tent and Intermittent. The Remittent is the moft frequent and' 
the moft fatal. The Dodor gives a long and minute defcrip- 
tioQ of all its fymptoms, and mentions the feveral variations 
with which it is attended; whence he (hev7$ that feveral writers 
on difeafes of warm climates have multiplied the lift of fevers; 
thus the yellow fever .of the Weft Indies appears to be tho 
remittent fever, accompanied with the peculiar fymptom of a 
yeilowiiefs of the eyes and (kin: 

In treating of the cure of the remittent fever, he gives an ac«» 
count of the remedies, in the order in which they were admini- 
fiered, when the fever had its moft ufual appearance ; he after- ^ 
wsrd enumerates the means that were found moft fuccefsful 
in removing, or palliating, particular fymptoms ; and adds foitie 
curfory obTcrvations on the remedies, that have been either 
ftrongly recommended, or are in general ufe* He carefully 
avoids^ . in this part of the work, conje^ural or fpcculative rea- 
foning on the dife^fe, and has Confined himfelf to a^fimple 
narrative of fymptoms, and of the cffe£is of medicine, coU 
leded from obfervation and experience \ but he afterward ex- 
amines the hypothefis of former writers on the fubjedt, and a^* 
vances many probable opinions of his own. He refutes, with 
ftrong arguments, the opinions that the bile is the cau(e of the 
temitteQt f^vcr— that the remittent fever is putrid— ibai tbeycl- 

Q^j • low 

530 Hunter en thi Dlfeafes tfthi Army in Jamaica* 

low fever is putrid and infefiioasy with fome others y and, ic- 
knowleging the great difficulty of explaining the phenomena, 
he fiates fuch methods as he thinks moft likely to produce a 
rational invefiigation of the nature and caufe of remittent fe^ 

The intermittents of Jamaica are quotidians, tertians, and 
quartans, with all the varieties ufually attending them in Eu- 
rope : their cure is alfo the fame. 

The fourth chapter relates to the Dyfentery, where the aui- 
thor confines himfelf to fuch obfervations as mpre particularly 
apply to the climate, not thinking it neccflary to enter minutely 
either into the faifiory of the difeafe or the general method of 
cure, which have been amply difcufied by many able hands. 

The dry belly- ach of the Weft Indies, as here defcribed by 
Dr. Hunter, is the colica pidonum of Europe, and the method 
of cure diflPers not from that in common ufe with t^s; confiding 
chiefly in procuring a free paflage. < It is not probably of much 
confcquence,' fays our author, ^ what purgative is given, pro- 
vided it operate effedually^ In this country [England] the 
ExtraSium cathariicum with Mercurius duUiSy and, if neccflary, a 
fmall quantity of opium, are very efFe<9ual» Many experienced 
phyficians have nevenhelefs preferred the gentle laxatives, fuch 
as manna, ol. Ricini, &c.' In Jamaica, however, he has found 
bad cSeds from the Calomel, five grains of it producing much 
inconvenience, by exciting falivation. This faS, known by 
experience, militates againlt the generally, and perhaps falicly, 
received cpinion, that a determination of the humours to the 
fkin prevents mercury from affcAing the mouth | for in Jamaica 
the perfpiration is at all times profufe. 

The remaining difeafcs of the foldiers defcribed by Dr. Hun- 
ter, are, fores, ulcers, the venereal difeafe, coniplaints from in- 
fers, inflammatory diforders, confumptions, mania, and the 
prickly heat. Thefe fome times occur in Jamaica, but, except 
the fores, they are not attended with much danger, and are 
therefore flightiy treated by the author. 

Some remarks are added on the dlfeafes to which the negroes 
are fubjefi^ and the work concludes with general directions for 
taking care of fick troops in Jamaica, and our other Weft India 

Such are the contents of the volume before us ; which is 
replete with knowlegf^ and practical direfiions, grounded on 
experience and obfervation ; and which will, confcquenily, be 
found not only ufeful, but even neccflary to fuch medical g<:otle- 
men as are appoinied to attend on our foldiers or faiiors, in the 
lA^arm climates. 


( 231 ) 

Art. I5C. Ex ferments and Obfewations^ to inveftigate by che- 
mical Analyfis the medicinal Properties of the Mineral Waters pf 
Spa and Aix-]a«Chape)le in Germany, and of the Waters and 
Boue near St. Amand, in French Flanders. By John A(h, M.D* 
Fellow of the Royal College of Phyficians, of the Royal Society^ 
and the Society of Antiquaries* pp. 400. izmo. 5s. Boai'dhs* 
Robfon. 1788. ' 

WHEN it is coniidered that the chief folvent of mineral 
fubftances with which nnedicated waters are impregnated, is 
the aerial acid ; and that the properties of this acid were only lately 
difcovered, and perhaps all of (hem not yet fuiliciently known ; 
there can be little room to apologize, as Dr. Afti docs, for ob- 
truding on the Public a treatife on the method of afcertaining 
their component parts. 

In the intcodu£lion to this volume, Dr. Afh gives a brief hif- 
tory of thedifcovery of the permanent elaftic fluids, and a cpn- 
cife account of the Phloglftic do<Slrine, as well *s of the iicral 
philofophy of chcmiftry, adopted by our neighbours, the French. 
He enumerates alfo the opinions that have beea ^t Id refpediing 
the caufeof the heat in fevcral forings, and points out the diffi- 
culties with which each hypotbcfu^ appears to be atiendtd. He 
(hews the errors that prevai'td on both fides of the queftioa 
which, for many year^, was drb^ted, with much waivnth, ac 
Bath, — ' Whether fulphur w^s joiublc in v^ater, withou- the aid 
of an intermedi'ite fubftance;* aitd he gives a fummary detail of 
the labours of Bergman and Kirwan in afcertaining the propcr- 
tiee of the hepatic gas : together with th/* opinions of the Bilhop 
- of LandafF, 2nd of Monnet, on the fubje<9. 

The remainJer of the long introdudion is employed in de- 
fcribing the meihod which the author purlues in his analyfis. 
The tefls commonly ufed are here enurrerat^d, together with 
the appearances which thev produce oii bcingadded todifFeren;ly 
impregnated waiters. Thefe re- agents, however, are not to be 
depended on for afcertaining all ine conftitucnt parts of mineral 
waters, and much lefs for determining tne prupc^rtions of the 
feveraf ingredients. It becomes, therefore, neccflary ro analyze 
mineral waters, and feparatc the different fubltanccs which they 
hold in folutjon. The conduct of this proccfj, which mult be 
varied according io circumflances, m a proper munner, is of 
great importance in the dtfcoverv of their real contents: Dr. 
Aft* therefore, dcfcribes iftefc feveral methods, with great pie- 

The. Spa waters are the firft v/hich X^x. Afli examines; the 
refult of his analyfes, the particulars of each of which we fbuU 
emit, will appear from the following comparative table: 

0^4 Fountains/ 


Jccount ffihtLif^ &c. of John NapUr» 

of water* 

Pooh on 














of gai. 







33 50 












































Of the hot fulphurated waters of Aix-1a-Chapelle 70.5 cubic 
inches contain 20 ounce meafures of gas*, 14.5 grains of 
aerated lime, 30.75 of aerated mineral alkali, and 13.25 of 
falited mineral alkali. The temperature of thefe waters varies 
from 136 to 112 of Fahrenheit's fcale. 

The waters of Bordfcheit, or Borfet, are not analyzed ; their 
contents being only guefled at from the fimilarity which they 
1>ear to the Caroline waters. 

The waters and boue [i. e. mud] baths of St. Amand, are 
defcribed as to their appearances with feveral re-agents, the au^ 
thor acknowleging his analyfis of them to be imperfect. 

The medical refleiiions which clofe the volume, as well at 
thofe that are interfperfed through various parts of the woric, 
contain many ufeful remarks, and a brief hiftory of the medi- 
cal fyftems of feveral authors; particularly thofe of StabI, Hoff- 
man, and Boerhaave. 

Pra£lical diredions, both general and fpecial, are mock 
wanted ; and bad Dr. Afb, who appears, from feveral paflages 
in his book, to 'be an experienced phyfician, increafed or en- 
larged the dtredions, which he hath given, he woul4, certainly 
have rendered his labours more generally ufeful ; the volume 
before us, however, willi no doubt, be gratefully received by 
moft fcientific men. 

Art. X. An Account oftbt Life^ fVritings, and Inventions 0/* John 
Napier, of Merchifion, iiy David Stewart, Earl of fiuchao, 
and Walter Minto, LL. Q. 410. pp. 136. 7s. 6d. Boards. 
Murray, London; Creech, Edinburgh. 1788. 

THE life of a learned and fcientific man is generftllf com- 
prifed in the hiftory of his difcoveries and writings; and 
in proportion to the utriity and extenfivencfs of his labours, the 
account of his Biography will afford ufeful or curious informa- 
tion ; and will, confequently, fo far engage and inteteft the ac« 
tcntion of the worl^. 

If the epithet of Famous is to be beftowed on a man, who, by 
a fingle invention, has fo Amplified the intricate and tedious 

f II ■* 

* The author calls this gas fixed a/r \ and he no where mentioaa 
ihe quantity of he|)atic air. 


Jcaunt oftbi Life^tlz. rfji-bn Napiir* 133 

calculations neceOary in aftronomy, trigonometry^i and rarious 
parts of natural pbilofophy, that the work of a few minutes fuf- 
fices^ and is fubftituted for the labour of as many hours, few men 
have a better title to that epithet than the perfon whofe life the 
Earl'^of Buchan has now laid before the Public, 

John Napier was born it Merchifton, in the neighbourhood 
of Edinburgh, in the year 1550, of a family who had, for twdve 
generations*^ been of confiderable confequence in that part of the 
country. From St. Andrews, where he was educated, his bio- 
grapher has not been aJi>le to trace him till the publication of his 
*• Plain Difcovery *** at Edinburgh in 1593; though Mac- 
kenzie, in his Lives of enfinent Writers of the Scotch Nation, 
fays, that Napier paiTcd fome years abroad in the Low Countries, 
France and Italy, and that he applied himfelf there to the ftudy 
of mathematics. 

Lord Buchan has enquired, but without fuccefs, among the 
defcendants of Napier, for fuch papers or letted as might eluci- 
date the hiftory of his life. When it is confidered that Napier 
* was a reclufemathematician, living in a country, almoft, at that 
time, inacceffible to literary correfpondence, it can fcarcely be 
expeded that th&. moft diligent enquiry could be able to af)t)rd 
much information. His own writings, or thoTe of his contem- 
poraries, are the only refources from which his biographer caa 
hope to derive any benefit. 

About the year J593 Napier entered on that cpurfe of en- 
quiry which led him to his great atchieyement in arithmetic. 
This appears in a letter froqi Kepler to Crugerus, where that 
afironomer fays, ** NibU autem fupra Neperianam rationtm ejfe 
puto\ etji Scotus quidam^ Uteris ad Tycbonem^ anno isg^ /crrptis^ 
jamfp4mficit canonis illius mirifici" 

Napier's ** Canon Mh;ificu$y* the firft publication on loga- 
rithms, appeai-ed in 1614, fo that upward of twenty years were 
confumed in preparing that wonderful book, which proved its 
author to be, as Kepler faysjn his letters, *^ the greaceft man of 
bis age in the p'irticular department to which he applied his 

Napier's laft literary exertion was the publication of bis Rbab^ 
dtiogy and Promptuary in 1617; in which year, on April the 
jd, O. S. he died at the age of 67. He was interred in th^ 
cathc<)ral Church at Edinburgh : but no monument has been 
ere£led to his memory, nor is any other necefTary than that 
which every afironomer, geographer, navigator, and political 
arithmetician diily erects, in availing himfelf of Napier's invcn« 

- • This publication was On the Revelations of St. John. One 
great mathematician ended, but Napier began^ his career with thaf 
l&yfierioos book. 


234- J(C9unt of the Lift^ &c, rfjohfi Napiir. 

tion ;— a monument truly are perennius^ and only to be obtite* 
rated by che fuperior ingenuity of others, in the fame walk of 
fcience. ' 

. The more fully to evince the merit of this extraordinary ge- 
nius. Lord Bucban proceeds to give in account of the ftate in 
which Napier foui^vl arithmetic, and of the benefits which the 
art received by his difc^vcries. 

The tirft of his mechanical devices was the Rhabdologiay or 
the art of computing by figured rods. Thefe are fo well known 
by the name of Napier'b bones ('leihg probably originally made 
of ivory or bone), as not to require the particular defcriptton 
which Lord Buchan gives of tl.em ; though, perhaps, a full ac- 
count of th<;m .was neceiTarv, in a vvqrk profeflcdly containing 
the hiftory of Napier's inventions. 

Tt^t multiplicntionis prorr.pttwriitm is another of Napier's me* 
chanical coruriv^iices for leilen.tig the ui^.erarionsof arithmetic. 
Any delcription^f this machine, without the dehneations, would 
be uninielligibie, as would alfo tne ni'^thod which Napier prac- 
tifed, and calle<l arithmeUca lec/ilIs^ of calculating by counters 
peculiarly placed on the iquares of a cheis board, or fimiiar 

Lord Buchan gives a clear idea of the form and ufe of thefe 
arithmetical machines, and the reafons on which the difFerent 
operations on them are founded. Tne hint of the Rods, and of 
jthe Promptuary, which is only an improvement or the Rods, 
feems to have been taken from the Abacus Pythagoricut % and 
Napier's acquaintance with chefs, probably gave rife to his 
Aritbmetlca localis* The Promptuary^ at leaft for multiplication, 
is greatljr fuperior to jthe other two ; for partial produ^s of two 
numbers, each confjfiing of ten places of figures, may, by a little 
pradice, be exhibited on that machine in the fpace of one mi- 
nute, and^ no numbers are required to be written out, except the 
total product Had logarithms remained undifcovered, (hefe 
machines would, in all probability, have been in common ufe 
among calculators : at prefent they are only regarded as marthe* 
matical cunofities* 

in the next feflion, the author gives Napier's Theory of the 
Log^rithcDf, which conceives them to be generated by the mo« 
tion ^f a point having an accelerated or retarded velocity. After 
amply^ explaining this theory. Lord Buchan (hews its refem* 
blance to, or rather identity with the doctrine of fluxions, as de- 
livered by Newton. He fays, * under the article Habiiudines 
Logaritbmorumy Napier thus exprefles the relation between two 
natural numbers and the velocities of the increments or decre- 
ments of their logarithms, ** Utfinus major ad minorem iia velo^ 
citas Incremeoti aut Decrementi apud majorem.*' What differ- 
ence is there bctwten this language and that of the great New* 


Ac€9unt of the Life^ &c. of John Napier. ^235 

ton now in ufc, x\y m Log. x ' Log. y, V Wc have trapf». 
cribed this paflage becaufe we think the quotation from the 
Canon mhrificus is erroneous : not having that work at hand, we 
corred the paflfage thus from memory ; ut fnus major ad mino* 
rom\ ita velocitas Increment i aut Decrement! apud minor em ^ ad 
volocitaiem incrementi aut decrementi apud majorem. 

The remainder of the fe6lion is employed in (hewing that 
Napier was the inventor of logarithms, and in refuting the opi- 
nions of thofe who attribute their invention to earlier mathema- 

. Lord Buchail proceeds to give Napier's method of conftruft- 
JDg ibis logarithmetical tables, and ihen (hews th^t the common 
logarithms were firft devifed by Napier, and prepar«;d for pu^bli* 
cation by Brigos. The difad vantages of Napier's firft loga- 
rithms were fufficicntly apparent; but whether Napier or Hriggs 
y&yf fuggefted the new fpecies of logarithms, is a quiftioo which 
the learned have not perfcfily decided. By extracts from feveral 
books, it appears that the common logarithms occurred 10 Napief 
before they occurred to iiriggs. Lord Buchan difmiflcs the en- 
quiry with obferving that *• N^ier and Bnggs had a reciprocal 
efteetn for each other, and there is not the fmalleft evidence of 
there having exifted in the breaft of either, the Jcaft particle of 
jealoufy i— ihat after the invention of locJ.arithms, the diffcovcry 
of the beft fpecies of them was no difBcuU aiFair ; — and that the 
invention of the new fpecies of loprarithms is far from being equal 
to (bmc other of Brig^>' invention,' 

The next re£lion tieats ( f the improvements that have been 
made on logarithms after the death of their inventor. Next 
after Napier and Briggs, Gunter has the beft claim to the gra- 
titude of the Public. He iirli applied the logarithms to fcales, 
which are to this day in common ufe in the Navy, and in the 
Exciie. Mercator, more than 50 years after Napier's death, * 
invented an infinite fenes expreiTive ot Napier's logarithms, but 
Gregory of St. Vincents had, io yearsr before this pcricd, (hewn 
that the ^fTymptotic areas of the hvperbola were logarithms. It 
is fo|newhat a{loni(hmg that this identity between the hyperbolic * 
areas and logarithms was not fooner obferved ; for had Napier 
placed his two lines (one of which generated numbers by the 
equable motion of a point, and the other logarithms by an acce*-' 
lecated motion) at right angles to each other, he mufl have found 
that the curve of the hyperbola would hUve been defcribed* 
Thiy cireumltance ciccaii ned the denomination of hyperbolic^ 
which-wat ^iven to Napier's iogirahms> and which has been, 
s^nd now is, ufually adopted by mofl mathematical writers^ 
•T-^e abfurdity, for we cannot give it a better term, of calling 
^ap«||t|^l«gatithms hyperbolical muft be apparent, when it is 
amJflKd ibat e^U logarithms are hyperbolical 5 the only differ- 

C;; , encc 

J36 Account oftbe Life^ &c. tfjohn Napiir. 

ence l>etween different fpecies of logarithms being the inclinatioit 
of the aflymptots of the hyperbola to each other. Thus Napier't 
logarithms correfpond with an hyperbola whofe aflymptoti are a€ 
right angles, when the fine of the angle is unity, which is the 
modulus of that fyftem of logarithms. Briggs's, or the common 
logarithms, correfpond with an hyperbola whofe aflymptots ai;e 
inclined at an |mgle of 25^ 44^4* whofe fine is •43429, &c« 
which is the modulus of Briggs*s logarithms. All logarithms 
are therefore hyperbolical ; and it feems that the epithet hypor^ 
iolicsl was given to Napier's unjuftly, and probably with a view 
to fupprefs the inventor's name. We muft obferve by the way, , 
that all through this publication9 the words area and argof are 
mifprinted area and areas. 

The remaining part of this fedion defcribes the differeat tables 
that have been publifhed, and the preference ^ given tathe taUei 
portdthcs of Monf. Jombert, publitheif at Paris in 1783. Why 
Lord Buchan prefers Jombert's tables, printed in France, to 
Button's, printed in England in 1785, is fomewhat e^traordi^ 
nary, when his LordXhip points out an error in the French edi- 
tion, but none ib the Englilh. It muft, however, be acknow« 
leged that the French tables are much more diftindly and ele- 
gantly printed than the EngliOi. This we fay from having feen 
both books, and not from the fpecimen which Lord Buchan'a 

Erinter has given of Jombert's tables, where there it an error 
y placing 9019 in a wrong line. 

The 7th fe6tion defcribes the ufe of logarithms ; 'and the Sth^^ 
which clofes the work, enumerates the important improvements 
which Napier made in trigonometry. 

An appendix is given, containing, ift, the analytical theory 
•f logarithms ; 2d, A table of Napier's logarithms of all natu« 
ral numbers from i to 101, to 27 places of figures; we can 
pronounce this table corred from having examined many of the 
logarithms. 3d, AcoUedion of trigonometrical theorems. 4th^ 
A defcription of the hyperbolic curve as conneded with loga- 
rithms i and, 5th, The principal properties of the logarithmic 

From the recital of the contents of this performance, it ap- 
pears to have been a work of no fmali labour on the part of 
Lord Biichan as well as of his afibciate, Dr. Minto; to whoot 
hil^ Lordlhip acknowleges himfeif indebted, efpecially in thai, 
jnathematical departtneht. 

Napier's life, we are informed, is to be fucceeded by other 
lives, in which Lord Ducban is at prefent engaged, on condi- 
tion that this fpecimen meets with the approbation of the learned 
world. His Lordihip's zeal is great, and undoubtedly demands 
*he gratitude of tKe Public. When noblemen not only patro*. 

e literature^ but themfelves take an a£live part in its cultiv^ 


Mifs Will^ms^i Poim 9n the Slavi Tradf, t^J 

tion, the greateft expedation may be formed that its true interefti 
will be more general^ promoted. 

. We cannot clofe tliis article without mentioning a defed 
which Lord Bucha^ may eaiily avoid in his future publications. 
Jlis book is carclefsly printed. The errorsr, however, arc fuch 
as any mathematician may corred, and muft be attributed to 
the inattention of thofe who undertook to condu3; the work 
through the prefs, 

Art. XI. ji Poem on the Bill lately paffed for regulating the Slavs 
Trade, By. Helen Maria Williams. 410. pp. 24. is. 6d. fewed» 
Cadcll. 1788. 

THE accounts lately given to the Public refpefiing the 
SUrue Trade^ were horrid enough to call into vigorous ex* 
crcife the amiable fenfibility of the female breaft. By the ladies, 
this fubjeA has been contemplated through the pure medium of 
virtuous pity, unmixed with thofe political. Commercial, and 
Iclfifb confiderations which operated fn fleeling the hearts of 
Ibme men againft the pleadings of humanity : to find them, 
therefore, writing on it, by no means excited wonder. Though 
among the laft, Mifs Williams is not the lead deferving of no« 
tice. In eafy, harmonious verfe, flie pours forth the fentiments 
«f an amiable mind ; nor do we recolle(5l, among the poems 
which have lately attra£led our attention, to have perufed one 
with more pleafure than that which how lies before us. 

She thus addrefTea her country, on the fubjcA of her poem : 

* Britain! the noble, ble ft decree 

That foocbs defpair, is fram'd by Thee ! 

Thy powerful arm has interpos'd^ 

And one dire fccnc for ever clos'd ; 

Its horror (hall no more belong 

To that foul drama, deep with wron^. 

Oh, fi rft of Europe's polifh'd lands. 

To eafe the Captive's iron bands ! 
' Long as thy glorious annals fhine. 

This proud di^nflioh (hall be thine : 

Not £rft alone when .Valour leads* 

To roih on Danger's nobleft ^zt^% ; 

When Mercy calls thee to explore 

A gloomy path, antrod before. 

Thy ardent fpirit fprings to heal, 

Aodf greatly gen'rous, dares to feel !-— 
. Valour is like the meceor'4 light, 

Whofe partial flafh' leaves deeper night 5 » 

While Mercy, like the lunar ray, 

Gilds the thick (hade with fofter day.' 
The laft lines of this extrafl lead us to obfcrve that tm poefcfs' 
i« peculiarly happy in the choice and application of htx/imilies: 


ajff Mifs WilliamsV Poem en thi Slave Trade* 

The traders in ilaves are dercrihed as beings 

* Wh6fe hardened fouls no more ret4in *j 
Impreflions Nature ftamp'd in vain; . . 
AW that diftinguifhes their i/W, 

For ever blotted from their mind ; 

As flreamsy that once the landfcape gave 

Refle^ed on the trembling wave. 

Their fobllanct change, when lock'd in ffoft. 

And reft, in dead contradion loft; — 

Who view unmoved, the look, that tells 

The pang that in the bofom dwells.* 

The pi(5are that follows of the w^etchcd neg^ro juft landed ia 
the Weft Indies, and fold, is extremely natural : 

* When borne at length to Weftern Lands, 
Chain'd on the beach the Captive ftands. 
Where Man, dire merchandice ! is fold. 
And bartered life is paid for gold ; 

In mute afHi^lion, fee him try 

To read his new poflcflbr^s eye ; 

If one bleft glance of mercy there. 

One half-forra'd tear may check dcijpair!*— 

What is faid of Avarice, muft not be here omitted : 

* Hh fway the hardened bofom leads 
To Cruelly's remorfelcfs deeds ; 

Like the blue lightning when it fprings 
With fury on its livid wings. 
Darts to its goal with baleful force. 
Nor heeds that ruin marks its courfo.*— 

Our appt'obation of this poem has induced us to allow it 
more room than fuch fmall publications ufualty occupy ; buc 
we choofe our poetry as our fruit, by the fpirit and flavour, 
not by the (\zc. We prefer a peach to a pumpkin. 

It may not be thought unfriendly to wain this ingenious lady 
againft a too frequent admiffion of the hiatus^ — which is not a 
beauty in poetry : for inftance, , 

' Deform Creation with th^ gloom 
Of crimes* 


' How far the fpirit can endare 

Several more iiiftances of this imperfedtion might be produced, 
but the above. may fuflice to convey the hint. 

Page ro, 1. 147, flv)uld not the * opening bloom^ of a * ray^* be 
likewife leconfidered I 


( 239 ) 

Art, XII. Enthufiafm : a Poem. In Two Parts. By Mr. Jerning- 
haoit 4C0. pp. 36. 2s. Robfon and Clarke. 1789. 

HAVING, in the progrcft of our crifical labours^ received 
much amufement from fortie of the poetical pieces which 
this gemleman has occafionally prefenjed to the Public^ we took 
up the poem before us vrtth all, thofe favourable fentlments that 
fuch a recolleflion may be fujpi fed to excite; but the ftrift 
laws of impartiality oblige us to confefs, that Mr. Jerningham 
has not, on this new occafion, ful'y anfwered our expc6lations» 
Unfortunately, he fecms not to have formed' in his mind, ade- 
quate conceptions of the grandeur and dignity of his prefent fub- 
jedl, as afubje£i for verfe. The prcfe writer may treat of En- 
thusiasm with all the apathy of a ftojc, and with languor^ 
creeping through each period ; but it is a theme that will be 
expected to animate, to en flame, the poet. It calls for a foul of 
fire ^''^for thoughts that breathe ^ and words that bum ; and if the 
Mule docs not befiow a doable porrton ot ner infpiration, fo a9 
to make the bard himfelf the very theme he draws^ the reader will 
fuffcr difappoin*ment. ' 

Such was our fituation after perufing this poem. Though it 
contiiins many poetical lines, we perceive fevc-^l which are profaic; 
and, in general, it wants that fpirit and energy fo peculiarly required 
by ihe iubjedt. The aurhoi's a;m is to,diiplay the good and bad 
eSv<its of enthufiafm. The biid nre Jc/crib.*! ir> the firft part,— 
the good, in the larter. In x>\c fo<-mer, Enthufialni, perfonified, 
and not improperly called the daughter of Energy^ is accufcd of 
being the caule of the dcftruv^tiun of the; gteat Alexandrian Li* 
hrary^ in the t'th century, by Or.CAR, — of tne revijcation of the 
Edi£l of Nantes in the 17th (i685)v — of occafionihg that 
^/w<j/ Ait^ in France which confiicatec the eftates of thofe who 
did nor, at their death, rcnoiinc*- the Reformed religion— and of 
exiling James Saurin, Thele .re the ai tides of incidtment pre- 
ferred againft her; to overturn which, \\\ the fecond Pa;r, the 
Seraph (for the fcene is la; J *' above this vifjoJe diurnal fphcre"), 
who takes the part of ' th' Entnufuftic Mud,' thinks it fufH- 
cicnt to enumerate the good tiFccls of her inflitcnce. To her, 
therefore, is attributed the patriotifm of thoie fix pcrfon*', who 
after the taking of Calais by Edward III p'^efentcd themiclves 
before him to redeem ihelivcs oUheir fellow-citizens;— the acqui- 
fitioB of Britifh freedom on (what Mr, J. calls) ' the fam'd ranjom" 
ground* of Runnymede ;' — the difcovery of America by Colum- 
bus — and the Reformation begun by Luther ; in confequence of 
which, reafon again became enthroned, truth (hone fetih, and 

* Mr, Jerningham difcovcrs a love for compound epithets; in the 
choice of which he is frequently happy, 

22 liberty 

^4^ Jcrniogham'i Bnthujiafm ; a Poem. 

liberty and toleration prevailed. We will not (lay to enqoire 
whether all thefe inftances firidly. and properly belong to the 
(ubjeS ; but muft exprefs our furpnTe that the poet Ihould have 
omitted the kind influence of Entbuliarm on fcietice, polite lite- 
rature, and the fine arts. 

But though the enumeration has not fatisfied us^ it produced 
the intended tSt&,% on the heavenly tribunal before whom the 
caufe was heard : which acquits Enthufiafm of the charge pre- 
ferred againft her by the accufing angel, and urges her to vindi- 
cate her injured fame. For this ptirpofe, ihe makes the follow- 
ing oration relative to herfelf, Britannia^ and Annericaj with 
which the poem concludes : 

•« Bold on a tow'ring rock, with foul elaie^ 

I faw BritaKnia fit io regal- ilate» 

Around the globe fhe threw her vaft furvey^ 

And mark'd the realms devoted to her fway i 

Her wcftcrn clime, her oriental reign. 

Her glory's theatre th' unbounded main : 

I thus addrefsM her—'' Hail, immortal dame^ 

Who high-exalted crowd 'ft the feat of fame, - 

Sufpend the thoughts of thine imperial ftate. 

And liilen to th' event that heaves with fate :— 

A profp'rous mother (fo did Heav'n ordain) 

BlefsM and ennobled by a nnmerous train^ 

Beheld (a (Iranger to aifeflion's tie) 

Her youngeft born with a difclaiming eye. 

And, breaking loofe from ty^ry moral band, 

Stretch'd o'er rh' innocuous babe an iron hand* 

And hardening in her wrath,- the helplefs child 

Was from her prcfence and her thought exii'd 2 

This little outcall lately I furvey'd. 

As mid the flow'rets of the wild he play'd 

Artlefs and gay, himfelf the wilder flow'r. 

Bare to the with'rin^ heat and quenching ihow'r.'* 
' Britannia quick returned with loud acclaim # 

" O piteous infant, O inhuman dame ! 

Where, where does fhe abide, that I may dart 

The fhaft of death into her wolfifh heart V* 
* 'Twas then I added with indignant air — 

*' Difmifs thy threats, thy warm refentment fpare^ 

Or droop thyielf beneath a flood of fhame. 

Thine, thine the child, and thoU th' inhuman dame/* 

I faid — and throwing back my flowing vefl, 

DifclosM the infant clinging at my breaft : 

«' Behold," 1 Cried, " this flowVet of thft wild. 

This orphan nurfling^ this rejected child, 

Mark how around his brow of virtue's mold, 

The figns of greatnefs dare ev'n now unfold ; 

How on the vigorous eye the morning ray 

Preludes the fplendor of mcridiap day ; 

zo Marvellous 

StcbbingV Sermons en pra^lcal Sulje^sl t^t 

Marvellous infant, doom'd to a6l my plan^ 

i^MEKiCANuSy haften into man ! 

O doomM to a£t what Heaven's dread thought devii'd^ ^ 

Thou at the font of Energy baptis'd, 

Whofe rigid waves thy confcious foul encreasM, 

Myfelf at once the fponfor and the piieft— >'' 
*• Enough/' th* abruptly-rifing Quire exelum^ 

^* Afj^ire, Enthu/iaft, to thy wonted fame ; 

^hy virtues, claims, and eminence we own, 

Refume thy dignities, afcend thy throne : 

Still to frail man thy daring ftrength impart, 

Still flame th' incentive feraph of his heart; 

And when the fcenes of earth ihall fade away. 

And man fhall need no more thy a6|ive ray, 

Theq, facred objed of our praifeful theme. 

Bright emanation of th' eternal beam. 

Thou (halt regain thy native, dread abode^ 

And glow for ever in the breafl of God.'' 
To lavifl^ commendation on this poem, would be an impeach- 
ment of ourjudgment, and diminifli the value of that praife^ 
which we hope in future to have an opportunity of ofFering to 
its author. It does, however, poflefs beauties ; of which the 
. foregoing extrad affords inftances. It has alfo its defefks; and 
what human compofition is perfeA ? 

, . .."■ . I, ■ ■ - »■■ ■ I Ml Ifl llrt. 

Art. XIII. Sermons on praSical SuhjeSs : By the late Reverend 
Henry Stebbing, D. D. Preacher to the Honourable Society of 
Gray's Inn, &c. In two Volumes, 8vo. pp. 500 each. I2s« 
Boards. Dilly. 1788. 

WHATEVER juft caufc there may be to complain of 
Clerical negligence, it muft neverthelefs be pleafing to 
4 benevolent mind to obferve how many fermons of real and 
fubftantial ufe are delivered in this kingdom. Such muft thofe 
be acknowleged which here fall under our review : they are 
not indeed remarkable for brilliancy of ftyle, or for elegance of 
compofition : in this refpefl they are father negligent ; perhaps, 
in fome inftances, faulty : yet they contain much good fenfe^ 
and have the fuperior merit of recommending, in a plain and 
forcible way, thofe truths, and that pradice, which are moft 
eflential to the welfare of mankind. 

From the Ibort account of his life, prefixed by his Son, it 
appears that Dr. Stebbing was a pious and benevolent man, 
and his difcourfes breathe the fame fpirit. They are properly 
feftbumous^ not having been publifhed till after his deceafe, but, 
we are informed, he had himfelf tranfmitted the original ma- 
nafcripts to the preft, and written the dedication and preface a 
ftw weeks before bis death. As this was the cafe, we are a 
little furprifed at an inequality obfervable at times in the dif« 
, JRsr.Marcb^ 1789, |l courfcs. 

M^% Sltbbiog-i Sermns on prMeHcal StAjiSs* 

courfeff, and marks of carekflbtft and iropropciety wbtdi ooir 
and then occur* The fentcntious manner which occafionally 
prefeiita icfelf, remindis ut of, the quainsntf$ (io fome inftances 
the ixprejftvi quaintncfs) of former days. Though not per* 
fedly fuiuble to the more chaftifed tafte of the prefent times, we 
might ftill allow it to be faid,— -^ However God may fuffer tbofe 
who pray to hiili, to want his bounties in their bafket^ be will 
never fuflFer them to want his bounties in their hearts:' — Per« 
haps alfo we may bear to be told, when fpeaking of the widding^ 
garmenif'^thc robe of rigbteoufnefs — * Though we cannot expeA 
to wear it abfolutely without fpot or wrinkle, through ^his dirty 
pilgrimage of life, yet we mufi endeavour to wear it as clean as 
we^can:' But ,the patience of* fome perfons may be nearly 
exhaufled when they read that^>^ Good adions proceeding from 
a falfe or empty heart, are a light, which however bright it may 
appear for a time, foon goes out and leaves a flink behind it' :— 
or, when it it faid — * An honeft man may think of the grave^ 
but a rogue is ever thinking of the gallows* The fentiments 
are, however, juft ; and it (hould bne confidered that foch ex« 
preffions pafs oflF differently when conneded With others, than 
when they appear thus detached from the main bpdy of tlie 

J)r. S(ebbip|; is fatd to have adhered fleadily to the tentffs of 
the Church of £iigland« We coofidcr thefe volumes as more 
i^cceptable, becaufe difjpu table dodrines are not ^ittj much in- 
troduced : the fifty-firft and fifty-fecond fermons are on a 
topic of this kind, and contain fome rather exceptionable paf- 
fagcs, as when we are told, in refereiKC, we fuppofCf to the 
Socinians, — ^ Was Chrift really no more than a teacher, tbelb 
men would make no fcruple to reduce him to the flill lower 
character of a field- preacher/ — Burlefque phrafes, even whea 
mottjuft, have an effed on fome minds, beyond the intention of* 
the fpeaker, and (hould therefore be generally, if not wholly, 
avoided in pulpit compofition. We acknowlege ourfelves hurt, 
when we find men oi fenfe, learning and piety, with whom this 
author Certainly ranks, exhibiting merely what is plaufible, of 
popular, or objedlionable, and advancing aflertions with an air 
of confidence and triumph, inftead of modeftly and diligently 
endeavouring to inveftigate a fubje^l. 

Thus have we^ ventured to point out fome little defeAs in dif- 
^ourfes which, on the whole, have real merit, and are calculated 
for important fervice | in proof of which, did our limits allow^ 
we might produce feveral extraSs. But we can only juft men- 
tion fome of the topics he^e confidered | fucb as, The Jewifh 
and Chriftian difpenfations i MiiSon of St. Paul ; Neceffity of 
the Gofpel; Confequence of rejedlin? it 3 Faith in Chrift $ 
Superiority to the world | Servitude of an 1 laureft 10 Heaven ; 


ALtttiTU the' Author 9/ Tbouiksy Scei 243 

Worldly affediottis ; Government of the paffions ; Induihy ; 
Agiir's Prayer } Returning p>od for evil; Fe%c and love of 
God; Hope and truft in him ; Vain profeffions ; Rich man 
and Lasarriis ; Divine afliftance ; Chriflian-]ike behaviour ; 
Prayer ; Humility ; Purity ; Good ' example ; Repentance s 
Incarnation, Sufferings, and Refurredliod of Chrifl ; Death | 
Uncertaioty of life; PermifBon of evil; Progreft of virtue j 
Bad company ; Prudence and diligence ; Courtefy, fcc. &c« * 
The virhole number is feventy-nine. One fermon, vrz. Tht 
Miferable end of profligate finners, is faid to have been octa- 
fioned by the conviflion of the Perreaus : we mention this 
merely as a proof of the author's attention to circumftances and 
events, which might ufefully imprefs the minds of his hearers. 
Is there not a mif-quotation obfervable, p. 306 of the firft vo- . 
lume, where the words pa/s the timi rf our fojourning bin infior^ 
are introduced as thofe of St. Paul^ but fecm rather to have 
been St. P€tir*9 language? 1 Pa. i. ij. 

* I r i ■ ■ 

Art. XIV. A Letter to the Author of Thoughts on the Manners of 
the Great, pp. 142. 8vo. zu fewed. Murray, 1788. 

NOTHING can be more troe than the principle laid dowa 
by the author of the Tbmghtt ; viz. that Refoemation, 
i^ hi genera/y mvji ortgitiaiiwitb thi fttpiriwrmmhiri offoctitf. To 
them the inferior ranks look up, with fucb a degree of deference^ 
as makes tbem proud of becoming their imitators* Even Vice^ 
itfelf, ceafes to firike them as odious, and Folly as ridiculoas^ 
when countenanced by the Great, and decidedly influencing 
their manners* Such being the perfuafivenefs of their example, 
there is reafon for wifhing them to recommend virtue and religion 
by it, rather than their contraries. The author of the Letter ^ 
before us, and the author of the Thoughts^ iire thus far agreed ; 
but they differ, refpeding the line of condud which the Great 
fliould purfue, in order to \xQomt tht moral and nUgious lights 
rfihi land', efpecially as to the obfervance of Sunday. 

The author of the Thoughts fays, *< Sunday feems to hi a 
kind of Chriilian Palladium, and the city of God will never be 
totally taken by the enemy, till the obfervance of that be quite 
loft." ; • 

But this Letter-writer is of a contrary opinion : for be fays, 
* that if any thing has conduced to leflcn the general reverence 
for religion, to impede its progrefs, and even to lead the vulgar 
to fuf|^ its facred authoiity, it feema to me to be our £ngli(k 

Moft of our readers, we are perfuaded, wilf think the author 
very bold in this afiertton. Why the EngUlb Sabbath ibould 
be fo vehemently attacked, and have fuch bitter things faid of 

R a it. 

144 ^ ^^^ ^' ^^^ 4^h9r rf Thoughts^ kc. 

\tj we cannot imagine ; fince it hat now rery little pnritioicri 
gloom and ftiffnefs of which we can cooipiaio. It is, even 
mong good Chriftian people^ very different from the melan- 
choly fabbath of ** a Prai/e-God Ban-iiMis** i and if we have 
hot our Play and Opera- houfet open on this i^jf the Vu%ar 
continue, notwithfianding, to paTs it without beavinefs. As to 
a decent obfervance of Sunday^ we are at a lofs to coneetve how 
it can conirihuU to lejfen the general revenmefer reHgwif emi im'* 
fedi its frogrefs : we have been accuftooied to attribute to it 
the contrary effe£l. Admitting it to have no Divine authority, 
there is a propriety, as this author allows, in having a day fee 
apart for the public, worfliip of the Deity; and we apprehend 
that the repetition of divine worfliip muft have a tendency to 
recall the wandeiing attention of the vulgar .to religion, and 
afibrd them a frequent opportunity of being inftruOed in ita 
nature and importance, its duties and encitements. But this 
tendency would be greatly counteracted, by autborifing fporta 
and revels after' divine worfliip* Ebriety, which would oftea 
happen under every poffible regulation, cannot promote the 
moral application of a fermon. All abfurd rigour, all re- 
ftraint on cheerful converfation, and on healthful and fober 
exerclfe after the church fervice, may be expofed ; but if a Sab* 
bath is to beobferved, we tbitik it fliould be with deancy* This 
writer itiay be affured that the multitude will always be inclined 
to make it ^ j<>lly» rather than an b$fyy daf. 

How far Chriftians are ftridly bound, by the Gofpel, to 
obferve a Sabbath, is a queftion which we have not leifure to 
difcufs ; but this we fliall leave to theologians, whofe bufincfk 
it is to come forward againft this learned and fenfibte, though, 
perhaps, in fome points miftaken, writer. We cannot, ne- 
verthelefs, quit the fubjed without hinting, that it might 
feem, that as the Sabbath is the only pofitive appointment in 
the Decalogue, it is one of Angular importance and utility, 
approaching perhaps iofomitbing like a moral duty * ; and that 
as the Author of Chrifllanity laid down a maxim with a view to 
regulate its obfervance (The Saihiti was made for man)^ it is not 
unreafonable to prefume, that he defigned, that fome fort of 
Sabbath fliould be kept by his difciples. As, moreover, this 
Inftitution is interwoven with the moral law delivered in the 
two tables on Mount Sinai, he muft conclude his followers 
would obferve it without a prohibitory iojundion, which there 
is no intimation of their ever having received* 

In what particular manner the vacant hours of the Sabbath 
fliould be fpent, it might be deemed prefumption in us to pre* 
fcribe; but we apprehend, from the libercinifm obfervable 

* Wi^h reiped to the reft which it enjoins for the labouring catUe» 
it has all the auefs and propriety of a moral duty. 

17 amors 


RepmrUefCt^inibiQtururflCngUBwcbandCtmHtiry^ 245 

afnong the comofon p^le bf £ogland, that if ttiis writer's 
ideat were adopted, wc Ihould fee our Englifli Sunday too much 


The extraordinary fbheftie which hb recomtfhehdd (for the 
particulars of which we muft refer to his book) to the author 
of the Thoughts to adopt for SunJay entertainments^ in order to 
;^ield much pkafure without licentioufnefs, appears to us wild, 
and romantic, to the lafl degree. It might fuic Arcadia^ or tbt 
Golden age ; but it is not calculated for G»at Britain, mmo 
Domini 1789. 

His obfervations at the beginning of his Letter, relative to the 
interpretation f^ivcn by the author of the Thoughts to a parable 
or two in the Gofpels, and to the ftory of Ananias and Sapphira, 
are juft; and we hope they wil^ be properly attended to in the 
next edition of the much-read pamphlet, on which this writer 
has made his remarks. 

To the Public. 

// is with ^eajuce that we inform our Bjaders^ that 
we are, at length, enabled to resume our Review of 
Publications relative to the feveral branches of $bt Law, 
which hath been long interrupted- ly the tedious Ikdis- 
POSITION of one of our mofi refpeltable ajfociates. 

We Jhall now enter on the payment of our arrears in 
this department, which we hope to complete in the courfe 
nf another month or two : after which y we intend to pro^ 
ceed, regularly, with the earlieft poffible account^ of thf 
new Law.Books, as they ijfue from the Pr^fs. 

Arrbar Account, No. L 

Art. XV. Reports of Cafes adjudged in t^e Kimg^s Bench from Hilary 
Term the 14th of Qto, III. 1774, to Trinity Term, the i8th 
<»eo. DI. 1778, both inclafiv*. By Henry Cowper* Efq. Bar- 
rider at Law, of the Middle Temple. Folie. iL t6s. boond* 
Brooke. ' / 

Art. XVI. Keports of Cafes relative to the Duty and Office ofm Jmftjce 
of the Peace, from Michaelmas Term 1776 iadufive, to I'rimiiy 
Term 1785 inclafive. By Thonas Caldecott, of the Middle 

V Temple, £iq. 4to. Vol. I. 8s. 6d. Boards. VoK H« los. 6(U 
Boards. UrieL 1789. 

Art. XVn. Reports ofCafts argued and determined in the High Court 

of Chancery, btginning withTriniiy Term 18 Geo. III. 1778, and 

endiogwith the Sitting after Trinity Term 25 Geo. ill. 1785. 

By William Brown, of the Inner TemplCi Ef^j. Barriller at Law. 

R 1 f oUp# 

S^6 Reports tf Cafes in ih$ Courts rf Kin^s BikA aui Chancery, 

Foiio. jl. ?s^ Brooke. 1795. Co|iUiii)ed in 1786. ,$s. i787» 
71. 1758. 7«. 6d. 
Art. XVIII. Report t o/Ca/es argued and determined in the Court of 
Khg*s Bench, from Michaelinas Term 26 Geo. 111. to Michaelmas 
Term 28 Geo. III. both indaiive. By Charles Durnford and 
Edward Hyde Eaft, of the Temp1e» Efqrs. Barriiters at Lav* 
Folio. Vol. I. 2I. 75. bound. Vol. II. 7i\* 21. bound. Whieldon« 

THE reign of his prefent Majefty will, prcAably, be a re^ 
markable aert in the Hiftory of Englifli Law. No period 
of our annaU has given rife to the difcuffion of more important 
points of conftitutional learning, or been more remarkable for 
inccfefting decifions on matters of private right. It is to be 
lamented, that we have not yet been fupplied with a veil exe- 
cuted hiftory of the Parliamentary proceedings and debates of 
the prefent reign. But the law reporters of our times leave u« 
little to regret, in the accounts which they profefs to give, of 
the proceedings of our courts of juftice. 

In a former Review, We have had occafion to mention the Rei> 
ports of Sir James Bi^rrow. They were fuccecded, in order of 
publication, by the reports of Sir William. Blackftope. Thefe 
contain an account of cafes determined in Che Court of King's 
Bench, from the 20th to the 24th year of his late Ma^cfty | 
^itd from the 30th of bis late Majefty to the loth of his prefent 
Majefty ;— and an account of cafes determined in the Comlnoii 
Pleas from the nth to the 20th year of the prefent reign. For 
a fprther account, fee Rev. vol. Ixyii* p. l. 

The next Reports, in order of publication, arc thofc of Mr. 
Douglas: which begin with the i^th and end with the 21ft . 
of his prefent Majefty. No reports have been received by 
the pcofcffion more favourably than thefe. They do great ho* 
nour to thr. ji|dgment, (kill, and profeffional learning of the 
author ; and the value of the work is confiderably enhanced by 
the very accurate and important obfervations, which the au- 
thor has occafionaUy inferted in it by way of notes. We fin- 
cerely hope the learned gentleman will favour the Public with a 
continuation of his Reports. He muft be frnfible that it is the 
univerfal wi(h of the profeQon. For a further account, fee ' 
Rev. vol. Ixix. p. 318. x 

Mr* Cpwper's Reports begin with the f 4th, and end with the 
l&th, of his^prcfent Majefty. The cafes contained in them, ap- 
pear to have been taken wjth great accuracy. Mr. Durnford . 
and Mr. £aft commenced their publication with the cafes de- 
termined in Michaelmas term 1786} from which time they 
bay0 continued them to the prefent, much to the fatisfadion c^ 
the Public, and to their own credit. We underftand that they 
are generally known in tbp profe^n by the appellation of ibe 
Term Reports. 

Rip^ts rfCafis in thi C^urii ofKin£$ Btncb mti Cbaneery, t4f 

Sir Jadics Burrow, befide the Reports which we have noticed^ 
pub]i(hed Reports of fettlemenc cafes, from the time of the 
death of Lord Raymond in 1732, to the year 1776*. From 
that time, to Trinity term 1785, they have been continued by 
Mr. Caldecotr, in two volumes of reports, which bear great 
marks of attention and accuracy. Thefe are the principal re- 
porters of the cafes determined during the prefent reign, in the 
courts of law. 

It is impoiSble for the reader to perufe this important feries of 
judicial determinations, without feeling great refpeA for the 
ooble perfonage who, during this very long period, prefided 
in the court of King*s Bench. The extent and fublimity of bia 
Underftanding, ;ind the charms of his eloquence, are univerfally 
acknowleged. His punAuality in the difcharge of his high of* 
fice, his difpatch of bufinefs, bis afFability, and his readinefs to 
accommodate the fuitors of the court, have never been denied.— 
A multitude of points of legal learning have been fettled by his 
decifions ; feveral important cafes on real property ; the whole 
fyftem of the poor-laws ; and a great part of the do^rine of in- 
(iirance, reft folely on his determinations; and their general 
propriety has not been qucftioned. But whether he poffeiled 
that profound and extenfive knowlege of the law of England, 
for which Lord Coke, Lord Vaughan, Lord Hale, Lord Holt 
(and we may fay, his predccefTors in general), have been de« 
fervedly famous, may, perhaps, be called in queftion. He has 
been generally accufed of treating precedents with too little re« 
fped, and making the court of lung's Bench a court of equity. 
Even (be fiyle of his orltory has not efcaped animadverfion. It has 
been faid, that his mode of fpeaking was often defultory, that his 
fenttnces were often ungrammatica), and his expreffions often lowt 
But his defers have been univerfally confidered to bear no pro* 
portion to his excellencies. It feems to be admitted, that, ia 
knowlege, he was equalled by few of his profeffional contem* 
poraries ;— and that in eloquence, he was furpaflTed by none.-^ 
In Sating a care,<«^in difcriminating it from cafes of a fimilar 
iropreffion,— in divefiing it of all extraneous matter, — in pre- 
, fentine it to the attention of his hearers, reafonipg with their 
nnderfiandiogs on it, and convincing them, without appearing 
to argue, it qiay be queftioned if be ever had his equal. Sucli 
is the impreffion given of his judicial meriu and abilities by the 
Reports now under confideration. To his praife, it may be add- 
ed, that, amid the fury of contending fadions (to which no one 
was more expofed), neither his general abilities, nor his inte- 
grity in his judicial capacity, were ever called in queftion. — Af 

f See R^v. vols. xxxv. xlvi. and Ixv. ; or confolt our Qener^if 
hJi^ to the ^ft feventy volumes of the Monthly Review, 

R 4 i fpecimen 

94^ Reports tf C^fis in thi Courts cf&ng'j BtncbaMiCbafUirfm^ 

a fpecimen of hU manner of thinking on judicial fubjc^, apd 
delivering his fentiments on them, we prefent the reader, froq;!. 
Mr. Cowper's Reports, with his argument, in giving hiibpiaion^ 
in the cafe of Jackfoo and Hogan. 

* By the Rqinan law, a will coniUtoted the bitres or heir^ and 
was the appointment of him. He was the fame perfon as in our 
law ii termed the executor. But the nomination of an heir was (q 
cflential an ingredient of the Ronian teflamenty that there coold b^ 
no complete will without him ; and from his name and office, her" 
was confidered* at the death of the teftator, as nniverHil rucceiS>r to 
all the gobdst rights, and property of the deceased, vfithput am^ r#- 
gar^ or diflin^iUbn as to property acquired by him, prior Qx/uhfefmn^ 
jto|he time of making his will. 

* But that 14 different from the nature of a devife of land by th« 
law of Englttudj which formerly admitted of no tefbmentary difpofi- 
tion, in cafes of tm/ property. This redriAion took place upon tha 
introdudion of military tenures, and was a branch of the feodal 
doflrineof non-alieoation without the confent of the Lord. But 
when the ri^or of the reilriflion came by degrees to be relaxed, 
tenants were permitted to make difpofidons by teftament, a devife of 
laAds operated as an appointttient to ufes, in nature of a legal con- 
^yance. As fuch, the courts of law ia the conflrudion of them held, 
that a dcvife affe£ling lands could operate only upon fuch real eftate^ 
as the teflator had at the time of executing and publtihing his will, 
and not upon any after purchafed or acquired lands : becaufe ther^ 
could be no legal Conveyance at common law of what a, man fhould 
acquire in future.. ' . 

' Another diilindion, founded upon the notion that a will affed* 
ing lands is merely a fpcties of conveyance, and derived from the 
fame fource, is this. The law of England^ in the cdhve3rance of 
teal edates, requires words of limitation in thedoi^ation or grant, to 
the creation of a fee. Wichonc the word htirs^ general or fpecial, 
no man can create a fee at common law by conveyance; When wiHs, 
therefore, were introduced, and devifes of real property began to 
prevail, being confidered as a (pedes of conveyance, they were to be 
governed by the fame rule. Therefore, by analogy td that rule, in 
the conArudlion of devifes, if there be no words of limitation added, 
nor words of perpetuity annexed; which have been held tanramount^ 
fo as to denote the intention of the tedator to convey the inheritance 
to the devifee, he can only take an eftate for life. For inllance, if a 
teflator by will fays, I give my Aun/r, or fuch and fuch lands to A ; if 
no words of limitation are added, A has only an eftatc for life. ' 

' Generally fpeaking, no common perfon has the fmalleft idea of 
any difference between giving a perfon ^ horfe and any quantity of 
land. Common fenfe alone would never teach a man the difference \ 
but the diffin^ion which is now clearly eftabliffied, is this : li tho 
words of the teflator denote only a de/eription of the ypeqfic eftati ot 
lands devifed ; in that cafe, if no words of limitation are added, the 
devifee has only an eilaie for life. But, if the words denote the 
quantusn of intereff or property that the teflator has in the lands de-. 
yifed ; there, - the whole extent'of fuch his intereft paffes by the gift 
fo the devifee. <The queftion, therefore, is always a^eftien of coo* 
'■••"'♦• ftra&io^ 

RepmrtsrfCafn in thi Courii ofKin^s Bmch and Chancery^ 249 , 

ftra£tion upon tbe words and terns ufed by the teftator. It is novr 
clearly fettled, that the words all his eftate^ will pafs erery thing « 
man has: but if the word all is coupled with the v/ord per/onalt 
pr a local di/cription, there, the gift will pafs only perfonalty, or the 
ij>eci£c elUte particularly defcribed. 

* All thefe principles being clearly iettled and certain, the qneftioa 
itt tUa cafe cpmcs to a queition of conftrudion upon the \Vill itfelf. 
Now, in this will there are feverai things which it is material to ob- 
fenre : and firft, the introduQiou is very material. Introdudory words 
cannot yary the conilrudion of a devife, fo as to enlarge the eftate of 
II devifeer unlefs there are words in the devife itfelf fufficient to carry 
the degree of intereft.conte'nded for, .But wherever they aiSfl to (ho\¥ 
the intention of the teftator, the courts have laid hold of .them, as 
they do of every other circumftance in a will, which may help to 
guide their judgment to the right and true conftru£tion of it. The 
{ntrodudory words ufed by the teftator in the prefent cafe, are not 
firid legal terms ; but they are the words of a plain ^lan of found * 
learning. He fays, ** As to all my ivorUly fuhftance, I give, &c.*' 
What is fubllance ? It is every property a man has. So, in the &$r 
tute 4 and 5 Phil, and Mar. c. 8. for t|ie puniihment of fuch aa 
ihall take away maidens that be inheritors, the word fubftance is 
made ufe of, and means worldly <wealtb. 

* The wbrds of the will before the court are : *^ I alfo give to my 
mother, all the remainder and refidue of all the effe^s both real and 
perfonal which I fliall die po/rcflcd of." Now, is the conftruftion of 
thefe words to be' confined to a gift of perfonhlty only ? moft clearly 
not ; t>ecaufe the teftator has exprefsly added th^ word real to thd 
word iffeSs. Do the words realeffeQs in law, mean real chattels only? 
No authority has been produced to ftiew that they do : and, in point 
of fadl, there was but one leafe belonging to the teftator in this cafe 
which could come under that defcription; confequently, if the con* 
ftrudlion contended for by the defendant were the true one, only that 
leafe would pafs ; which would be to narrow the conftrudiion of the 
word real very iquch indeed. The natural and true meaning of real 
gffeBs in common language aiMi fpeech is real property ; and realsmd 
fer/onal effe&s zx^ fynonymous io/uhfiance^ which includes every thing 
4vhich can be turned into money. In feverai claufes of the bankrupt 
laws which make it felony in a bankrupt to conceal, remove, or 
embezzle any part of his goods, wares, merchandize, monies, or 
gfeOs ; the word ** ejfeSs^* is made ufe of in this fenfe. If that be 
alie true conftro£(ion, there can be ao doubt but that the word^ 
remainder oirml ejffeSs include the reverfion of every thing not dif- 
pofed of; in which cafe,, no words of limitation were necefTary.' 

Faffing to the other fide of Weftoiinfter-hall,, we are pleafed 
to meet with the valuable Reports of Cafes in Equity, publilhed 
by Mr. Brown. - They begin in Trinity term J778, and 
cBd with the fittings after Trinity term 1788 : during the 
whole of this period^ with the cxcef^ion of a very Ihort interval^ 
X^oFc) Thurlow haf filled the high office of Chancellor of £ng- 
land, with abilities which (according to the unanimous voice of 
the profe0ion) have never been furpafled| and fcldbm equalled* 
x . Thit 


^$0 Coxt*s Rip9ru dfCafis in tbi Couri rf thMnary. 

This faA makes Mr. Brown*s Reports particularly importanf* 
The Public, unqueftiooably, is greatly indebted to him for the 
publication of them, and will always receive his continuation of 
them with pleafure. 

■-■■■■ . . , - ^ ■ 

Art. XIX. ItiporU 9fCafi$ atfuei and ditermimi in tbt High Court tf 
Chancery, and fome fpecial Cafes adjudged in the Court of King's 
Bench, colleaed by William Peere Williams, lace of Qray's Inn» 
£fq.^ The fourth Edition, with additional References to the Pro- 
ceedings in the Court, and to later Cafes, fiv Samuel Comptoia 
Coxe; of'LincoIn'sInDȣfq. Royal 8vo. iK ii8.6d. bound. 
Brooke. 1787. 

IT is not an exaggeration to fay* that this is the beft editioot 
ever publilhed| of any law-book. The editor has atteotivelj 
eonnpared every cafe with the account of it in the regifler's booka^ 
and has pointed out every variation from them that appeared oaa^ 
ferial. He has alfo taken care to mark every determination con* 
tained in his author's reports which has been afitded, in any 
refped, by fubfequent decifions or difcuffions. Bot what parti- 
cularly cahances the merit of this edition is, the elaborate, though 
concife, notes of the editor, Thefe contain ftatements of the 
dodrincs. of the court, on almoft every point of equitable learn^ 
ing, fo fuccindly, but fo accurately, exprcfied, and illuftrated by 
references fo well chofen and foappofite to the point in queftioo, 
as to make the work a complete body of equity ««pp-Of this, tbt 
following note is a fpecimen : 

* The ftridl rule is eflabli(hed, that a legacy «ven by a debtor to 
his creditor, which is equal or greater than the d^, ihall be prefumed 
to be intended in fatisfadion of the debt. Tmlh9t v. Duke of Skrrw/^ 
bury^ Pre. Cha. 304. Jeffs v. Wood, poft. 2 vol. 132, fowUr v. 
Fowler, poft. 3 vol. 353.' Reech v. Kennegal, 1 Ve%* 126; but the 
later cafes, altnough they acknowledge toe geheral rule to be fully 
eftabliihed, yetexprefsA diiTatisfadion with the principle upon which 
it proceeds, and are anxious to collect from the ox;/// circumftanccs to 
rebut fnch prefumption. So where the payment of debts is parti- 
cularly mentioned, as in the prefent cafe, and the cafe of Chatey^ 
and Richard/on v. Gree/e, 3 Atk. 65. Or, where the legacy is noc 
equally beneficial with the debt, in fome one particular (although it 
may be more foin another) as in time of payment, NicboUs v. Jnd/om^ 
2 Atk. 300. Clarke v. Sewell, 3 Atk. 96. Matthews v. Matthrws^ 
2 Vez. 635. or in point of certainty, Crompton <i;. Sale, poft. 2 vol. 
555. Barret Vt Beckford, 1 Vez. 519-' 

We have feleSed this note for its fliortoefs, not for its com* 
parative nocrit. From the fpecimen which Mr. Coxe has givea 
in this work of his profeffional knowlege, it is to be hoped that 
be will favour the public with fome future publicatiofly oa tbo 
fubjed of legal or equitable learning. 


( asi ) 

/i%T» XX. speculations upon Law and Lawyers \ applicable to th^ 
nianifefl Hardfhipsy Uncertainty^ and abuHye Praflice of the 
Common Lawt 8vo. pp. 104.. 2 s. Rbbfon and Co. $cc. 

THESE are the fpecQiations of a man of obfervation an4 
enquiry, prejudiced, we conjedure, from the advertjfe- 
meiil at the concluiion, by perfonai injuries, and fmarting from 
the efFeds of legal feverity. Th9t perfc^ion fiiould be found iit 
any human fyftem, we are not fangutne enough Co expe^ ; nor 
do we know whether the evi)& which are here pointed out could 
be remedied, without introducing mifchiefs worfe than tbofe 
that are already experienced. Many of them (we believe mod) 
might be redrefled by applications to the Courts where the 
ab^fes are committed, without hazarding experimental innov^j 
tions, which arc always dangerous ; and which, in too many cafe;^ 
however plaufible, have been found, when tried, generally in^ 
effe&ual, and fometimet deilru^ive. 

It has been often remarked, that a Platonic commonwealth^ 
which a fpeculatift in his ftudy may delineate, has a beautiful 
appearance, and would be uoiverfally defined ; but a practical 
ftaiefman knows that the vifionary fyflem is not toht carried 
into execution. In like manner^ an ingenious man, by feleding 
all the evils atundanc on civil fociety, by difplaying them in thq 
Bioft glaring colours, and omitting every circumftance of ad- 
vanca^, nvay exhibit Atch a picture as none but an hypochon- 
driac will for a moment admjt to be a faithful reprefentation. 
In this manner have the law and its profeflbrs been treated^ 
•Every benefit which is derived from legal infiitutions, has been 
concealed ; while every abufe of them has been magnified, with 
moft malicious induftry. 

The prefent author, in his firft fe£lion, treats on the neceffity 
pf a revifal and abridgment of the law ; ihd in the next, of the 
aftonifbing iocreafe of printed law. books, fince the beginning of 
the laft century. He is a warm advocate for brevity, and, we 
prefume, its natural conf(;^uence,<r^t)ircretionary powers in the 
Judges^ He obferves, t^t ^ many nations of Europe at this 4ay 
carry their code in their pocket, with the fame tafe as we. our 
Common Prayer, or Court and City Regifter.* We (hall not 
fiay to enquire whether this is a fa<^ or not ; but we fincerely 
bope that this nation will never have the misfortune to be di- 
jt&tA by fucb a code. Montefquieu fomewhere obferves, that 
the multiplicity Cf our laws is the price we pay for our liberty ; 
and be .very juflly remarks, froiti the examples of Caefar and 
Oliver Cromwell, that Amplifying the law is generally one of 
the firft ads of a tyrant. Where the Sic voloyjk juheo of a de« 
ijpotfc ^anarch are fubftituted for written lawS| concifenefs maf 


lt$% ^SpioJations upon Lokv and Lawjirs, 

be expefied ; but if all cbe enormities here charged on the prac* 
tice of the law were admitted, and were only to be redrefled by 
fuch an abridgment as is here propofed» we do not hefitate to (ay, 
that it would very much dinunim the fecurity, and 'tend to in* 
fringe the liberty, of the fubjefl i we (hould therefore be of 
opinion that things had better remtin as they are. 

The author's complaint of the increafe of law books, appears 
to us to have no force. That they have tncreafed, and will 
further increafe, is very certain ; but whether they have roulti* 
plied in equal proportion to the publications on divinity or phy« 
fie, we greatly doubt. At all events, fuch as are found worth- 
lefs will filently be condemned to oblivion; and.tbofe only 
be deemed neceflary for a lawyer's library which poflefs intrinfe 
merit. We are under no apprehenfions of being over-bardeocd 
with too manv valuable books on any fub}ed« 

In the courle of his work, the author difcuflet— -The uncertainty 
of the law — The Inns of Court— The alarmingprogrefs of the 
grandeur of the law — The impropriety of ferious fubje^ being 
treated lightly [at the bar— -Oaths, and the manner of admini- 
ftering them. What he here fays, is worthy of attention : aa 
are alfo many of his remarks on the old fubjed of imprifonmeot 
for debt— -The ftate of debtors in the United Provinces — Dutch 
determinations between debtor ind creditor— Invedivea againft 
attornies — On the Criminal Law — Furtber thoughts on a revifal 
and abridgment of the laws, with propofals for a law catechifin, 
and a recommendation that feme portions of law flitmld be read 
in our churches, in lieu of chapters from Leviticus and Deute* 

He concludes with a fet of queries, feveral of which w^ 
ihall give to our readers. From them, the drift and force of thd 
author's fcheme may be colleded. They certainly defer ve every 
attention that can b6 heftowed on them, and will demonftrata 
that he merits a better fate than that which has condemned 
bim to date his vfotk/rom the confines of the King*$ Bomb. 

Qj3 B R I E 8. 

* Whether common law, confidered in its principles as the great 
bulwark, may not, in feveral points alluded to in the foregoing fec- 
tions, be reckoned the great bane, of the nation ? 

* Whether a very confiderable part of the dearly-earned property 
of individuals, acquired by diligence, indudry, ingenuity in various 
arcs and roanufadlnres, and other laudable ^eans of Jiving, is not 
wafted among lawyers, expended in law-offices, and» for the raoft 
part, divided among attorn ies? 

'* Whether exadHons, under colour of juftice (for fuch are all endr* 
mous fees and ruinous coils)^ may not be accounud manifeft in- 

« Whether 

SpiCtthtioHS upon Law and Lawyers4 / 153 

* Whether abafe* under colour of Uiv, warranted by long per- 
nicioas praftice, and winked at hy thofe alone who have the power 
of redreffing the people's grievances, is not the word tyranny m the 

' Whether any known law in Europe is, in its prafUce, fo griev« 
•OS, fo expenfive> fo deftru^ive^ and,fo mach abnfed, as the com-^ 
mon law of Englantl? 

* Whether a board, or committee of healing and midgation, be* 
tween adverie parties, to be compofed of neighbouring gentlemea* 
clergymen, fenfible farmers and burghers, might not be appointed 
in every borough and market-town in the kingdom ; a quorum of 
which mightfitfor an hour or two every market-day, and endeavour 
to reconcile and eompofe fmall differences and mifunderftand- 
ings among neighbours^ and ' thereby' prevent vexatious and tx^ 
penfive fuits at law : fo that thofe who met in enmity, might often 
return to their homes in fr!end(hip ; to the country's peace, the fai<^ 
▼ation of families, and utter difappointment of fleecing attornies? 

* Whether, when creditors are inclined to compromife with theip 
^biors, their at(omies do not frequently interfere, and defeat fucb 
humane intention, upon the meaneft confiderations, and the yileft 
principles ; namely^ to encreafe cofb— well knowing that if the in<« 
folvent debtor goes to gaol, the cofts mufl fall upon the folvent 
client ? 

* Whether attornies' cofts do not frequently exceed the original 
debts ?-^in many inllances, double— in fome, treblc^in others, four,' 
£ve, fix times as much ? 

* Whether bankruptcies are not multiplied by means of the famo 
order of law-minifters, and other notorious abnfesin pra^ice j 

* Whether the labouring poor (the molt ufcful part of the com-* 
Btttiity), the. improving mechanic, the neceilary hahdicraftt the ia« 
geniotts artift, the fober merchant and man of bufinefs, the culti* 
^tor and improver of the lands of the wealthy, the foldier of his 
^, and every other clafs of inhabitants (the lawyer only ex- 

^}, have not juft caufe to curfe the abufive pradtice of tho 

* Whether it is rcafonable to fuppofe, that the lawyers them« 
felfrs, confidered as the mod powerful and felf-interefled body ia 
this nation, will, of tbem/eives^ ever effed, or even wifh to efFed, a 
thorough reform of the afore-recited abufes ? 

< Whether Setitions and Remonftrances to the High Court of 
Parliament, ought not to be preferred againft fuch glaring abufes» 
and grievances of greatefl magnitude; not only from counties, cities^ 
and boroughs, but from tytry parifh in the kingdom ? 

< Whether it is not the duty of the people's reprefcntatives, im- 
mediately to enquire into, and fet about corredling fuch enormitiea 
and infringements upon the rights of the people ; in oppofidon to 
the united clamour" that may be raifed again ft it, by all the pro* 
fefional lawyers in the kingdom V 

We are (orry that we could not nsake room for the reft of the 
author's qutriis^ for they all merit tb« public attention : though, 
perhaps, his perfonal fufferings may hayc made him rather toa 
imre on the law aod lawyers. 


( ^54 J ^ 
Art. XXt. 

A R T. I. 

Sluifilons a examiner avant t^AffembUe des Etats Generaux^ Sec, }. e# 
Qoeflions to be examined before the Meeting of the States^Geoe- 
^j. By the Marqi^is de Casaux. 8vo. Pamph. Paris. 178S. 

THE Marquis de Cafaux here endeavours to imprefs the 
people of France firith thofc ideas concerning civil liberty 
and political regulations, which he had previoufly endeavoured to 
propagate in EngUnd, in the work enthltd^ Ot/irvathns dn tb^ 
JHechanifm of Societies^ and the explanatory pamphlets that foU 
lowed it I of which we have repeatedly fpoken in our late Re- 
views. The principles here inculcated, tre exadly the fame 
with thofe that were developed in that larger work; and hi» 
mode of illuftrating thefe principles differs not from that which 
be there adopted. But if we had occafion to riemark that 
this mode of illuftration was fuch, as that few in our country, 
where fpeculations of this nature are more familiar than in any 
other nation, could follow him, — we are afraid that in France, 
where the minds of the people in general have not been accuf* 
tomed to deep inquiries into the fccret tendency of political re- 
gulations, they will be dill lefs underftood; fo that if the Mar-^ 
quis's dodnnes were, by the bulk of the people here, reckoned 
no better than ingenious paradoxes, we fufped that in France 
they may be in general regarded only as peUtical nviriet. We 
^iih the ingenious aiKhor could have taken the trouble to 
clothe his dodrines in a drefs that would have been more foited 
to the general ftateof knowlege at this time: for, although there 
may be exceptions, yet we are fatisfied that the fundamental 
part of this author's doArines reft on truth and nature. 

The queftions which he propofet for difci^ffion are at fol- 
low : 

• Qu. !• Of the mechanical effefis of the price of labour on the 
revenue from land. 

II. Of the mechanical ededs of that part of the impoft paid 
by the clafs of labourers who cultivate the foil. 

III. Of the effefls mechanically produced on the revenue 
from land, by that portion of the territorial impoft paid by the 
proprietor, or by the farmer. 

IV. Of the efFe£^s mechanically produced on the general ma/s 
of revenue from induftry, by the price fixed for the day's labour 
of the artifan, and by the portion of the impoft that is paid by 

V. Of the tStSi% of the privilege, accounted fo valtuble, to 
ftreen a perfon from impofti, produced mechanically on the mafs 


Foreign LitERATURi. 255 

%r the revenue of tjtofe who throw on the mnprivilegeJ the por- 
tion of th^ impoft which the priviUged ought io juftice to 

VI. Of the mechanical effefis of a national bankruptcy. 

VII. Of the mechanical effefis of a national debt, confolt- 
dated by impofta which fecure the intereft of it. 

VIIL Of the probable efFeAs of the fimple difcuffions offercdt 
concerning the fcven preceding queftions. 

IX. Of the mechanical tSc&B of giving the freed play to the 
moft oppofite inteVefts. 

Thofe readers who are acquainted with our author's former 
writings, Mrill readily fee, from the mere ftatement of the fore* 
going queftions, what will be the refult of his difquifitions. If| 
general, he endeavours to prove that whatever tends to>dimioi(ht 
in any way, the income of the lower clafles of people, dimi- 
nifhes the general mafs of revenue in a high degree i and that 
in particular, refpeAin^ the fifth queftioit. 

« The privilege of which it is fuppofed the two firft orders of the 
ftate [the clergy and the nobleffe] are fo jealous, [that of being ^x* 
empted from taxes] reduce? itfelf to the abfurd right, of detra^ing 
anwoally from the value of their lands, to the extent of three times 
die amount of that part of the tax from which they think themfelves 
. exempted by their privileges.' 

We doubt if it will be an eafy matter to convince thefe two 
powerful bodies of the certainty of this momentous truth ; or 
to induce them voluntarily to relinquilh this facred privilege |» 
though we have been lately amufed with fome hints that this 
meafure will be adopted. 

We have often bad occafion to commend the liberal fpirit, 
and the humane principles, that run through all this author'a 
writings. In almoft every page, we meet with maxims, wbtcb^ 
however oppofite to thofe that have prevailed, in fome nations^ 
for ages paft, will, we doubt not, be revered as facred truths 
in future times. Of this nature, we confider the following 
rule, which, though not new, nor exclufively belonging to the 
Marquis, cannot be too often repeated : 

* In^ what then (fays he) confifts the prote^ion neceflary to be 
given to agriculture ) To do nothing to augnunit to do nothing to diminijb, 
she number of cultivators .^ 

The fame rule will apply to every other dafs of citizeon 
Sincerely do we wiih that this maxim were fully adopted in Great 
Britain I How many idle difputes would it prevent — how many 
ridiculous laws would it abolifli— how much general happineia 
would it produce ! 

As a fpecimen of this pamphlet, v^e quote the following 
paflage, wl(ich occurs in difcuffing the ninth queftion : 

* Let 08 fee what would refult from a new order of things^ where 
all fhottld go on of itfelf^ not puih^d by adminiftration^ nor kept 



956 FoRElO* LlTERAlrURE, 

back bat \>y anothei^' iiitereft Us free and as aftire ; nor reprefled hf 
My thing ellb tlito tlie*laivs, wmi^oo eJit^epcion* ^ 

' Ewery man in fociety would wifh to promoCc^ 

« ifl^ Hb dwn ^rfonal kuc^vftf 
/ * 2d«. That of his familijr ; . 

« 3d, l*hat oiF the bgdj of wliich he it a oiember, or, if yon will» 
•f hit cofpoaatipn ; 

* 4th, Thatof hisdiftria; 
« cth. The public int^reft. 

' Sucn is the order of nature ; and whoever departs from it is a 
prodigy of heroifm or of imbecility ; and nothing is more nfelefs than 
to argiie concerniog prodigies. 

< & the mean time, fappoie a certain number of individuata,— of 
Jamiliesy— -of corporations^^of diftriAs, in what eonotry, and ondcr 
vhat form of government you pleafe, frovldtd thai adtrnniftnaiii^ 
jfmewbat tnligbttned, alUavs t$ tacb inter eft efimUvidumls^ 9f families, 

mf corporations t and of diftriQs, all the means and po^wer U Jtffkpf its 
energy in e'verj re/pe^^^ aUc, what could all thefe interefts do in preff- 
ine with an equal force? Nothing, but keep themfelves in eqoiU- 
bnum. Let us rather afk, would there not neceflarily refult from 
this mutual prefTure, from this reciprocal aflion of one on the others* 
an edifice almoll as perfed, though direded by human reafon, as diat 
admirable edifice which we call a hive ; wholly ereded, as it is, by 
in(Hn6l, under the immediate infpe^Uon of the Divinity ? And will 
not the public intcrcfl, obvioujlj the only one that can a3 freely tvbem 
mil the ethers tvatch o<ver and balance each other ^ necelTarily triumph 
in every public deliberation, where every thing ihali be freely dif* 
tufled?* . 

The folfowing refleAiotis on the nature of the Eng^ilh ooii« 
ftitution will probably arreft the attention of our readers. 

* Neither the abilities li6r the integrity of the Englifii Minifters 
can infnre for ever the profperity of £oglaod, feeing thatv like aU 
enber countries, that nation has had many Mtniflers of very .ordinary 
taUentSt and fome far from being immaculate^ 

* it is not the perpetual exigence of a^ open» fearlefir* dedded 
oppoiition, whofe intereft it is to difpute tytry thing with the Mini- 
Her ; feeing that it is poflible that the MiniAer and the oppoiition 

may find it their mutual intereft to unite* and feeing 

that there might refult from fuch a coalition, both the oppreflion of 
Ae people, and the flavery of the prince ; Which always follows, 
very quickly, the opprcffiofn of the people : 

< It is not the freedom of votin|^ at eledlions for members of par* 
KamVnt; feeing that a gf^eit mdj6nty of thcfc cledtdrs, without ta- 
lents or information, neither know, nor can know, ehher the cha- 
mder or the capacity of the candidates ; and, confcquently, it is ab-^ 
£ird to fuppofea true liberty with this want of knowlege : — — — 

* It is not the freedom of fpeech in both Houfn of Parliament v^ 
-^ -^ — ^eii»g that a«gr«at majority in ihe one f^oufe as we^ as the 

' * We omit a few fentencn which do not materially aAA the ar« 
{(uncnt* . • . 


VoMian LlTBftATtlRBJ 9157 

tther, h thvtyt for the Minifter, ttll tbe infttnt wbxch precedes s 
change of miniftry ; thoagh ic is contrary to natore that* the Minifter 
flionld never be millaken : 

* It is not the diftindlion and the rcfpe^ve independence of the 
Commons, of the Peers, and of the King, joined to the neceffity of 
fheir agreeing before any law whatever can/he enabled : 

' l^Io ; it is not to tbefe means (fo much extolled !) that England 
owes that aftonifhine; profperity> that enviable wealth, that power^ 

fiill capable of defending all its rights. It is to that fword 

of Damocles, whjch is every where m England fofpended over the 
h^ad of whoever (hoold meditate even in (ecret, any projeA hartfbl 
to the Prince or tbe people ; -^ — — it is to this principle, deeply 
impreifed on the mind of every Englilhman, tifat tbi btad of no one 
man is capaih of comprtbtnding rvsry tiding ; that the beft ideas are 
only thofe wbith refult from a combiiuuon of the joint lights of the 
whole ; — ^— — 

* Deprive England of the only means of preferving this principle 
in its ful! energy ; take from it the freedom of the pre{s ; a freedom^ 
^whUb e^ety Mintjhr in Englani^ as nxall ds every nnbere el/e, njoijhtt 
to etnnibilate during bis otun adminiftratiols^ and to fuhftitute in iti 
placw em ab^lmti order to adore bis n/ery o^erfigbts and errors % take 
away, I fay, from England, the freedom of the prefs, and in fpite of 
illl the refources of its admirable conftitution, minifterial blunders, fo 
rare in England, would fucceed each other with as great rapidity an 
el fe where ; they would even pafs with more tranquillity than elfe- 
wbere ; at firft, minifterial overiights, and afterward their more da-r 
rine and dedrudive enterprifes ; becaufe the people would reft fatisfied 
nnder the ihadow of an oppofition which would not fail fecretly to 
demand, and in the fame manner wonld obtain a divifion of tbe' 
f^ils of the frince and of tbe people ; and quickly that mofl flourifhiilg 

■ardott %vonld only be an objedt of pity to all thofe whofe envy it 
aow excites, nnd whofe admiration it defervcs. 

* On the other hand, transfer by degrees to Turkey, the freedom of 
the prefs ; invent, for it does not ezift, invent a means by which tho 
fruits of it (hould reach the Grand Signior by any other hands thaa 
that of a njijirf ^vbo could fo eajily corrupt every things and very foon 
no viilr would dare to deceive his mailer ; ewery vifir would thea 
confaU the voice of the people before he thundered forth his own 
orders; and immediately Turkey, rich in the natural products of 
its own territory and its immenfe population, will be more powerful^ 
and not lefs refpeded thair England, now fo powerful, and fo mocli 

Tbts praife bcfloved on the beneficial cffedQ of the freedom 
of tbe prefs, is doubtkfs very juft.— -But where is the confiitu* 
tion, except that of Great Brkain, which could infure the het^ 
dpm of the prefs ? It is to the nature of our conftitutton alone 
that we owe this bkffing as well at niany others. 

in a poflfcripc to this publication, the author throws aeonfi- 
derable degree of light on the ancient conftitution of France^ 
with regard to the mode df convoking the. States General $ 
which ^ferves thf ferious attention of &at nation, at |be pre- 

RXY, Marcb>i789. S fiuX 

Mfi Foreign Liter aturf/ 

feot moment, and will not prove untntercfttng Co. Aicb Eo|^ 
li(h readers as may be particularly attentire to tbe important 
fubjedis at this time agitated in that country. We fincereljr 
wifli this ftruggle for freedom may be conduced with wifdom 
and moderation, and finally crowned with fuccefss though it ia 
fcarcely, to be expeded that cmpUte fuutfs (hould take ^ace at 
the firft effort. 

A R T. lU 

JAinmrts iu Barcn dr la Motte Fou(^£% &c. L e. Me* 
* moirs of the Baron de la Motte Fouque^ General <^ the 
Pruffianlnfantry;. including his Correfpondence with Fre- 
deric IL King of Pruffia* 8vo. 2 Vols. Berlin. 1788. 
Thefe Memoirs are written (and are faid to be publiflied 
with tbe approbation of theprefent Baron) by Monf. G. A. 
BuTTKER ; who feems to have owed his fortunes to the Gene- 
rals protedion, and who was his intimate companion daring 
the latter part of his life. 

The late General, who was defcended from pne of tbe moft 
ancient and iDuftrious families in Normandy, was born in 16989 
at the Hague; whither his father, who was a Proteftant, had 
fled from the perfiscution which followed the infamous revoca- 
tion of the E6\St of Nantes. In 1715, when Leopold Duke of 
Anhalt Deflau was appointed to command the Pruffian army at 
Stralfund, againft Charles XII. our hero, who was then a page 
in that court, was ordered to remain with the Duchefs. His, 
inclination for the fervite prompted him to entreat permiffion to 
accompany the army ; but not obtaining this, he refolved to 
leave the court fecrctly, and to enter as a private foldter in the 
Duke's regiment, which was then at Halle. In 1725 he was 
Honoured with the notice of Frederic William, and with the 
friendfliipofthe late King, which continued during the whole of 
Ilis life; this intimacy was not difcountenanced by the old monarch, 
who allowed M. de Fouque' to be the prince's companion in 
his pfifon atCuftnn: he had alfo the honour to accompany 
Frederic in his retreat at Rhcinfbcrg, wtiere he was made Grand 
Mafter of an order of knighthood, which the princes and their 
companions had inftituted among themfdves, on the principles 
of the celebrated Bayard. The emblem of the Order, was a' 
fword lying on a crown of laurel, and the motto, Sans peur^ it 
fans reprocbi. On account of fome disagreement with his Colo- 
iffi, the Prince of Anhalt, in i739,our hero quitted tbe Pmffian^ 
and entered into the Danifb, fervice; but was recalled by Fre- 
deric 11. immediately after his acceifion to the throne. A great 
part of the correfpondence between the King and General 
Fou<^^', relates to the military operationa in tho wars of 1741 
and 1736. Of tbe Baron's profeffional merits we cannot pre- 
i fume 

FoRSicif. Liter ATURs* . 259 

fume to judge ; biit muft confider his royal mafter'a confidence 
and friendfhip is the moft ample teftimony in his favoar. M* 
BuTTNER reprefents him as a ftri^ obferver of military dif« 
cipiine, and ks rather fevere in enforcing it ; but, at the fame 
time, as a man of the moft inviolable honour, of an humane and 
beneficent difpofition, irreproachable in his morals, and ani^ 
inated with a lively fenfe of the excellence and importance of 
religion. In 1760, the King conferred on him the Provoftfhip 
of the Cathedral of Brandenburg, in which city he fpcnt the laft 
eleven years of his life ; and the correfpoodcnce between the 
King and him during this period, which is here publiflied, is 
highly honourable to both, and contains the moft ftriking 
proofs of his Majefty'sefteem and friendfliip for the Baron. 

A few days before his death, he Teemed to have a kind of pre* 
fcience of its approach, which, from his age, may eafily be ac^ 
counted for. His behaviour 00 this occafion^ though fomething 

g^uliar, does honour to his charaAer as a Chriftian ; and M. 
UTTN£R has related the circumftances in an intercfting man- 

After attending divine worfliip on Sunday, at the French 
church, as was his confiant cuftom, he fixed on the fpot in 
which he was determined to be interred ; and, the next day, 
gave orders to have his' grave prepared, with particular direc- 
tions concerning the manner in which it fhould be done* ' 
After this, he refolved to have his coffin made ; and one day, when 
be feemed to be rather more than commonly cheerful, had eaten 
heartily, and exprefled great fatisfadtion in the pleafure which 
this circumftance gave to thofe around him ; he fuddenly dif- 
mifled the fervanu that had attended, and defired M. Buttnbr 
to order his coffin ; when this came home, he went into the 
apartotent in which it was placed, examined it with great com« 
pofuie, then uncovering his white hairs, fat down on ir, and 
ordered one of his attendants to read a German hymn, which 
begins with an expreffion to this purpofe : <* Behold the grave ! 
this is the bed on which I muft embrace death.'* Never, fays 
M. Buttnbr, (hall I forget this venerable old man, this knight 
without ftar Mi wiib^i riprwch^ thus fitting, furrounded by his 
family, who in vain endeavoured to conceal their tears* He 
then fettled all his temporal affairs, and thought of nothing, but 
his approaching palTage to eternity. Four days before his de« 
ceafe, he defired that the Lord's Supper might be publicly ad- 
miniftered in his chamber; and, after partaking of this with his. 
whole family, and feveral members of the community, he fo* 
l^mnly bleiTed his children, and took leave of all the atteodsnts. 
On the fecond of May 17749 as his attendant was Teading a 
prayer to him, his fon, the prefent Baron, came into his chant- 
ber, and ofiered to relieve the reader. His father tenderly 

S a preiled 

a6o FoRBiGN Literatim. 

prefied bii bandy and tttming himfclf on otte fi4e» filD, t^lup. - ^ 1 
make iite oi tbis expreffion/ adda M. Botthbr, ^ becaufe I 
know nooe more proper to reprefeot the ialenfible tcaofitioii of 
this great man fiom life to de^h«' 

Art. IIL 

Voyages iniereffknst &c. i. ci. lotereftiog Voyagea in diferant 

Colonies, French, Spani(h»Ei^liih, &cw Containing import* 

ant Obfervations relative to tbefe Coiiatrtet ; and a Memoir 

on the Maladies that are moft common at St. Domingo, the 

Remedies for tbem, and the Meaos^of pceventing tbcm> both 

moral and phy ileal. With remarkable Anecdocca, never be* 

fore printed* Collefied and publiihed from a great Nnmbec 

of Manufcripts» by Monf. N. 8vo. Paria, 1 788. 

Notwithfianding this very long title, we have iill to kam 

lErom an advertifement that the maaufcripta to which the ano* 

nymoua author alludes, were coUeded by his uncle, Monf. B* 

member of the Academy of Rochelle. In procec^og toward 

the conclufion of the work, we find that Monf. B. is a Monfieoa 

9ourjeoi9,.Secretary lo the Chamber of Agricultufe at the Cape 

—which appears afterward to ht Cape St. Francois— (b littlo 

regard has this author to the time and patience oi hia readei* 

The work is ill-written * i we (boukl fHfped MonT N. not •» 

be a native of France. His remarkable anecdotes are neither 

amufing nor infirudive. They relate to perfona unknown, 

whofe names are continually ei^prcfled by initials, not worth 

decypbering. Compared with the pompous litlc^ this work ia 

one illuftration among many of the ^* Parturiunt monii9^* &c, 

■ \ ■■■ ■ ■ . ■ ■ 

Art. IV. 

Mf moires PhilofcpbiquiSj &c. i. e. Philofophfcal and Uftorical 
Memoirs concerning America, by Don Ant. db Ulloa, 
Lieutenant General of the Sp^nifli Navy, Gcnfonor of Pern, 
F. R. S. and Member of the Royal Academiea of Madrid^ 
Stockholm, and Berlin. Svo. 2 Vols. Paris. 1787. 
Thefe Memoirs were originally publiflbead at Madrid in 1772^ 
under the title of Noticias JmerkanaSi EntroUnimUtstu Phyfius 

^ . . ' t> — -I.I. 

* In the treatife on the difeafes prevalent at St. Domingo and 
the remedies for curing them^ we find the following defcrlption of a 
well-known plant: • The body of this tree is very branchy; its 
leaves are of a middling fize, of a deep green, and rough to the touch ; 
and it is covered all over with little bunches of flowers, whole cobur 
is nearly that of marigolds ; its root purges tolerably well/ After 
Jucb aftrange defcription of-RHOBARB, which is literally tranflated. 
Jet oar readers form their own judgment of the author's knowlegeof 
the MiUiria Muiica, and bis qualification as a writer en diiea(es» and ^ 
shsir cure. 


FoKiK^H LlTERAT0ftB* 26r 

M^oricoi f9hre Id America Mmdional y ta SepHntrionci Oriental i 
atid they arc frcqucntfy quoted by Dr. Robcrifon, in his Hifiory 
of America ; where that ingenious author has given the moft 
valuable part of the information which they contain. They re« 
late chiefly to the climate and natural hiftory of that continent^ 
and were tranflated into German by Profeflfer DiEz of Gottin« 
gea, and publiihed with notes by M. Schneider ; which notes 
coofifty moftly, of extracts from the feveral writers who have 
dHcrtbed thofe countries. Thefe notes are reduced into a more 
fyftematical order, and confiderably enlarged by M. Lefbbur's 
DE ViLtEBRUNE, the French tranflator of this wprk^ and of 
Count CARtrs American Letters^. 

This gentleman feeitis to be exceedingly defiroos of eftablifli* 
ing fome hypothefis to account for the population of America y 
bat he appears rather ioconfiftent in bis opinions on this fubje£^* 
In this work, he feems to adopt the theory advanced by its in- 
gcniotts author ; according to which, America was peopled, foon 
after the Deluge, by ibme adventurers from the old world ; who 
having, from the prefervatioo of Noah in the Ark^ acquired 
fome ideas of (hip-building, and navigation, were accidentally 
driven from the coaft of Africa, and carried, by the trade- winds^ 
firft to the Weft Indian iflands, and afterward to the continent 
of America, In his tranflation of the American Letters, be en- 
deavours to confirm Count Carli's hypothefis, which is of a 
very different nature, and indeed dirediy oppofite to that of 
Dtm AnTT. deU^loa; but the moft extraoardinary circum- 
ftance is that, in each of thefe tranflations, he refers to the other, 
and recommends both as mutually illuftrative and fupplemen- 
tary; whereas, in fad, rhefe two works are very different in 
their defign, and have nothing in common except their tranf- 

• See oor laft Appendix, p. 579. We did not then know that 
M. DE ViLLEBRUK£ was t^e name of the tranflator. 

9^% Copy of a Letter addreflcd to the Authors of thb Month- 
UY Review, relative to a paflage in M. de Pau w j Rjcbenhes 
Phihfipbiques fur ies Gna. 

* Gbntlbmen! 
• In Mr. Pattw's.Refearches concerning the Greeks ft a^work on 
which he prefumes to bellow the epithet pbile/ophicah and in which 
he promifes to relate ail that great hiftoHans have omitted, and all 
diac they did not know, there is a chapter on the Ampbi&yonic Coun^ 
dl» on which he feems. chiefly to value himfelf ; boailing his difco- 
▼eries on this iubjeft above thofe of all former writers. He tells us, 

t Of which you gave an account in your laft Appendix. 

Si I. That 


I. That the Amphidyonv related only little matters, fach tM the 
repairs of the Temple of Delphi, and the celebration of the Pythiaa 
cames. II. That thefe pretended ftaties-general of Greece had A) 
nttle influence in public affairs, that they are not once mentioned by 
Thacy^ides, in his Hiftory of the Peloponnefian War. III. That the 
ruling paflion of the Amphidyons was a fpirit of fuperftition. They 
undertook three facred wars againft the little villages of Pbocis and 
Locris, for having levied tolls on thofe who entered their harbours^ 
and for having cultivated fome fields which the Amphidyons pre- 
tended ought for ever to remain barren and defolate. Nothing can 
be more abfurd than to imagine that a piece of land ihould produce 
neither corn nor fruit trees, l>ecaure it had been dedicated to Apolio. 
IV. That foreign ftates treated, /lot with the Amphidyons, bntwitk 
Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, which republics became focceffively as 
powerful as all the reft of Greece together. From which circam- 
fiances Mr. Pauw concludes that a defefl in the federal union occa- 
iioned the ruin of Greece. As if thb was a new difcovery, Mr. 
Pauw avails himfelf of the imaginary triumph which it affords him, 
to decry all modern writers who have inveftigated the hiftory of 
Greece : they all repeat after one another, and even Dr. Gillies has 
not failed to copy the prejudices of his predeceffbrt refpefting the 
Amphidyonic Council. 

* That Dr, Gillies, however, has not copied his predeceffors, but 
that Mr. Pauw has copied him, will appear from the following quo« 
tation from Gillies's Ancient Greece, 8vo edit. vol. iii. p. 466. 

** During the /uptrioritj^ or, in the language of ancient wrtterst 
during the mpin of Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, the majefty of the 
Amphidyonic Council had degenerated into an empty pageant. Its 
deliberations were confined to matters of mere form ; it regulated 
fome ceremonies of fuperftition ; it fuperin tended games and fpec* 
tacles ; it preferved peace and good order among (he crowd of ftraa- 

fers, who affembled at ftated times to confult the oracle of Apollo, 
ut for more than a century paft, the public manners of the Greeks 
)iad been direfled by councils held, not at Delphi, the refidence of 
the Amphiflyons, but in Athens, Sparta, or Thebes, in one or other 
of which the allies convened on every important emergency, ac- 
knowleging the refpedive authority of thofe capiuls as the heads of 
their feveral confederacies.*' 

* Had Mr.- Pauw attentively rea^ the work which he prefames to 
criticifc, he would have fecii that the authority of the Amphidyonic 
Council varied at different times ; be would have feen thefe varia- 
tions diftinaiy niarked ; and he yi^ould have avoided an error which 
deforins his work throughout, the confoundine all chronology, and 
referring to one period the cuftoms and inftitutions of another. Hia 
condud is the more repreheofible* af it is totally repugnant to the 
maxims of German honefty. 

* Proceeding in the fame ftrain, Mr. P. obferves, " That the 
writers of ancient hiflory have ffiewn a wonderful ingenuity in dif- 
pnting things that are trifling or fabulous. They have collected the 
mo(l minute circumftances refpedling the Trojan war, and the Argo- 
nautic expedition— and Dr. GUlies knows the value of the Goldci^ 
Fleece in flerling money/' 

^ • After 

MoHTHiT CATAtoovs, Awurtta^ &ۥ 163. 

' ^ After rea<Hii| the hiflorf of that expeditioD in Dr. G.'f worl;, hoi^ 
aflopifliing does it appear, that Mr. Paow ihoald blame him for fay- 
iBgy what he has not (aid, either diredlly or by any poflible implica- 
tion 1 To elude this accufation, fhoajd Mr. P. pretend that his criti* 
dfm is only a joke (mawvaift flatfamterit !) after the manner of the 
f rench, whom he is fo ill qualified to imitate, let him ferioufly coiu 
£der the fable of The Afs and the Spaniel—^ 
I am. Gentlemen ! ^ 

Yoor mod obedient Servant^ 



For MARCH, 1789. 


Art. 22. A fummary Rtniiew of tht Laws of tbi Unit$d States of 
Norib America^ the firitifh Provinces, aod Wefl Indies. With Ob- 
fervations» Precedents, &c. By a Barrifter of the Sute of Vir- 
ginia. 8vo. 2S. 6d. fewed. Robinfoos. 1788. 

THOSE who expeft to find a clear account, in this performance, 
of the prefent fyfiem of laiws in the American provinces, will 
meet with a difappointment ; for on that head we have only a few 
detached obfervations. The bulk of the work is taken up with de* 
£ning the nature of the jurifdi«ftion of the Courts of Weflminfler-hall 
over the Britifh provinces, and other fimilar matters, that now have 
no refpefl to the independent American States. The changes that 
have taken place in thele provinces in refpedt to jurifdidion and jurif« 
prudence, fince they became irtt flates, are very imperfeflly I'ecited ; 
only a few particulars, in fome of the provinces, being (pecified. 

However, though it be, in this point of view, imperfedl, the work 
may ftill prove ufeful to thofe who intend to form connedibnt 
with any of the Weft Indian iflands, or other dependencies of this 
country ; as it will aflift them in forming an idea of the mode of pro- 
cedure when it becomes neceflary for them to fue for julHce.— 
Some particulars likewife occur cefpe^ng the recovery of debts by 
Britifh* fttbje£ls in the United States, which deferve to be attended to 
by merchants who are engaged in commercial connedKins with thefe 
New Sutes. 

Medical asul Chiruroical. 

Art. 23. An EJfay on tbt malignani ulctrated S^g Tbroat,; con<n 
taining Reflexions on its Canfes and faui.Efieds in 1787* Witli 
a remarkable Cafe, accompanied wi(h large purple Spots all over 
the Body, a Mortification of the Ltg, Sec. &c. By Wi^U^m 
Rowley, M.D. Member of the Uoiverfity of Ox^d, the Rqy^ 
College of Phyficians in London, Set. Sec, 8vo. 3s. ^ooHe* 
The Spectator began his Incubrations, by gratifying his readers 

with a defcription of his abilities, difpofition, and peHbn ; which 

S ^ laudable 


Mvi^AXt cxkmple, we fiippofe, i>r.. Rowley had in view^ wkttt 
lie informs hb reader, in the introdu^on to this Eflaj, that he his 
taken a Mailer's itgree^J^M gratia, at Oxford,— that h^ is a mem- 
ber of the royal eolle|;e of rhyfidans in Londoa ; that be received 
m mod regular education in this great city, attending its hoTpicali, 
&c. ^c. ; that he was in his majefty's fervice from 17^ to 17641 
that he had opportunities of feeing Belleifle, Barbadoes, Guads- 
loupe, Martinicoy Havannah, and Jaasaica ; to which lift the dodor 
• -^dds his iftfual Sec. — That, returoing from jthe war, he attended 
tht pradice of St. Thomas's, and the other London Hofpitals, Ana- 
tomical ledlures, difle^tions, and midwifery ; that he viiited Leyden 
and Paris— obferved the pradlice of I'Hdttl Dieu, la Chantey t Hotelier 
bwalids, 4c. That he was an Auditor at all the public ledures o« 
anatomy, furgtry, midwifery, botany, chemiftry, &c. in that fa- 
mous city ; that on his return from thefe fpeculative and pradical 
fiudies, be fixed his refidence in this great metropolis, pradiiing firil 
in furgery apd midwifery, and afterward folely as a pbyfician, bar- 
ing obtained a medical degree from a nniveriity in Scotland. 

With thefe, and many more |/ eeteras^ which we have omitted ia 
the above abridgment, he fays, * I was determined to render what 
snedi cap knowledge I polTefled ufeful tofbctety'; and in taking on 
bimfelf the office of being non/emper auditor, he hath fererely lafked 
the ignorance of fome of our beft medical writers. 

The Cafe which Dr. Rowley relates, was doubtlefs a bad one; 
and it was fuccefsfuliy cured. The novelty of the doctor's practice 
may probably appear greater to himfelf than to us : in many places 
he is as ample in its praife, as he is liberal in his encomiums on him- 
felf; and he lofes no opportunity of loading the prefent general 
mode of praftice, and its followers, with unmerited reproach. 

I'he do£tor has added a brief account of a new fpecies of acate 
madnefs, which, he fays, has lately prevailed ; but he has not told 
his reader^ <where. We fuppofe not in the great city, for had it fixed 
its refidence there, we fhould, no doubt, have he^rd more of it. 

Art. t4, A concift Aec^uwt ef a new Cbymical Medicine, entitled 
Spirit us JEthereus Amdymus, or Anodyne Ethereal Spirk ; con- 
taining a Relacioci of its very exuaordinary ££b6b, $cc. &ec^ 
The fecond Edition, ^y Williftm Tickell. »vo. pp. 380. Price 
5*. '^ewed. Bath printed, and fold by Wallis, Sec. London. 
c 37«8. 

The general account which we gave of the firft editioa of this 
work, will be found in the Review for Dec. 1787, p, 497. 

This fecond edition contains iboke farther cafes of ihe efficacy of 
the ather, which, when properly prepared, and judicioufly admi- 
jMtttd, is doubtlefs a very valuable medkibe.-~We here meet, alfo, 
with a considerable detail of perfbnal altei^ation betweenihe author, 
^m6 an eminent medical chanl£ler at Bath ; on which we beg to be 
cdtcttf<kl frtmi beftowing any great Iharc of our attention.— For the 
jleft, as we have no doubt of the aftuai merit of* Mr. TickelPs pre- 
paration of 9ther^ we cennci honeitly refule h this acknowlege- 


Monrntr CATA&ootrt, Sundi^ SAooh^ tec. &&$ 

S U^ N D A V S C IT O O L 8. 
Art. 2 J; Phmt of tbt Sun/U^'Scbojls and School of Indujhy^ efla- 
blifhed in the City of Bath ; with Remarks, by a Gentlemaii of 
the Committee. Publiihed for the Benefit of the ikid Schools. 
8vo. pp« 44. 6d. RiviDgtODs, &c. 1789. 
It is with pleafore that we view the rapid progress of the Sanday- 
(chool Inftitutions, in aUnoft every part of thekiDgdom. At Bath, 
at well as in fome other populous places, thefe truly beneficent un- 
dertakings, we find, are carried on with great fuccefs, indeed, under 
the care of perfons who have fee a moil laudable example, to thofe 
who happily enjoy the requifite afiiaence, sod leifure, for fuch 
public-fpirited and charitable avocations.— The particulars here re. 
ti ted, have afforded us peculiar fatisfadion, and, we may add, 
intirtainmint \ — for what can yield more delight to the humane and 
refledin^ mind, than the accumulation of fuch invaluable benefits, 
f6r the rifing generation, as will, probably, extend their happy in. 
fiuence to the remoteft ages of the world ; and throw that additional 
weight into the fcale of religion and morality, which may do much 
toward determining a lading balance in favour of the beft and moft 
inportant ihterefb of mankind \ 

The common objediions that have been made to Sunday-fchools, 
are here judicioufly and decifively, though briefly anfwered, in a/fy. 
faiory addnfs^ which is iigned W. B. Thefe initials, we imagine, 
point OBt to na the name of the worthy Major Brooke, to whofe 
philanthropy, and perfeverin^ eflfbrts, thefe charitable inititutions ^, 
at Bath« are greatly indebted for the fuccefs that hath attended 


Art. 26. Pricedints in Cb4iHciry,: being a Colledtion of Cafes in 

Chancery, from 1689 to 1722, fecond Edition, with Notes and 

References to the former and latter Reports. By Thomas Finch, 

£fq. of the Inner Temple. Royal Svo. los. 6d. Brooke. 1786. 

This colledtion of reports is held in great edeem by the Profefiion. 

The cafes in it, down to 1708, are faid to have been taken by Mr. 

Pooley, and the remainder by Mr. Robins. The prefent edition is 

well executed ; it contains iome good notes, and a regular feries of 

ttfefnl r^erences. 

Art. '«7. Tbe modem PraSice of tbi Higb Court of Chancery autho-. 
riied and digeded in a Manner wholly new ; interfperfed with a 
Variety of the mod approved and modern Forms orpradical Pre- 
cedents iBcidenul to every Suit in the Progrefs of it, from the 
original Bill to the Decree: compiiiing a Sydem of pradical Know- 
legc, according to the Courfe of the Court, as at prefent edablidi- 
ed. By Robert Hinde, of the Six Clerks Office. 8vo« 9s. 
bound. Brooke. 1785. 

Almod the whole of Mr. Mitford's Treatife [Fird Edition] is 
• (opied verbatim into this work. 

^ We mud not forget to mention, that in this trafl we have 
a very fatisfa^lory account of the defign and progrefs of the Bath 
School of Induftry^ in which the children are taught employments 
that will enable them to earn their fubfidence. 


i»66 Monthly Cataloooi^ Lmv. 

Art. 28. 4 Treatift 0t the Pleadings in Snits in iin Court •^CUmtirf 
fy Englijb BiU. By John Mttford» Efq. the fecand £ditioii» 8vo. 
7». 6d. fewed. Oweo. ij^'j* 
An excellent elenencary treatife. 

Art. 29. Offici of Sheriff I fliewing its Hiftory and Antiquity^ the 
Manner of appointing the High Sherifiy his Under Sheri(F and 
Deputies, together with the refpeflive Powers and Duties; to 
which 18 added the Mode of eleding Coroners. By John Impey. 
8vo. 9s. bound. Whieldon. 1786. 

A very afeful compilation for perfons interefted in this part of oar 
* law. * 

Art. 30. Crown Circuit AJJtftoMt ; being a CollefUon of Precedents 
of Indidmencs, Infornnatiohs, Convidions by Juftices, In^aifitionst 
Pleas, and other Entries in criminal and penal Proceedings ; to- 

f ether with , an alphabetical Table to the Statutes relating to 
elony, brought down to the 24 Geo. IIJ. By Thomas Dogerty. 
Svo. 93. Uriel.^ i?^?- 
An ufeful companion on the drcuit. 

Art. 3 1. Office^ PowtrSf and Juri/diaion of his Majiftfs Jm/Hcis of 
ihi Beactt and Commiffiomrs of Supply. In Four Books. By Ro- 
bert Boyd, LL. D. 2 Vols. 4to* il. IIS. 6d. Boards. Mur- 
ray. 1787. 
This work relates to the law of Scotland, where, we underlUnd, 

it is highly efteemed. 

Art. \z Reperiorium Juridicum. A general Index to the Cafes 
.ana Pleadings in Law and Equity contained in all the Reports, 
Year-books, &c. hitherto publilhed. By T. E. Tomlins, of the 
Inner Temple, Barrifter at Law. Folio. 2I. 15s. 6d. fiovds* 
Uriel, Sec. 1786. 

About forty years iince, the old Repertorium Juridicnm, was 
publi(hed, and, from its utility, acquired a confiderable portion of 
reputation. In the preface to the prefent work, Mr. Tomiins in- 
forms us that £nce that time, cafes to the amount of 25,000 in num« 
ber have been publiflied, which made a new edition, with the addi- 
tion qf the fttbfeqnent cafes, abfolutely neceifary. Mr. Tomlins hat 
executed this tafk, in the performance now before us. He has cor- 
reeled the errors of the former work, and inierted the cafes fubfequent 
to it. 

Art. 33. Suca'n^f Review of the Hiftory of Mortmain: the Statutes 
relative to chariuble Ufcs, and a full Expofition of the laft Mort- 
main Ad, 9 Geo. IL c 36. compriiing the Law as it now ftands, 
relative to Devifes and Bequefts, Taxes, Leafes, Vifitation, and 
Diredion of public Charities. . By A. Highmore. 8vo« 4s. 
Boards. Whieldon. 1787. 
The reader will find in t4iis work much general matter, and fome 

ufeful information. 

Art. 34. A complete Abridgment of the Law rej^efiing Gaming and 
Ufurjf with adjudged Cafes. By J. Johnfon. tfvo. is. 6^» 
Randal. 1787. 
This abridgment feen^s to have been made with care, 


Monthly Catalogub, Mfiilbnu$ui. 9167 

Axt^ 35» Comfindieus Digifi of tbi Statufi Law, comprifing the 
Sobftance and £ffe£t of all the public A6U of Parliament now ia 
force, from Magna Cbarta to 27 Geo. III. ; to which is added a 
' copious Index. By J. W. Williama. 8vo. 12s. 6d. Kearfley, 
1787. — Supplement to ditto. 6d. 1788. 
This work will be acceptable to j>erfon8 to whom digeHs of thit 

nature are u fef ul. 

Art. 36. A full, clear ^ and familiar Explanation of the Law concern^ 
ing Bills of Exchange, Promijfory Notes, and the E*vidence on a Trial 
h Jury relating thereto ; with a Defcription of Bank Notes, and 
the Privilege of Attornics. By Peter Lovelafs, of the Inner Temple, 
Gent. 8vo. 3a. fewed. Uriel, &c. 1789. 
Mr. Lovelafs has there given us an accurate and coinprehenfive 
digeft of the law relative to bills of exchange, and to the circunl- 
ftances ufually attending their negociation, &c. It cannot fail, 
therefore, of being ufeful both to profefllonal and to commercial men ; 
but, before the author prints a fecond edition, he would do well to 
obtain (bmewhat more information concerning the cuftoms of mer- 
chants refpe£ling bills, which are more numerous, and probably more 
important, than he feems to have imagined. 


Art. 37. Appelau Bon Sens, &c. i. e. An Appeal to good Senfe, in 
which M. de la Tour fubmits to that infallible Judge, the De- 
tails of his Condudl relative to an Affair that has made fome Noife 
in the World. 8vo. 31 Pages, is. 6d. Jtcarfley. 1789. 
M. de la Tour, who is concerned in the Courier de P Europe, and 
another periodical paper called VAfile, gives an account of his ac« 
^uainunce with M. de Calonne, in confequeoce of thefe publica- 
tions ; and informs us that being at M. de Calonne's houfe one 
morning, according' to cudom, for the purpofe of obtaining, for 
his paper, the la tell accounts from France, he faw, in the Morning 
Poft of that day, an advertifement of the intended publication of 
Madame de la Motte's Memoirs. M. de Calonne, on hearing this 
advertifement read to him, faid h^ would do any thing to hinder 
their publication. He accepted the offer of' M. de la Tour to go to 
M. and Madame de la Motte, and bargain with them for the manu- 
fcript. The fum which the latter demanded was fixteen hundred 
thoufandlivres*[66,6661. I3s.4d. fterlingj, the value of her poflc/fions 
which had been feized when Hie was made prifoner in France. M. 
de Calonne did not think the demand at all exorbitant, gave M. de la 
Tour power to treat with them, and aothorifed him to promife that 
fum ; he alfo ordered his banker (Sir Robert Herries) to write to 
Madame de la Motte, informing her that he ((he Banker) had a 
large fum\ at the difpofal of M. de la Tour, as foon as the manu- 
fcrjpt fhould be delivered into his hands. Depending on the banker's 
fignature, and M. de la Tour's promifes, (he gave up the papers. 

* Here feems to be a great miftake. The Countefs de la, Motte 
ftates her lofs (in hcf publications hereafter mentioned) i^t only one* 
foftrth of th^t fam* 
^ t This large /urn appears to havp been 2cool* 

' I 

ft68 MoHtfivt Catalogue, Mfcellani9ttf. 

M« de CalottDt nade/everal exenies eo M* de U Toor for nOt-fMiTw 
aienCy wjio, on bit part^ was ander the neceffity of making alfo ex- 
cuiies to M. and Madame de la Motte, Several letters were Written 
to France, enquiring what was to be done with thefe papers. Wait- 
ing for anfwers^ M. de Calonne read over the manitfcript, and, with 
M. de la Tour, corrected the ^lo. An anfwer at laft arrived * that 
fttch memoirs only itierited contempt.' 

M. de la Tour, not having received from t)ie ex-minifter the agcol^ 
Iterling which he had promiTed him, for his trouble during a negotia- 
tion wbich lafl«d 14 months, has inlHcuted a fuit in C«>aocery. 

Such is the outline of M. de la Tour's Aaten^coc of the caie. 
l^ear the conclufion he fays^ * It is evident, as tbf event has ihewn» 
that M. de Calonne, when he employed me in this deplorable bnfi- 
9eis, had made the following calculation : 

« If I (hall be able to intimidate the Queen, I may .be recalled to 
tke mioiftry ; or, at leaft, I may regain my blue ribbon : in that cafe* 
I fliall pay M. de la Tour the 2500 1, which I have promifed him ; 
|}»t if I mould not fucceed, I will not pay him a (hilling, and will 
levenge myfelf by provoking Madame de la Motte- to pobliih the Me* 
noirs herfelf.* 

Art. 38. An Aidnfs to the Puhlicy explaining the Motives which have 
hitherto delayed the Publication of the Memoirs of the Counteia 
de Valols de la Motte; which contains a Juftification of her Con- 
duct ; and expoling the various Artifices which have been ufed for 
their SupprefEon. 8vo. pp. 4^. 28. 6d. Ridgway. 1789. 
The Countefs de la Motte complains, with much earn elf nefs and 
poignancy, of the lofs of many roontbs time fince her arrival in 
England, during which (he was prevented from publithing htt Jufii* 
ftmiorj Memoirs : a delay which (he apprehends, and, no doubt, with 
good reafon, to have been very prejudicial to'her interefls* 

.Immediately on her arrival in Etigland, after (he hadefcaped froot 
her imprifonment in France, the Countefs had determined to lay her 
extraordinary ca/e before the Public ; and her advertifements, aft- 
•ouncing thi^ deiign, attra^ing the notice of M. de Calonne, that 
ex-minifter entered into a negoctation with her and her hufbind, the 
Count de la Motte» for the purchafe of her papers, in order, by pre- 
venting the publication, to render an acceptable fervice to the Q^ of 
F. The event of this treaty, of which all the various ilage's and 
circamftanccs are her< minutely related, proved very unfortunate to 
the diftrcflcd autborefs. A large fum, not lefs than 16,000 1. fterling, 
was to have been the con (i deration, as mentioned, though not accu- 
^tely^ in the preceding ar^cle; but it does not appear that more 
than 120 guineas were received, although the work was given up.— 
A copy, however, haiing been kept, the pubiicavion has (iacc takea 
place ; Ste the fuccnding article. 

Thc/malUr tra^, now before us, isto be confidered as the bar- 
hrngcr of, or introduction to the Memcirs. In i/oth, the character of 
M. de Calonne is treated with great freedom and afperity ; and perhaps, 
by this time, that gentleman is convinced, that to fall into the hands 
c^ an exafperated femak, who apprehends herfelf to have been ill 
treated, and who knows how to ufe her pen, is no trivial difaller to 
him who WiTite^ to j}e(refs the good opinion of mankind* 

10 ~ Olhei" 

Monthly Catalogue, MsfalkHHuu 269 

Othei^ diftinfoiihed perfooages are here incrodaccd, ptrtieiilarljr 
the FrcDch Amba/Tador, who alfo, as here iet forth, obtained a copf 
of the Mitmirsa to be craormitted to FraDce ; but which alfo failed of 
producing any beaeficiai confeqaences to the anthorefs, who, now« 
moil feelingly complains of her diftrefsfal fituation ; though (he 
leema to be much, and juftly» confoled by the reiieAion that, in this 
free coontry, Qie is no longer within reach of the fangs of def« 

An. 59« Mtmoirs of the Counteft di Falois de lu Mme ; containing 
a complete Juftification of her Conduct, and an Explanation of the 
Intrigues and Artifices ufed againll her, by her Enemies, relative 
to THE Diamond Necklace; alfo the Correfpondence betweea 
the Queen and the Cardinal de Rohan. — Translated from the 
French, written By herfelf. 8vo. pp. 289. los. 6d. flitched« 
Ridgway. 17^9. 

Thefe Memoirs are given to the worlds as * containing CKe viodi- 
Cation of injured innocence,* 

* Seated as I am,' fays the Countefs, • in that happy kingdom^ 
where Liberty ftretches forth her hand to the didreiTed, and a^rds a ' 
welcome afylum from the vindiftive terrors of oppreflive tyranny, I 
now proceed to remove the veil which has (o long obfcured this myf- 
terioQs tranfa^ion, and expofe to public view, characters whofe^ crimes 
receive additional force from their elevated (ituation. 

' I flatter myfelf that, independent of my own vindication^ thefe 
Memoirs will not prove uhentertaining. The moral and philofophic 
reader will therein find frefh room for reflexion and obfervation oa 
the depravity of human nature ; the courtly and political reader will 
probably find a fatisfadion in developing the myderious intrigues 
which were in agitation, at the period of the transitions ; and the 
curibry reader will, 1 hope, be amply gratified in nltding thofe mat- 
ters explained, which have probably much excited curFofity.' 

The •••••of •♦♦••* (lands foremoU, the moflilriking figure in the . 
extraordinary group here exhibited ; and (if the Memoirs before us 
are to be depended on) her M. has a good chance of being configned 
to that fort of * everlading fame' which a diilinguifhed poet has al- 
lotted to Oliver Cromwell •. 

The next portrait, in point of ipiportance, is the Cardinal de 
R n; whoJs, on this occafion, prefent^d to the Engliih na- 
tion as a character, the mofl contemptible, — ?Lfid fometbing more. 

In .the back-ground of the canvas, we behold Miniftsrs of State, 
Courtiers, Judges, Lawyers^all, now, forced, in their tdrn, to 
feel the ftroke of the executioner, and to receive the mark of the 

We now feem to nnderfland the pbfcure hiftory of the Diamond. 
Necklace, fomewhat better than we did before ; but, ftill, it is en- 
velloped in mytterious circumilances. The Countefs acknowiegea 
the part which (he adted in that ugly bufinefs ; at the fame time vin- 
dicating herfelf, on the principle of ferving and obliging the Q^ by 
her afliftaoce in procuring for her M. this magnificent and enor- 

• *' See Cromwell damn'd/' k^ Port. 



170 Monthly CATAtoGtrs, MifiilkfMuil 

moufly «3rt>enfive toy *, on termsv ami in a mode, faitable to Iter ]iniit«^ 
cd circomdaoces, and thofe of the intriguing Cardinal, at that junc- 
ture : the unwary Conntefs not having, all this while, on her part» 
the fmalleft idea that fhe waa contributing to the injury of any human 

The prmcipal blame of the tranfadion, fo &r at it had, in the firfl 
intention, any appearance of fraud, is laid on the wretched C— 1» 
and his private arrangements. Somebody^ however (when the xnn{^ 
adion came to light), was to be the objed of puniflimenton this oc- 
caiion ; and in courfe, on all fuch occafions, where the honour of 
crowned heads, and the fafety of powerful princes^ are concerned, 
are we to wonder if we (hould fee the hand of JuAice tremble while 
it holds the fcale, anil, confequently, the equipoise not duly pre- 
ferved? We have a homely proverb^-*' the weakeH goes to the 

It is iropoffible for the humane reader to perufe thefe Memoira 
without bdn^ ihiprefled with commiferation n>r the haplefs writer^ 
whofe interefting and well- written tale furnilhes a (hiking moral for 
the intriguing retainers of a court. They will here fee what confe* 
quences may be expeded from improper compliances with the vices 
or follies of the great. 

We muft not omit to inform oar readers, that this publication 
contains thirty-one letters, which are given as genuine tran(cripts 
from the originals that pafTed in a fecret correfpondence between the 

♦»*»♦ of ♦♦♦♦•• and the C 1 de R n. In the conveyance 

of thefe letters, the Countefs fays, (he was the chofen inftrument \ and 
that having opportunities of copying them, fhe availed herfelf accord* 
ingly ; but, we mud confefs, that we are not perfectly fatisfied with, 
this affurance. Were the letters, on both fides, given to her, for 
conveyance, unfeaUdf ' We do not recoiled any paUage in the book, 
mentioning that circumflance.— She (peaks of a great many other 
letters, of inferior account, which fhe committed to the flames, on 
the firft apprehenfion of being taken into cuflody. For the authen- 
ticity, therefore, of thefe curious but fcandalous S/ati -p^ptrs, and« 
indeed, of the whole publication, we have only ihe authority and 
fandion f of the Countefs de la Motte herfelf. 

To conclude, we mud do this unfortunate lady the jufUce to re- 
mark, that fmarting as (he ever mud remain under the fenfe and 
remembrance of what fhe has fuffered, fhe yet appears to regret the 
neceflity which has impelled her to expofe the fecrets of her royal 
miftrefs. ' It has been my wifh,' fays fhe, * to fave the honour of 

^ In one place the price feems, indiredly, to be mentioned^ viz. 
1,600,000 livres« 

t She feems, however, extremely folicitous to gain and to merit 
the entire confidence of her readers. In one place fhe makes the 
following folemn appeal : * God both fees and hears me. I in his 
prefence take this folemn oath« that were I in my laft moments, I 
would repeat all that I have here written as being the geiluine truth ; 
yes, in my lafl dying will, I would not alter a letter of this decla- 
ration, the firft it has been in my power to make with freedom.' 


MoHTHLT CatalooiiS) MtfcdUnuout. %i% 

the Qocen ; but in the abyft into which I am more and mow deeply 
plunged, can I at this day turn my thoughts to any thing befide the 
ihattePd remains of my- own honour? The, Public muft at length 
pronoQjQce between her Majesty and the mtomjht has cru/b*d.* 

Art. 40, A Skitcb of the Lifi and CburaSier of the late Dr. Mwfr^^ 
Phyfician to the Royal Hoipital at Chelfea ; -with' Anecdotes of 
Perfbns of Rank, in Church and State. 8vo. pp. 86, 2s. 6d. 
Nunn,, Great Queen-ftreet, Lincoln Vinn*fields. 178^ 
Some ingenious friend of Dr. Monfey's, who appears to have been 
intimately acquainted with that lingular character (by yM«# compared 
to Swift), has here thrown together, in a carelefs, rambling, and 
defultory way, a number of anecdotes and circum(bnces relative both 
to the Do^r and to his patrons, his aiTociates and acquaintance, 
whether in the higher or lower ranks of fociety. If his work is not 
regularly biographical, it is, however, a very entertaining /MMfi&fW^, 
which ihews that the author pofl*eires a coniiderable fhare, not only o^ 
vivacity, but, occafionally, ofjudgment; which ;ire not always conco- 
mitants. — For the informati6n of thofe readers lof our Journal, who, 
lefidiog in remote parts of the kingdom, kneW Httle of Dr. M. we 
fliall extrafl a (hort paragraph froih the general fltetch of his charader, 
with which the prefent performance concludes : 

' Dr. Monfey had (Irong paflions, pointed wit, and a lively ima- 
gination. His curioiity was ardent, infatiable, and often troable- 
Ibme ; but then his communication was rapid, copious, and intereft- 
2Dg. He Doflefled a vein of humour, rich, luxuriant, and (as is the 
Aatnre of a// humour) fometimes grofs, and fometimes inelegant.* 

^t. 41. Original Letters of the late Re*u» Laurence Sterm; never ^ 
before pnbliihed. Crown 8vo. pp. 216. 38. fewed. Long- 
map, Sec. y88. * 

The name ot Sterne is fuch a favourite with the Public, that we 
are interefted in tvery thing which is reported to come from his pen. 
If the letters now before us are to be coniidered as an imitation of 
Ills efnftolary performances, they certainly excel every former at- 
tempt of the kind, and may even be pronounced not unworthy of 
that hitherto unrivalled genius. We here obferve a iimilar felicity of 
expreffion, and delicacy of fentiment; and we meet with many of 
thofe admirable touches which make their way immediately and in- 
ienfibly to our beft and pureft affedions. With pleafure we add,, 
that we meet with none of thofe errors with which feveral of 
Sterne's works are juftly chargeable: no ribaldry, no paflages that 
have any tendency to raife a blufh on the cheek of modefty. We 
can, therefore, recommend this volume to thofe readers who have 
a tafte for the beauties of compofition, and feeling fufficient to enter 
into the fentiments of a writer, whoever he be, that is intimately ac- 
quainted with the fecret receffes of the human heart. 

Art. 42. Selea Fietvs in Mia^ drawn on the Spot in the Years 

1780 — 1783, and executed in Aqua Tinta [arqna tintaj. By 

William Hodges, R. A. Imperial Folio. 2 Vols. Sewell. 

Though we do not ufually notice in our Review the publications 

of prints, yet the hiftorical defcriptions accompanying the views of, 

the ruins, buildings, &c. which Mr. Hodges has rcprefented in thefe 



I7i Monthly Catalooitk, MfiiBamiMs. 

foperb Volumes, are fuch ts entitle the work to a place in a Jonmal 
of the literary prododtons and polite arts of the coontry. 
^ We have here proofs, if any had been wanting, of the antiquity of 
drchitefture in the Eaft Indies, together with a reprefenution of the 
prefent appear^ce of objeds in a large part of Bengal, efpedally 
the towns, fortifications, places of religious wor(hip, &c. 

From the ilyle of building, there is every reafon to think that it 
was brought out of Perfia, efpecially in the buildings that were 
creded fiace the time of Tamerlane : the great fimilarity which it bears 
to the Gothic architedure, is a circumilance that may ferve to amufe 
the inouifitive antiquary ; and the refult of his refearches may, per^ 
kftps, lead to difcovcr the reafon why the architedural tafte was, at 
one and the fame period, exadly alike at the eaftern extremity of 
India and the weftern boundary of Europe, or the means by whidi 
thcfe diftant people, who adopud the fame principles, hM com* 
monications with each other, Mr. Hodges gives the view of a gat» 
leading to a mofque at Chunar Gur, as Jl remarkable inftance of tim 
perfed fimilarity between the Indian and Gothic architedure, io 
which not only the general form of the ftrudure, but the lefler deco- 
rations, as the lozenge filled with rofes, the ornaments in the fpan« 
dels of the arches, the little pannelling and mouldings, are exadly 

The Pagodas, bearing a refemUance to the Egyptian Pyramids, i« 
many circuroilances, except in their fize, may fuggeft an inquiry whe- 
ther the Egyptians and Indians, at fome very early period, might not 
have had connexions with each other ; we fay earfy //rW,.becanfe 
the pyramids, bpth in Egypt an4 India, appear to be the firft or 
earlieft buildings that occur in each country : thofe of the Hindoos, 
particularlythe earlieil, are formed by limply piling (lone upon done, 
without any other opening, or inlet for light, than the door, which 
IS only about five feet high. 

Of thefe views of buildings, the moil remarkable for its antiquity, 
ii the ruin of the city of Ok^i, which, Mr. Hodges fays, from the 
authority of Dow's tranflation of Feritiha's hiHory, was the capital 
of the country twelve hundred years before the Chriftian xra. To 
enter into a particular defcription of each plate would be tedious to 
cur readers, and ac the fame time would convey ideas much inferior 
to thofe that might be acquired by a fight of the engravings, which, 
08 being executed in acquu-tinta^ are truly beautiful. The fize of 
each plate is 19 inches by 13. 

.Art. AJ. A brief and poetical Declaration from a Recovering Minifttr 
to his Friends. ?i^ the Right Hon. W. Pitt, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer. With Intelligence extraordinary. 410. pp. 23, 
IS. 6d* Ridgway. 1789. 

A tolerable niece of burlefque, confidering that it comes from the 
lofing fide, which is feldom feen to laugh. The ridicule, how- 
ever, of * the Georzium Sidus^ after being obferved for a dme, 
rifing from his chamber in the Baft,' is, furely, rather mal a pro- 
pot to the general national rejoicing, which took place with- 
in a day or two after the appearance of this fcoIEng piece of 


Monthly Cataiogue, Political. 2175 

Art. 44* ,jI Litter from a Gentleman on hoard an Indiaman^ to his 

Friend in, London, giving an Account of the Ifland of Joanna, in 

the Year 1784, 8vO. is. Stockdale. 1788. 

This letter is bat a flirofy cpmpofition, confidered as a publica- 
tion ; though as a pri^vate letter to a friend, it was impoftant enough 
for the fubjedt. Some little confequence is indeed affumed from cor« 
reding the erroneous reprefentations of this iiland by the Abbe Ray* 
nal, and Major Rooke ; from the exaggerations of both of whom, 
the author makes large drawbacks ; a fate that will often attend 
writers of the greateft abilities, who venture to form opinions on the 
reprefentations of others : and this iiland, according to the anony- 
mous Letter- writer, is not fo pidurefque in beautiful landfcapes «s 
the Abbe defcribes it, nor do the inhabitants merit the refpedable 
character given of them by the Major. 

Joanna is one of the Comora. iflands, and is here placed in la^ 
50 S. lat. and in 44® 1.5^ E. long. The hills in the ifland are co- 
vefed with wood» but are deep and difficult of accefs. The Tallies 
exhibit only a miserable town, with a fsw irregular plantations of 
cocoa nuts : and there is not one mule or afs in all the iiland. The 
original natives, in number about 7000, occupy the hills, and are 
generally at war with the Arabian interlopers, who eUablifhed them- 
fdves on the fea coaH by conqueft, and are about 3000 in number. 
Thefe latter are defcribed as poor miferable beings, who not being 
able to carry on any extenfive degree of cultivation, on account of 
their being expofed to the depredations of the mountaineer natives, 
fabfift chiefly by fupplying the India (hips who touch there for refrefh- 
ment, with a few cattle and tropical fruits. As ior their ability to 
accommodate ftrangers on fiiore, the writer fays, one day's trial will 
convince anv mxa» that he will be much more comfortable on board 
his fbip, or in a tent, than in their filth v hovels. Even in the houfe 
of their prince, the beft decorations of tne walls are fixpenny looking- 
glades, and brokei\ china ; an old cheft, or a bed, are the only feats 
to be foandy and the paiTages are choaked with dirt. 

Art, 45. Hints for City Amu/ement ; or Bank Oratory anticipated^ 
&c. 8vo, 6d. pp. 24. Harley. 1788. 
A humorous anticipation of fpeeches expe^ed to be made, at H 
GcDcral Court of the Proprietors of the Bank oi England, in Sept* 
laft, 1788. It was iirft publiQied in the Whitehall Evening Poft; 
and is now reprinted with corredions and additions. 


Art. 46. ^ifioij of' tie icyalMaldJy^ with Variety of entertaining 
Anecdotes. To which are added. Strictures on the Declaration of 
Home Tooke, Efq. rpfpeftine '« Her Royal Highnefs the Princefg 
of Wales,*' commonly called (the Hon.) Mrs. Fitzherbert. With 
interefling Remarks on a Regency. By a Page of the Prefence. 
4to. pp. 88. 58. Sold by the Author, in Sloan Square. 1789. 
An impndent, audacious publication, which ihould not have been 

honoured with the leaft notice in the M. Rev. had it not produced 

other trads, which muft, in courfe, be mentioned, in conneQioa 

with their unworthy parent. 
Rbv» March, 1789. T Art* 

a74 MowTHLY Catalogue, PeUtUal. 

Art. 47. Alfrti'y or, a Narrative of the daring and illegal Meafartt 
to lupprefs the [above] Pan^hIeCy*&c. &c. 8vo. is. 6d. Sold 
as before mentioned. 

We are forry to fee a writer, who certainly pofleiles confiderable 
talents, employing them to fuch wretched purpofe, as the abufe of a 
monarch whom every good man loves ; and in whofe happy recovery 
from his late alarming inHifpoficion, miliions or grateful hearts are 
now rejoicing. — Can ccmfUments from fuch a pen as that of the Rer. 
Dr. Withers, the author of thefe literary noifances, be accepuble to 
any gentleman in adminiftration ? 

Arc. 48. Alfred mnmajk'd\ or, the New Catiline. Intended* at m 
Pair of Spectacles for the Ihort-fighted Politicians of 1789. Svo. 
pp. 33. IS. Faulder. 
We were in hopes, laft month, that the hoft of political railers at 

Mr. Pitt, and the meafures of Adminiflration re(be^ng the intended 

Kegeocy, were all pifled by ; bot a few ftragglers, we fee, are yet 

behind ; as is afual when troops are on the march. 

Art. 49. A Letter to the Author of Alfred^ and the Hiftory of th^ 
Royal Malady. By a Clergyman. 4to. 6d. Walter, &c« 
A ferious and judicious cxpoflulation with 'Dx* Withers, on the in?* 
decency and falfehood of his publications refpeding his Majefty's late 
nidifpoiitioo. If any of Dr. W.'s readers are approvers of his pam- 
phlets, we would recommend to them an impartial peroial of thia 

Art. 50. Am ifftportoHt Narrati've of FaSs i in AnfWer to the erro- 
lieoBs Statement given by Dr. Withers, in his Pamphlet of AU 
fred^ containing die Correfpondence between Dr. Withers and 
f. Ridgway, on the Publication of the Hiftory of the Roy^l Ma- 
lady, &c. and the Author's Motives for fnbmitiing this Detail to 
the Public. 8vo. as. pp. j6. Ridgway. 1789. 
The motley materials of which this pamphlet is compoied, are 

given in the form of a letter to Mr. Ridgway ; figned Richard Davit, 

Piccadilly. The charader of Qt. Withers will reap no advantage 

from this pablicatiofi. 

Art. 51. Legal Cenfideratitmt On the Regency, as fiir as it reganb 
Ireland. 8vo. pp. 26. is. Stockdale. 
It appears that this piece was written before the Regency Bill was 
introduced into parliament, and at the time when we were firftgivea 
to onderHand^that the Irifli meant to make the Prince of Wales Re* 
gent of Ireland without limitations^ The legality of this defi^n is the 
point here brought under confideratioo ; and the ^neftion is deter- 
mined in the negative. — The author treats his fubje^ with due gra- 
vic]^, and» as we apprehend, with good jodr men t« Hoihews that 
the Stat. 23 Geo. III. dues not apply to the fubjed under coniidera* 
tion. The words of the aft are, as here qaoted, <' That the right 
claimed by the peoole of Ireland, to be bound only by laws enacted 
by his Majefiy,. and the Parliament of that kingdom, ftall be ella^ 
bliflied for ever, and (hall at no time be queiUooeid, or qneftiooable."' 
This law, our anthor contends, was not meant to reftndn the Parliament 
of Great Britain from enacting fuch laws, refpefUng the Crown and iii 
7 imperial 

MoNTriLT CAtALdGUt, Polithak 2jf 

iihpenn authority^ tts fhal] bind the people of Ireland. For his rea- 
ibning oh this head, we mufl refer to the pamphlet.— Oil the whole, 
be fe^ms tbbave fully eftabHf^ed his main point, which Is to fhew— 
That the late refoliKfoos of the Irifh Parliamenty in appointing the 
P. of W.' Regent, * Are warranted neither by law nor by (he confti- 
ttitk>n ; and xo fay the lead of them, are utterly void.' 

Art. 52. Rejiedlons oh the CoHfequehas of bis Majejly*s Hicoverjfnm 
his late Indi/pojitioii . In a Letter to the People of England. 8vb, 
pp. 6\\ is. 6d. Robinfons. 

The date bf this Letter is Feb. 16; fince which time, about a 
inonth elapi^d before its publicadon. The writer's /eflc^ipns areof 
a nature fo v^tj ferioos, that they cannot but merit the candid re- 
gard of the public. His gre^t objed ift to call our at^ntioB to what 
poffibly maj^ but we hope ncrer njaill^ happen^ a nlap/e into that dif- 
order from which, God be praifed, his Majeily is declared, on th^e 
beft authority,^to be happily recovered I Our author produces in- 
i^ances, from hiftory, of the relapfes of royal convalefcents, the con- 
feonences' of which have b^en moft dreadful to their fubje^ls;— <and. 
it IS to prepare our minds, and pave the way for prd^vifional meafures, 
for our national fecurity ♦, agiinfl future contingencies of this me- 
lancholy but highly imponant nature, that he lays his thooghts be- 
fore the public.— ^He writes in a ilyle and manner that feem, as far 
ts anonymbps' writers are to be creditec), to indicate the worthieft in^ 
tentions ; and his abilities appear to be fuch as may, perhaps, en« 
title him (id the edimation of intelligent readers) to rank among oilr 
* beft political writers* 

Art. 5 J. Otfer<vations upon the late nathnal Emharrdjfmenti and the 
Proceedings in Parliament relative to the fame. By J. L. de 
Lo!h*e, LL*D. 8vo. li. 6d, Debrelt. 1789. 
A (econd edition of a pamphlet mentioned in our laft Review, en- 
titled. The preftnt national Emham^ment tonfidertd. It was then 
publiflied without the author's name. As the national bufinefs has 
fince continued in a progreffive ftate, ^ the pamphlet is agaia oiFered 
to the public^ with considerable alterations' [and additions], * which 
werebecome necefTary for rendering the fubjeftfufficicntly intelligibly.* 
'Thb ntcejfitj wr hinted at, in the former (hort notice which we took 
of Dr. De Lolme's [then anonymous'] publicatbn. A Poftfcript ia 
BOW added, containing an ingenious explanation of the rights of the 
Heir Apparent ; afid fome acute remarks on the condud, refpedively^ 
of the contending parties, in the courfe of the late proceedings* 

Art. 54* The Tall ofFadion ; or Edmund's Vi/ion, &c. 410. js. 6i, 

pp. 32. Walter in Piccadilly. J789, 

This comes from Mr. T'other-Side ; who aims to be witty, zt the 

expence of Mr. Burke, and the whole court of Carleton Hoi>re. If, 

im this attefmpt, the author is not altogether fuccei^ful, we dare fay 

' a ■ ■ ■ I . n il. I ■ ■ 

^ This Anthorhas, himfelf, hinted foine remedies; but they feem; 
even in his own apprehenfion, impr^able and viilonary : particularly 
where he talkrof rf^^/w. 

T2 . it 

176 Monthly CATALoonB^ PoEtUalm 

it is more his misfortune than his faalt. The honcft geatl€|Km haf, 
no doabt^ dine hh htft. ' 

Art. 55. 04/^«//wrion"ALcttcrtothcmoftiniblcntMantlivc*#'* 
,410. pp. 22. IS. 6d. Walter in Piccadilly. 
It was onnecefTary for this unknown Ohfemiir to attempt a defence 
of the charader and condud of oor popular Minifter, while be sc- 
knowleges that they wed no dtftnce^ p. 21. — Mr, Pitt may, how- 
ever, hold himfelf, in fome degree, obliged to this advocate, for bit 
zeal and good intention, whatever may be thought of his abilities aa 
a nuftUr* 

Art. 56. Tbi Letter u the ptefi im/hlent Mem eJt*ue Anfmtred. 8vo» 

' pp. 30. IS. Stockdal/e. * 

A very fevere attack, as we foppofe, on Mr. Sheridan, under the 

idea that he is the author of 9"^ Letter, &c. The ♦^ni*** of ♦*♦•♦, 

nnd the whole Oppo/ition-party, come in for their ihare of this lite« 

. rary baftinado. , 

Art* i'j. A Letter te the Right Hen, Charles James Fox, on the late 
Con du^ of his Party. 8vo. is. 6d. pp* 53. Ridgway. 
Written during his MajeHy's illnefs, and dated Feb* 13th. The 
author took up the then fas U feemed) declining caufe of the Adml* 
nilbtition, with great fpirit and energy. Mr. Fox, and his party, 
never had a feverer ledure. Whoever the author is, he appears to 
be far fuperior to the common herd of pamphleteers, by which the 
jiation is, at prefeni, over-run. His Letter was publilhed in the latter 
end of the lad month ; but did not come to our hands foon enough 
to be. included in the long lid of tradb relative to the Regency, given 
in the Review lor February. 

Art. 58. Four plea/ant EpiJiUs, written for the Entertainment and 
\ Gratification of Four unpleafant Characters, vix. A very exauted 
Subject in his Majesty's Dominions ; the av^ unpatrio- 
tic Man o/ro/f/.^ the mofi ARTFVL Man alive!! andSscoNa 
Childhood. By Jlbion. 4to. pp. 39. 2s. 6d. Prieft, in 
Holborn. 1789. 

FUa/ant Epiftles ! To whom will they be pleafant ? Not to the 
reader ;— for a difplay of the vices and follies of |>ublic men, whofe 
condud may gready affed the welfare of the nauon, can afford do 
gtatification to a reflecting mind. Nor will thefe Epiflles be plea- 
iant to the perfons addrefled in them ; — for what man will be fond of 
viewing his natural face in a glafs, which reflets to him a bad com- 
plexion, and ugly features ? — For ' pleafant,' then, read unpleafant. 

Thcfc Letters, however, are not dull. They are written witk 
point and fpirit, and all the licentious freedom of ^he times ; but the 
author freq^uently expitfles himfelf with a degree of inaccuracy that 
difgraces his language. 

The 'unpleaunt characters' to whom Mr. w#M/m addreflet thefe 
Epiilles (bcfide the very exalted Subject, whom we ace forry to 
fee treated in {x> * unpleafant' a manner) are Mr. Fox, Mr. Sheridan, 

• ^ 

* Se^our laft month's Catalogue, Art. 4a. 


^ Monthly Catalocub, PoliticaL' tjj 

tnd Mr^Barke. The obloquy thrown upon gentleineii (on party* 
ground f may anfwer the end of writers on, either fide; but to enlarge 
upon it, would not fuit the nature of a literary Tournah 

The condoft of the thru cbaroQirs juft menuoned, with refpe^ to 
the late agitated queftion of Regency, appears to have drawn upon 
tbem the wit and vengeance of this writer, and other literary cham- 
pions of Admintdration. 

Art. 59. An Explanatiii of the miftaken Principk on which the Com* 
mn/ation A3 *was fonndtd : and the Nature of the Mifchiefs that 
muft follow from a Perfeverance in it. In a fecond Addreft to 
the Public from Thomas fiates Rous, Efq. 4to. pp. 2a. is. 6d. 
Debrett. 1789. 

Mr. Rous's firft addrefs was noticed in our Review, vol. Ixxv. 
p. 1 46* In this iecond addrofs, he commences with afierting ' that 
no tax on fixed property can be made to yield fufHcient to be a fub- 
fiitute for revenue, drawn from articles of general confumption, 
without being ruinoufly opprefTive.' He exemplifies the truth of 
this pofition by that produflive fource of revenue — Malt. By com« 
paring the value of the barley from which it is produced, with the 
value of all the produce of all the land in England, the proportion 
between them will be found very fmall ; ' and yet (he fajrs) it yields 
with eafe to the Exchequer, a fum thai nine /biilings in tin pound ad« 
ditional tax on the land would (carcely equal.' This conclufioa 
fliay be right ; but the reader wonld have given to it a more ready 
afient, had the author demonftrated its truth. He afterward ftates» 
by the returns from the Excife Office, that the revenue derived from 
the beer, difiiltery, and malt duties, amounts, in a favourable year, 
to four millions fterling; and then fays, *• The idea oi txtra-vagantlj 
mnJtipljing the confumption of any foreign produce, that may afi^e^ 
this great national fopport, by throwing off the duties^ and rendering 
it vtjy cheap, is perhaps as alarming as any ever entertained by a 
Minider.' Mr. Rous has not ihewn that the malt duties have de« 
creafed fince the Commutation Aft took place. 

Mr. R. proceeds with a number of obfervations on the quanti*. 
ties of dififmnt teas imported, the revenue thence arifing, and the 
difficulty which the Company have in fupplying the marl^t ; and he 
thus concludes ; 

< If Adminiflration, when it had fully determined on the policy of 
theme^fure of altering the duties on tea, had proceeded with temper 
and judgment, — if inftead of commuting all the duties except \z\ 
fer cnt. for an oppreffive wilndow tax, one half of the duties had been . 
taken from the inferior forts, and fomething more from the loweft, 
in which the fmuggler chiefly dealt, and on which the duties were 
confiderabl^ higher than on fine teas, this' meafure would have de- 
feated the illegal trade both in foreign and fi^itions tea, — had then 
tbe fame mcafures been ileadily purfued at the Eafl India Houfe (un- 
der the controul of Government as the ASi dlreds) which wer^ 
adopted at the commencement of the prefent fcheme, but foon from 
the overwhelming effe£lrelinquilhed,^had the quick fucceffive Tales 
l^n fopplied with quantities equal to the demand of tveTy dealer, 
io as to prevent fptculation, which might have been done without 

T 3 dauber 

ajg Monthly Cataloc?ub, PotiUaU 

danger of iocreafing the conramption offiuttk (which b, tB I harc 
fhewn, the fource of all the mifchief), it would foon hare been 
founds that the leHer duty on the extended legdl quantity would have 
yielded a revenue, not only oiucb larger than the pre/eut du^ uniteil 
ivitb the Qpfreffi'Vi 'windo<w tax^ but much larger than ever wat before 
received from tea. Frooi this meafure no injury could have hap- 
pened to the country. But if the Minifter difregards the mifchiefs I 
have defcribedy and makes revenue his only ohje6^, by throwing o^ 
alfi half the duties from the fine teas» he might have obtained a large 
revenue indeed, and the mifchiefs, though confiderable, would cer- 
tainly have been lefs than from the prefent meafure. He would 
likewife have found it a more eafy and eifedoal method of ft^cceediog 
in his primary objed, than by giving up all the duties but \v\ per 
€tHt. for a window tax. For, in forming a plan to defeat the finog- 
jgler, by lowering the duties, e/p$cial farefionU te t4iitn not t$,creau 
a- demand for the commoditj^, <whicif cannot it permanently /uppli^fron^ 
a legal fource. The prefent ill digefted meafure, from its enormous 
ieffeds, has failed in the execution, after having, in the attempt, 
created an infatlable demand through the kingdoQi, and opened ^ 
larger field for the fmugeler than ever, leaving the ipeant of refift- 
iBg him more difficult in future.* 

Such is Mr. Rous's plan for regulating the duties on (his article of 
foreign luxury. It has every mark of plaufibility ; but the author's 
quick conceptions carry him fometimes coo fall for readers who pof- 
iefs only ordinary perception. More demondraiion would hav^ beej| 
agreeable to many readere. 

P O ? T R y. 

Art. 60. The Regency^ a Poem. 410. pp. 35. ^s. 6d» Stalker^ 

&c. 1789. 
An attempt to ridicule the Prince o# Wales, and hit nart^r, in ?erfes 
that are only ahufrve. The Poet's ear ic fo very defcaive, chat he 
gives us * idea^^ as a rhime to ^ fear,* 

Art. 61. The Antagonifis of Pct^ V.indax cut into Atom\^ in a forion^ 
Epillle to Peter Pindar, Jifi^.' By TomPlumb. +10. pp. 20. 
IS. 6d. Kearfley. 1789. ^ 

This zealous admirer and* defender of Peter Pindar's fterlihg wic, 

be-rhimcs and be-praifes him in Birmingham, b^e-meuL 

Art. 62. Political Adoration ; or. Aft Addrefs «6 the Devil. By the 
Foul Fiend Flibbertigibbet, '^ttj. ** pp. 17. is. 6d. 
Ridgway. 17S9. 

The Foul Fiend 6]t€£\s the whole force of his wit and virulence, 
which is not inconfiderable,' againfl: Mr. Pitt. His manner, as ex- 
hibited in this political f^uib, reminds ns of the fpirit and tnm of 
Swift's Lfgron Cluh.-^lt is remarkable, that, in a Chriftian country, 
the principal objedion againft our young Palinums is. That, as yet, 
he m«kes no fi^MTe in the annals of adultery and forhicatipn;— O 
temporal O mores! - ^ ' 

! ■ -*■ I II M ill l» 

. *^^?^'^ " ^ '"®"^' mflifj/iii?irrfi/ iu Englifif Greek, to ridifcule tl» 
clafficai erudition of Lord Belgravc. • • • 


Monthly CataloguBj Arism 279 

Art. 6 J. The Fm^t Rtftriaitms ; or, the Prince of WaleiV Laureate ; 

with political and literary Charftdieri. 4to* pp. 36. at. Stalker. 


This author, though not a Swift, a Prior, or a Peter Pindar, pof* 
fcHea foroe jocularity ; and J9cuianty would, perhapt, coniUtute hia 
beft pretenHon to what he here folicits ; vix* the office of Poet Lau- 
reate to Carlton Houfe. 

Addreffing himfelf to the Prince, he renundt hie .Royal Highneia 
of the importance of poetic praife : 

* Your ftately columns tower in vain. 
Where yet no Mufe has rais'd her ftraift. 
In vain yon architraves aicend, 
Whe^e Pegafus was never kenn'd« 
Your tsblatures in vain are hung. 
Where never Poet fweetly fuog ; 

Th' unfocial board is idly fpread, 
Where bard ne'er ihew'd a laurel'd head. 
Each glafs-^the taftelefs wines difgrace^ 
Where Lyric n^ver found a place* 

♦ « « « 
Then make the rifing pile complete^ 
, ^ The Prince's — ^and the Poet's leat : . 

So (hall aftoniih'd Grub-ftreet fee 
No Prince like you, nor bard like me,* 
The foregoing lines may (etyt as a fpecimen of the would-I^ Lao^ 
rcate's abilities :— they are far from being the word in the poem* 

Art. 64. The Femalit Meditatuns\ or common Occurrences fpi* 
ritualized, in Verfe. By Hannah Wallis. 410. 3s. 6d. fewed* 
Matthews, &c. 1787. 
Spicimtn, — taken from the introductory poem, entitled < J Profit 

fa G^dfor a BUJJing to tbu Work :* 

• CoaaECT this work, my God, I pray. 

Let it cotttded be : 
Amend each line, when 'tis reviewed. 

Thou all its faults can fee,' 
There is more propriety in this requeft than fome may imagine ; 
for it does not feem to be in the power of any bttm^n Being to render 
uUrahle the verfes of this poor Methodic,— -as we fuppofe her to be.«« 
She has furni(hed, however, a new image for the humorous author of 
the Treatife on the Bathos, were he flill living. — To his catalogue of 
earthly employments for the mod fublime of all Beings, he would 
add that of A Corrector of the Press, 


Art. 65. An Addrefi to iht Public ^ on tbi Poljgrapbic Art ; or the 
copying or multiplying Pidures, in Oil Colours, by a chemical 
and mechanical Procefs, the Invention of Mr. Jofeph Booth, Por- 
trait Painter. 8vo, pp. 18. is. Cadell, &c. 1788. 
Mr. Boothpoflefles the artof copving (we believe, mechanically) 

pictures in oil colours. The pamphlet be/bre us is not a defcription 

T4 «f 

aSp MowTHtY Catalogue, Tbe$logj. 

of the method which he ufes, but a difplay of the good effe^ of his 
hivencioii, and an invitation to the Public to fee his exhibition* We 
faw it with pleafure^ laft winter. The original pidlures are placed ia 
the middle of 20 or 30 copies of each, and we acknowlege, that it 
requires Lyncean eyes, with the niceft fkill, to difcover the original^ 
amid the furrounding copies. . Mr. Booth will, nodoabt, meet with 
that enconragement from the difcerning Public, which hU iogenioiu 
invention feems to merit. 


Art. 66. Ohfir<uations fur Us Ecrits de M. dt ydtatri^ prtmcifalt' 
matt fur la Religion. Par M. E. GiSiri, Mimftn di la ChafelU 
Rojali di St, Jamu* i2mo. 2 Vols. 78. fewed. Payne, &9« 

The pious author of thefe volumes acquaints ns, in his preface^ 
that, alarmed at the progrefs of Infidelity, he has taken up the pee, 
in order to guard the weak and unthinking, againft the fophiuns, 
mifreprefentatioQS, and lies (menfonges)* ^ generally prevalent in 
the works of M. de Voltaire. — We doubt not his fi ncerity, and we 
commend his zeal. It is the duty of every good ihepherd to watch 
continually over his flock, and to guard them, perpetually, againft 
every attempt of the wolf. M. Gibert deferves encouragement* 
not only on account of the goodnefs of his intention, but becaufe 
his work, as far as he has yet proceeded in the publication, abounds 
with judicious obfervations, and weighty arguments in defence of 
our religion, againft the attacks of a witty and moft licentious 
writer. — He informs as, in an advertifement, that (hould the pre- 
{ttit fpecimiH be approved by the public, it is his intention to con* 
tinue th^ work ; and that the whole will be comprifed in fix or 
eight volumes, Maj/ucce/s^ and a numerous fuhfcription^ attend him ! 

We would not, however, advife M. Gibert to think too lightly 
of his adverfary, nor affrdt to treat him z% % JilfyfelUw^, Any 
want of liberality on the part of the. Chriftian, may only tend to dis- 
credit his good caufe,' apd to throw fome weight into thefcale of an 
ingenious qpponenc. 

Art. Sj, A Charge delivered to the Clergy of the Diocefe of LandaJ^, 
in June 1788. By R. Watfon', D. D. F. R.S. BiQiopof Landaff; 
8vo. pp. 76. 2s. 6d. fewed. Evans. 

This pamphlet contains two irads; the firft of which is the 
charge above mentioned ; the other is, an 4ddrefs to young ferfont 
after confirmation. Concerning the latter, we are informed that it 
is foon ;o be publiihed feparately, at the price of one ihiMing, which 
we hear with pleafure, as we think it calculated to be of eflcntial 

• * J^a*voue que la manire dontje I'attaque, dans plufieuri endroits^ n 
qushue chofe qui repugne a ma fapn de penjer ; carje irowve la religicm 
ur/ujet trop ferieux pour quil conmienne d'y faire intem/enir Vhronie C^ 
lajafyre. Mais ceux qui ont lu cet auteur conmiendrotA ^ peutetre, avet 
moi^ qu'il ejl impojjihie de Vatta^utr d'une autre maniere^ et que s^ilfii 
janrais a propos ae faire ufagt du conftil de Solomonj^ Pro'v. xxvj. 5, 
c'cji dans la prifcnte d'/pute^ * Preface. 


.Monthly Catalochtb, f biology. i2i 

fervice. The Charge i9> as might be expefted, fenfible^ judicious, 
and replete with liberal and ufeful fentiments. The candour and 
piety, as weH as the knowlege and learning of the Author, are dif- 
played in rtcom mending with gi'eat earoeflnefs, to his clergy, the 
careful (lody of the evidences of Divine Revelation ; and at the fame 
time while he mentions thofe parts of pradical truth and religidua 
do^lrine in which all Chriftians agree, advifing, by implication at 
leaft, modeily and diiBdence as to thofe points in which the wife and 
the worthy have conflantly feen fome caufe to differ : The following 
is one of the direflions — * Not to narrow the foundations of faith^ 
not to teach any dodrineas neceifary to be believed, how true foever 
yon may efteem it, which is not in Scriptore exprefsly declared to 
be neceflary.' — ^We read, with fimilar fatisfa£Uon, the Bifhop't re- 
mark—' that the prefent Church pf England, had ihe the power, 
would be as far fron^ treading in the (anguinary footlleps of the 
former Church of England, as the Britilh Jegiilature would be now 
from granting h^r the authority of doing it, which was fo fuper- 
iUtiouuy conceded to her, in an age of ignorance and ecclefiamcal 
domination/'— We derive equal pleafure from the hint which his 
lordfhip gives, when he fays, — * The day, we trull, is not far 
diilant, when profefiion of Belief in the Divine MifCon of Jefus Chrift» 
as related in the authentic records of the Bible, will be confidered at 
a compreheniive bond of Charity, fitted to unite (which is the main 
thing) in mutual forbearance and good will at leaft, if not in com* 
mum^y of worfhip, all denominations of Chriftians,' — But we re- 
commend it to the reader to perufe the pamphlet himfelf ; and we pro- 
ceed to take a little farther notice of the other treatife, which la at 
well adapted to promote the great and important caufe of tarly piety 
and virtue, as the former is to admonifh and 'animate the derey. 
It manifeiis a benevolent zeal for the beft interefts of youth ; it has 
energy of didion, and flrength of fentiment ; and the flyle, we ap- 
prehend, is fufficiently plain and clear for every clafsj efpecially if 
they will read it with due attention, 

Art. 63. Efay on the Kingdom of Chrift. By Abraham Booth. 
i2mo. IS. Buckland. 1788. 
This writer follows numbers who have well difplayed the ipiritual 
nature of Chrillianity. Dr. Hoadly, bifhop of Winchefter, ranks 
among the firft of the(e, yet we conceive he would hardly have con- 
curred with the prefent author in aiferting that national edablifh- 
ments are fecylar kingdoms, and unworthy the name of Chriftian 
churches. * What,' he aiks, < has the policy of princes or of pre- 
lates to do in maintaining, or in extending an empire of truth and 
of redlitude ? — They may adorn the exterior of public worlhip— may 
dignify the miniflers with pompous titles,— and inveft them with 
temporal power, &c. &c.— but the empire of Jefut Cbrift difdains 
them aUf becaufc they belong to the kingdoma of this world.*—* 
Again, — < As the laws of Chrift fav nothing about the admHRon of 
one or another, on account of his domeftic or civil connections, nor 
jet for his wealth or infloence, his parts or learning ; fo they are 
equally filent about pecuniary finet, or fatisfadory penances, aibonc 
fivil 4JfabiU(ies and corporal puniihmcnts i^the former being quits 


aSi MoNTHtY Catalogue, Tbeobgy. 

foreign to qualifications for a fpiritaa! kingdom » the latter muft be 
utterly abhorrent from the laws with which it is governed, beings 
tnafiifefUy the inventions of antichriH, and the fupporters of his crael 
throne. Civil penalties^ in this cafe, are adapted to generate fear^ 
and promote hypocrify; to fupprefs truth and render CbriiUanit/ 
itfelf forpicious.'— Though we cannot withhold our afTent from fe- 
TCral of this writer's obfervations, yet» in other inflances, we cannot 
(sotirely concur with him. His cenfures fall, rn a degree, on differ- 
ent parties of Chriilians. — Any perfon, however, may perufe the 
book with advantage, although he may not always adopt the author's 

yirt . 69 . Confijerations upon the V/t and Ahnfttf Oaths judidaUy taktn ; 

particularly in rtip^Qi of Perjury, fiy the Rev. Robert Bool 
' Pinch, P D. Prebendary of Wcftminfter, and Reaor of St. 

John the £vangeli4 in that City. 8vo. 6d, Rivingtons* 
' 1788. 

The fan^ion of an oath is the ftrongeft hold that the law can take 
ef the cQufciences of men, to bind them to adhere to their obliga- 
tions, or to declare the truth when they are queftioned on occafiont 
which concern the welfare of fociety. The Rev. author of this well 
intended tra^^ obferves, * that both from the nature of man and the 
nature of things, there arifes a neceffity for oaths in a judicial fenfe. 
whenever the deareft privileges, interefts,^ properties, and enjoy- 
menis of mankind are at flake, inafmuch as without this (anc- 
tion, diArefs, and confufion of the ver/ word kind muft enfne.' 
Hence he argues the great importance of adminiftering them with 
folemnity, and of eflibiifhing their force and influence. The fi-c- 
quent impo/ition of them, which the various tranfadions in fociety 
have been thought to require, is one great caufe of weakening their 
force ; for • oaths given and taken frequently, will be given and 
taken irreverently, till at laft, many will regard them very little 
more than they do common fwearing.* The author very juftly im- 
putes the guilt of perjury, to the frequency of common fwearing, 
which deilroys all reverence for a folemn appeal to the great Author 
of nature for the truth of our words or a6lions on particular occa* 
ftons ; the vulgdr habit of disfiguring converfation with horrid ex- 
pletives, ought therefore, if the general relaxation of morals will 
allow it, to be difcouraged by all the powers veiled in magidracy. 
The judicial mode of adminiflering oaths to witneiTes, or of taking 
affidavits before matters in Chantry, will not imprefs the parties 
fworn, with a becoming fenfe of the awful a£i they are about. In 
the former cafe, the oath is hurried over as fad as the words can be 
careief^Iy uttered by the clerk, the time of adminiflering being an 
interval of inattention to the whole court, till it is recaued by the 
qucitens propofed to the part^ fworn. In the latter cafe, the door 
#f e foom, wherein a matter in Chancery is prefumed to fit (for he 
is not atweys feen), is jail opened fo as to admit the clerk tp fill 
the gap, Mid rebearfe the oath to the part^ flanding without ! Is 
ther^ any thii^ in all this calculated to infpire men with a religioua 
lev^Jiface ^ (nitk? Po not the parties adminiflering fuch oaths 


imifi<)^ then at mere matters of form, an4 reft folely on the terrors 
oif legal puoiihmeat, if falfity can be 4eteded ? 

Dr. FincH thinks, on account of the enormity and fatal con(e« 

Silences of perjary, that the crime (hould be punifhed with death* 
ut a man hanged for an example, is foQp forgotten ; the punifli' 
ment is far more fcrere, and the example more laftingv when he is 
left to exiil, branded with the difgrace 4nd incapacities involved ia 
a convidlion of the crime : if he is ihamelefs enough to remain at 
home, he walks about under the infamy of being^a wretch unworthy 
of any confidencci becaufe no obligations can bind him ; if he flies 
hU country, no one can be better fgared : and fliould he have any 
compunAion, he has time to repent^ and recover fome charader 


Iw Preached at the Anniverfary Meeting of the Sons of the Clergy, 
at St. Paul's, May 10, 1787. By Anthony Hamilton, D D. 
Archdeacon of Colcbefter, Chaplain in Ordinary to his Maje(ly» 
Use. ice. To which "are added. Lifts of the Stewards for ihe Fe'afts 
of the Sons of the Clergy; together with the Names of the 
Preachers, and the Sums collected at the Anniverfary Meetings 
fince the Year 1721. 410. is. Rivingtons. 1788. 
Though this difcourfe is well adapted to the occafion, it contains ' 

nothing fufficientl^ p^w^ or interefting, to require our particular 


}L Preached before the Lords, &c. in the Abbey Church of Wcft- 
minfter, January 30, 1789. Being the Anniverfary of King 
Charles's M^rtyrdooK |ly George, Lord fiilhop of Lincoln. 4C0. 
pp. i8. IS. Cadell. 

This difcoi^rie, founded on John, viii. 32. is feniible* liberal, 
and elegant. The Bilhop has treated his fubjedl wich judgment and 
candour* He acknowleges that Charles I. avowed the moft uncon- 
ftitutional principles ; that he manifefted a determined contempt for 
th^de«reft righct and moft valuable privileges of the people; and 
. that he repeatedly violated his promife refpeding the difcouragemenc 
i>f popery -?-He obferves that * a ftlent acquiefcehce in thefe exer- 
tions of lawlefs power muft have quickly ended in the fyftemacic 
eftabliOiment of abfolttte monarchy, and probably in the reftoration 
pf popery. It became^ therefore, the duty of every individual to 
check the progrefs of the pernicious meafures.* 

His Lordfhip confeQbs, ' that many of thofe, who took a leading 
part in the beginning of thefe troubles, were actuated by th6 pureft 
motives ; their only wifti was to fave the Conftitution, by reftrajning 
the King's authority within its due bounds.' 

He adds, * Whilft they were feeking redrefs for the illegat con- 
duct of the King, they were promoting fuch an a£l of tnjufiice and 
murdtr as no other hiftory affords.' How far the tranfadions of that 
day deferve thef<i harjh epithets, we Ifave to our readers to deter- 


284 Single Sermons. 

Many jpft and pertinent obfervations are fcattered through this 
difcourfe : one of them deferves particular notice* viz. If hotb pdrtiti 
h^d affed agr^abU to thi princifUs of thi Cbriftian nligion (nMcb^ 
as It condemns faQion and reheUion^ fo Uketvife deffotifm and tyranny), 
tbi cataflrophi oftbis day loould not bavi happened. 

The Bilhop adds, in concluiion, < The recoIleAion of the cala- 
jnitica and oppreflions under which this kingdom groaned fbr the 
greateft part of the lad century, fhould infpire our minds with a juft 
Knfe of gratitude to the Supreme Dif^fer of all events, who has 
deftined U0 to reap in peace and fecurity the fruits of thofe draggles.' 
— ** Let us be temperate in the enjoyment, and Ready in the fup. 
port, of true liberty. Let us not endanger it by yielding to the 
JiBbcle refinements of vifionary fpeculatifts, the rofidious harangues of 
pretended patriots, or the groundle(s afTertions of thofe who dare to 
defend arbitrary power upon the authoNty of the Scriptures. — Thua 
will the purity of our eftablifhed reli^on make ul wife and good, 
equally removed from the licentious fpirit of repubUcanifiiii aiidthe 
degrading principles of defpotifm.' 

IIL Preached at Stonehoufe Chkpel, December 28, 1788. By 

iohn Bidlake, A. B- of Chriil Church, Oxford; Chaplain to the 
Light Hon. the Ear] Ferrers, and Mailer of the Grammar School, 

Plymouth. 4to. pp. 32. is. Printed at Plymouth, and fold 

in London by Law, Lowndes, &c. 

So much has been written on the fubje£l of this diicouHe, that 
nothing new can be expeded, nor is at all neceilary, fince humanitj^ 
pleads fo powerfully in favour of thefe unhappy wretches. Their 
iofierings are great indeed 1 but we hope and believe, not fo great 
af here reprefented. The author aflerts that man is b^ natwn a fo^ 
mage: an opinion to which we cannot fubfcrlbe, as it feems to caft 
the higheft reflection on the God of nature ; and indeed in fome 
xneafure excufes the perpetrators of the horrid barbarities here aU 
luded to \ iince, in many of them, nature has qoc been fufficiently 
corrected by education, The benevolent author, we are perfuaded, 
did not fee the do^rine in this light, as he feems very fincerely to 
feel the fufierings which he defcrihies, and, U the removal of whick^ 
he wiihcs to be inftrumental. 

IV. The Injnftice of the African Sla*ve Trade ^ proved ^ from Principles 

of natural Equality, Preached in the Church of Charles, Plymouth. 

January II, 1789, By Robert Hawker, Vicar of the Parifh, and 

formerly of Magdalene Hall, Oxford. 410*. pp. 28« ia« 

Printed at Plymouth, and fold in London by Law, ice. 

Another able advocate fbr the poor negroes. How far the total 

abolition of the (lave trade may be prafticablo or expedient, muft 

be left to the Governmei^t to determine. As it has been carried on^ 

it feems a mod iniquitous branch of commerce, dained with crut^Ity 

and blood ; at which humanity fhudders, and which ehriUiauiiy 

condemns. We rejoice to hear that, in ibme of our plantations^ 

Jaws, have lately been enacted, much in favour of thefe unhappy 

beings ; by which their fufferings have been greatly alleviated. We 

keartUy wiih fuccefs to all who plead the cauTe of our much injured 

il fellow- 

lenow-creatares ; and th^t the fale of this very feofible difcooi-le 
nay be fully equal to the wifhes of its author, as he generouily gives 
the profits ariiiDg from it to promote fo good a defign. 

V. Preached ill the Cathedral Church of Su Columbus, Derry, on 
the Commemoration of the 7th of December^ i688. By theRer. 

' John tiume, A. M. Dean of Derry. 4to. 21 pages. London- 
derry printed, i788. 

When Jamei the Second adranced with his army againd the citf 
of Derry, where he expeded to meet with cpniiderable refinance from 
the Protifimmtj, the citizens, confdoos of the weakne6 of the gar- 
rifon, were ftmck with great conibrnation on his near approach, and 
an immediate furrender was apprehended. But, as the preacher of 
this itery commendable fermon obferves, ' What the prudence of yeara 
could not attempt, the raflinefs of youth tffc€ttd. The young men of 
the city, without Icnuier, without arms, rufh to the gates and fhnttheow' 
The courage of the younc; was then well fupported by the wifdom of 
the more experienced :-~ James was repulfed, and at length oblige<i 
to abandon his enterprife ; but not till the heroic inha&tants had 
endured all the horrors of a lon^ fiege, in which they fuffered 
every calamity that fatigue and famine could inflidl* The particu- 
lars of this memorable event were given to the Public by the Rev. 
Dr. Walker,' who bravely headed the citizena ; and who, as Mr. 
Dean Hume remarks, was at once their /r/^ znd gemraL 

It is in commemoratbn of the day, Dec. 7. on which the ap« 
prentices, with other brave' youths of the city, ihut the gates again ft 
James and his well-appointed army, that this fermon was preached; 
and it is now publifhed by deiire of the Mayor and Corporation of 
Derry, who have done themfelves credit by their approbation of thia 
judicious and animated diicourfe againlt bigotry and defpotifm. 

VI. Preached at Peckham, Surrey, on Sunday, Nov. 3, 1788, m 
contemplation of the then approaching Anniverfary of the glo« 
rions Rbvolution, &c. By R« Jones. 8vo« pp. 49. i s« 

Mr. Jones jullly ftyles the 4th of November, a day deak tc all 
l^ii ProiefioMtji'^SLQdf conformably to thif idea, he realonfly ex- 
patiates on the bleflings of liberty, civil and religious ; and warmly 
aflerts, like an able and learned advocate, ' the natural rights and 
jud claims of men.' In brief, his difcourfe abounds with i^ch per- 
tinent obfervations, and animated expreflions^ as could not fail of 
exciting, in the minds of his hearers, the moft fervent fentiments of 
gratitude to Heaven, for the ioeftimable privileges which were 
lecared to as, by the glorious event commemorated in thb dif* 

VII. {^reached in the Church of St. Mary, Truro, at the Anni^ 
verfary of Truro School-meeting,- Sept. 11, 1788. By the Ktr^ 
R. Polewhele« 4to. pp. 15. is. Cadell, Sec, 

The fobjed of this difcourfe is peculiar. From Heb. Xr 32. CaM 
to rtmembrance tbi former dt^s^ the author directs the thoughts of 
Jua audience (which cenrfifted of gentlemen educated a: the above- 
sientioned fchool), to the fimplicityi inftru^ons, amufements, and 


296 CoRRESPoiibiNoS. 

employments of their* youthful days. The repreftntation that U 
giveO) and the remarks which are offered, are pertinent and pleaf- 
ing. The moral refledlons and obfervations have a dire£l tendency 
to cherifh benevolence/ atid to ptomoce th^ love And pnidiceof triilh 
and ▼irtue. 

T$ ib* Monthly Rbvi^wbrs* 

• T Beg leave, by mean? of your widely circulated journal, to iivct^ 
^ life the readers 6f my Mathematical EfTays, lately publiflied ^^ 

jlut there is a miftake in page ixS, where 'rrr it taken hiftead (dj^^^ 

In confequence of (hit, the numbers which exprefs the horizontal 
force, towards the end of the book, arc too fro alL Thefe numbers^ 
however, may be very eaiily coueded by meant of the Algebraic 
Theorems given in page 132, taking r a1way« =: 3 ; and the Geome- 
trical part of the fame paper mr^y be qrickly coi-re^ed, by fubftituting 
the proportion here given inftead of that which was ufed. 

' Having redified this miAake in my own book, I (hall be further 
obliged to you, if you will now permit me, through the fame than- 
nel, to commuoicate to your mathematical readers a corre^ion of a 
miftake in Emerfon's Fluxions. In the a7th Example to Propofitioti 
X. he has fet down an infinite ferics for the value oFj, which is not 
right, the true value ofy Iking ;r;ir + 4* — 1 • 

1 am, obntleMfn» 
Greetti Norton t near Towtefitr^ Your humble Servanti 

Fib.\^i\']%<^* John HEttiNfi/ 

• Sec Rev. for Augaft laft. 

%* An* * Impartial Ob/erver* is entitled to our thanks for hia 
friendly information of an intended abufive attack upon us in the 
Newspapers. Such effedls of refentment are natural j and muft be 
allowed, while they are clothed in decent language. When they 
are 6tberiMi/e, they will be little regarded by the Monthly Reviewers : 
whofe utmoil wi(h is, to do juflice to the Public, as well as the Authors 
(^ood and bad) whofe works they are> by cheir plan« obliged to no* 

•f* J.B, of Wakefield, who, in our lad montfi^s Correfpondence^ 
mentions Dr, Ellis's ** Knonvledge ofDi'uint Things, ice.** will fooa 
Have an opportunity of feeing fome remarks on that work, in a book 
jiift ready for publication, entitled, ** Mi/ceUumes^ literary mnd plnk^ 
/opbical,^* For this information* we are obliged to a Correfpondentji 
^ho iigiia ' A cottST ANT Reader.' 

•§• We are obliged to our old Correfpoftdent, Mr. J«snes Wo0d<* 
boufe, for his friendly intimation, refpeding two infkanccs of inaccii** 
rate language, in our Review iot Odobcr lall. He is perfedUy righc 

Corrbspo'ndencb. 287 

in objefling to the modeof expreflion, in each of the pafTages; and 
v/c are (brry that his Letter was not of a date early enough to give us 
an opportunity of noticing, tRofe flips of the pen, in our U^ Appen^ 
y/r .* K is now fcarcely worth while to recall the attention xA our 
readers to them. 

$*t * A Lover of Confiflency^ and an Enemy to Bigotry of all 
IbrtSy' is under coniideration. 


• < As you have not correfled an error printed in yonr Ia£k Appendix, 
to your Review for February, give me leave to point it out, as ic majf 
have efcaped yoor notice. 

' It is m yoqr extract from the FuIdaDifpenfatory, page 6869 Oft 
the preparation of acid of tartar cryftallifed ; where you roentioa, 
** Mix 10 ounces of concentrated vitriolic acid with as much pure 
water/* In the original^, ic is ten ounces of concentrated vitriolic 
acid with ten pounds of water ; which is exadtly conformable to fn- 
veral ^rocelles I have feen for making this mo(l ufeful fait, and 
which It is furpriiing was not publifhed in the late New Fkarmaco* 
pccia, as the preparation was well known to mzny of the prefeat 
rhyficians of the College. 

I am. Gentlemen* 

Hermtag^^ Your obliged, obedient Servairt, 

March 17, 1789. Tho. Wi;.lis* 

' Q^ In what manner would you eliily procure fait of tartar from 
the cauftic vegecajble alcali V 

We are much obliged to Mr. Willis for the corredion of fo mate- 
rial an error. In the preceding fen tence, it is faid, * Boil two pounds 
of cream of tartar in ten of water,* and the words • 'with as much pure 
nuater* in this Sentence ought to refer to the ten pounds above men- 
tioned. A parentheiis coming between the two fentences occadons 
th^ obfcurity. 

In anftt^er to the Quere, which, we think, refers to a note in the 
{ame page of our Appendix, we conceive that nothing more is re- 
quired to procure fait of tartar from cauftic vegetable alkali, than thp 
addition of fixed air; which may be elFeded by flmple expofure to 
the atthofphere. 

^J§ Oor * Friend and Well-wiflier' is referred to the fourth article 
of Correipondence on the laft page of our Review for February, rela* 
tive to the Di/pen/atorium Ftddsnfe, Gentlemen who want foreign 
publications, ihould apply to Mr. Elmfley in the Strand ; or £e 
other London Bookfellers, who are importers of foreign books. 

X%X A fecond Letter from the • Gentleman* A'lke writer, who figns 

* Omnes Veritas^ has afforded us a hearty laugh ; for which we aro 
obliged to him. 

•,fc« The firft letter from • Trafiquillus* was received, but the 
Writer did not inform nt how to addrefs him ; there is the fame 



omiffion in his fecofKl epittle ; and we did not choofe to make ft 
public reply. A letter^ however, is now left for him at Mr. 

f 4.t Our coiT^rpoiident ' Mdtthor* will find the fatisfaffion which 
he requires, where he ought to have looked, viz. in Henault's Abridg- 
ment of the Hiftory of France ; in Voltaire's Steele de Lwis XIV. 
and in Moreri's Dictionary, article Philippe de France^ Due i*Orleans. 
This prince, fon of Lewis XIII, and only brother of Lewis XTV. 
was,* at iirft, ilyled Dued^Jnjou^ and, in 1661, Due d^Orleans. He 
was firil married to Princels Henrietta, daughter of Charles I. of 
England, in 1661 ; and (he dying in 1670, he took for his fecond 
wile, io the next year, Charlotte Elizabeth, Princefs Palatine and 
of Bftvaria, authorefs of the letters whence the fragmens are faid xid 
l>e taken. Her hiifband was more commonly called Monfieur^ than 
JHc d'OrUoMt ; which title, however, was always given, after his 
deceafe, to his fon, the Regent. 

From * Monitpft^ impcrFcA defcriodon of Dr. Hawes*s work, we 
cannot inform bita, precifely, what is the jtitle of it ; bat we fufpefl 
that this correfpondent means " An Addrefs to the King and 
Parliament, &c. with Hints for improving the Art of refbring fuf« 
pended Animation. 8vo. tu Dodfley. ifZz^** See Review for 
March 1783 (Vol. 68.)^ p. 280. 

*4>* It is become neceiTary for us to caution the Public againft the 
pradtceof ibikte unblufhing Publifhers, who, in their puffing advertife- 
meats, fcruple not to infer t pretmedtd commendatory extrads from the 
Reviews, in praife of books, or pamphlets, of which the Reviewers 
have either not given any character at all, or of which they have 
fpoken in terms very di^rent from thofe ufed in fuch falfe quota*^ 
tions. — Such impofitions on the Public are not only fraudulent, with 
. refped to thofe who are thus mifled, by £6Utious recommendations, 
^ become purchafers of tralh 9 but they tend, stxy greatly, to injure 
the reputation of the Reviews : — thus fubjeded, without any fault o£ 
their own, to the imputation of bearing falfe 'wilnefu 

tS* Several new produ6lions, in profe and \^tkt have lately been 
tranfmitted to us, from Ireland i but as our plan does not, neceflari- 
]y, include all the publications of that kingdom, we fliall notice only 
fuch as we can commend, or that are of importance enough to call 


tft Some other Letters, which arrived late In the«f refent monthp 
wiU be confidcred in our next number. 





For APRIL, 1789. 

Art. I. Lingua Sacra: in Three Parts. Part I. Contains a CMn^ 
plctc Hebrew Grammar, with Points^ Arc. &c. Part 11. A com- 
plete Hcbrcw-Englifh Dictionary, &c. &c, Part III. To coQtain^ 
all Words, both appellative and proper, &c*'&c. By David Levi.. 
Xn Three vtry large Volumes. 8vo. 2I. i6s. 6d. Boards. Par-* 
fens. 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788. 

THE Author of this work is a zealous .advocate not merely, 
for the antiquity, but even for the divine original, of the 
vowel points. He endeavours to' refute the aflertion of Elias 
Levita, that the invention of the points is to be afcribed to the* 
jfews of Tiberias. He doubts the exigence of any fuch fet of 
men at the time which Elias fuppofes ; and, even admitting this 
fad, thinks it highly improbable, that their inve^ition Abdd* 
have been adopted by the Karite Jews, who were alike profeficd 
enemies to tradition, and to innovation of every kind. He then 
replies, to the grand argument which is ufually urged by thofe 
who contend for the late inftitution of the points : he attempts 
to prove, that the vqwel points and accents are exprefsly men- 
tioned in the BabyloniOi Talmud, and confequently prior to the 
date of that work. He even alTerts, from the paflage in thfe T^- 
mud which is ^explanatory of Nehemiah, viii. 8.* that they were 
adually ufed by Ezra, in order to make the congregation of 
Ifrael fully comprehend the trtie meaning of the Law. H^ then 
produces various arguments, none of Which however appear to be 
novel, in fupport of their claim to a ftill higher antiquity ; and in 
page 33, he concludes thus : ^ F6r thefe reafons, I am clearly of 
opinion, that the vowel points, as well as the letters, were given 
by God himfelf.* That the man who avows this opinion ihould ' 
employ more than ordinary diligence in explaining the rules by 
which the various changes of the points are regulated,- and in 
developing the principles on which thofe rules are founded, can- 
not -be jnatter of (urprife. Indeed our grammarian is particularly 
tcopious in this part of* his work; and fomeof his remarks ap« 
pear to be ingenious and original : though we cannot help 
thinking that his Grammar would have been more generally 
Vo^. Lxxx, U ufefui; 

2^0 Levi*! Lingua Sacra. 

ufeful^ if he hid dire Aed a greater (hare of his attention to other 
fubje£ls, which we muft confider as of much higher import* 

To the author's arrangement, we cannot allow the praife ci» 
tfaer of neatncfs or perfpicuity. He gives ui^ indeed, a vaft 
mafs of grammatical precepts ; but we want that iuciJus arih 
which conftitutes the chief merit of elementary treatifes of every 
kind, and on which much of their utility neceflarily depends. 
The tenth and tleventfa chapters, in particdar, which conuiii 
an account of the itottns, their derivations, and the various 
changes to which they^ are fubjeS in declenfion, &c. muft, we 
apprehend, be extremely obfcure at leaft, if not pcrfe£lly unin^ 
ttliigible to the Hebrew fiudent, without a previous acquaint* 
ance with the twelfth chapter ; where Mr. Levi treats of the 
verbs, from which it is well known the nouns are almoft uni* 
verfally derived. 

In page 159, we are told that, * there are fome feminine 
plural nouns which end in fl) >nd have S€g§l before ir, as 
DIlBP nblatS^ and very often with two Segols^ as, jy^^^ 

V ': » • . w T - 

rrWOiV &c.' We know not on what authority it is aflerted, tbat 

thefe nouns are plural; and fomereafons, at leaft, ought to have 
been aifigoed for the aflcrtton. We ceruinly have hitherto 
confidered them as fingular ; and indeed the author himfelf, m 
his Lexicon, feems to have forgotten, or, perhaps, on maturer 
deliberation, relinquiOied, his former opinion. For under the 

root -|Dp we find nitDp HNSd full of inanfi^ Numb. vii. 
14- ♦J^'^D^'I ^«^ min^ inanfe^ Ezck. xvi. 18. *\DpD mOp 
the pirfume of the inctnfe^ Exod. xxx, i. Under ^28^ we have 
nVSE^ W ^2** % ^^^ Shibboleth ; i. c. thi flood^ the pajfart 
of Jordan which the Ephraimiti wanted to pafs^ J^idges, xv. 6. 
£D^0 r\^'2p ^fintS^n bH Lit not the watirjkod overflow nu^ 
Pfal. Ixix. 16. nniri nVatfD from thi channel of the river^ 
Ifaiah, xxvii, 12. Under •»!>( we find, ^yjtS^ rniii a Ba* 
hyUniJb mantle^ Jo(h. vii. 21. nH^^K m'lK thi mantie of Eli- 
/tf*, a Kings, ii. 13, And under ^D^ SHt D'^Dyi and a 
crown of gold^ Efther, viii. 15. 

The fcdion on the Hebrew Syntax is extremely barren and 
unfaiisfadory, and bears no kind of proportion to the unwieldy 
chapters which treat of the VowcJs, the Nouns, &c. Oiu: 
readers will readily give us credit for this aflertion, when we in* 
form them that the whole of it is compi^ized in icfs^haa three 


Levi*/ tin^ Sacrd. i^t 

. The ftcbrew.finglilh Diflionary, which forrtis the fecond 
Part of the work, profeffcs to contain * all the word* in the 
whole four-and^rwenty Books of the Old Teftamcnt (being pur* 
Hebrew), the Cbaldee words in' Daniel and E^ra, &c/ \V€ 
have, however, obfcrvcd feveral omiffians of words of very fre- 
quent ufe in the Hebrew Bi)>le, Among others are the follbw<- 
ing«-»Under the root**lOt{ we do not find pnOK 3t Sam. xxi»* 

31. Gen. iv. 23. Pfal. cv. 19. cxlvii, 15. Ifaiah, v, 24v&c* 
^DKp Efther, 1. i5, ii. 20» ix. 32. I/PK.'P Dan. iv. 14. 
£zra, vi. 9. 

Under :D^f the following arc wanting : HJIDi? Exod. xvii. 

-12. Pfalm xl. If. Ixxxviii. 12. Prov. xii. 22> &c. .i^3Q^f 
Nchcm. x. I. xi. 23. DiltDi* 2 King*, xviii. 16. Under *|3i 
HTDn «» wanting, Gtn. xix. 31, 33, 34, 37. Under tU— 
nn^ Nehcm. iii. 36. Under Dlp-^tlD^D'np Judges j v^ 21. 

T ^ I.I. 

In various parts of the Didionary, Mr. Levi has interwoven 
copious cxtrads from Rabbinical writers. For the entertainment 
cf the EngliOi reader, we will tranfcribe one of thefe extrai^s^ 
which contains a curious ant-cdote of the Patriarch Abraham, 
It is to be found under the root H^K at the word CDjIT^J*} 

* I cannot otnic taking notice of what is related in Medrajh Bert^ 
Jbith, concerning this Patriarch ; efpecially, as it fhcws his fortitude^ 
and firm reliance on the protedion of the Supreme Being 5 and at 
the fame time exhibits the rational method which he purfaed in en* 
deavouring to wean mankind from that grofs idolatry and fuperfti* 
tion into which they were plunged. Terach, the father of Abraham* 
was an idolater, and likewife a dealer and maker of idols, it chanced 
one time that Terach went on a journey, and left Abraham to cake 
care of and difpofe of the idols during his abfence. 

* When any man came to porchafe an idol, Abraham aiked him 
his age. When the man had anfwered him, Abraham replied, Caa 
it be poffible, that a p rfon of your years can be fo flupid as to wor- 
(hip that that was made yefterday I The man being quite over- 
whelmed with fhame, huQg down bis head, and departed. In this 
manner he ferved feveral. At length, there came an old woman, 
with a meafnre of fine Hour in her hand, which {he told him (he had 
brought as an offering to all the idols. Abraham at this was ex* 
ceedingly wroth, and took a large ftick and broke all the idols, ex- 
cept the largeft, which he left whole, and put the ftick in his 

* When Terach returned, and perceived all the idols broken, he 
aiked Abraham bow that came to pafs ? Abraham informed him, 
that there came an old woman and brought an offering of fine flour 
to the idols : upon which, they immediately fell together hy the ears 
for the prize, when the large one kilieti them all with the (lick which 
Jie then held in his haad. 

V 2 , « Terach 

292 Levi*/ Lingua Sacra. 

* Tcrach feeling the full force of th^ fatirc, was greatly cxafpe- 
ratcd ; and immediately had Abraham before Nimrod, in order to 
have him puniihcd for the contempt (hewn to his Gods. 

' Nimrod commanded him to wor(hip the fire ; but Abraham an- 
fWered him, that h would be more profitable to worfhip the water, 
which extinguifhes the fire. Why then, fays Nimrod, worfhip the 
water. No, fays Abraham, it were better to worfhip the clondt 
which ftiflain the water. Nimrod hid him worfhip them ; but he 
told him, it would be better to worfhip the wind which difperfes the 
clouds. Nimrod then bid him worihip the wind. Abraham an- 
fwcred, it would be preferable tq worfhip miin, who was able to en- 
dure the wind. Well, fays Nimrod, I fee it is your intention to de- 
ride me ; 1 mud therefore tell you briefly, that I worfhip none but 
the^r^, and if thou dofl not do the fame, my intention is to throw 
you therein ; and then, 1 fhall fee, whether the God you worfhijt 
will come to your relief; and immediately had him thrown into the 
fiery furnace. 

•• In the interim, they qnefHoned his brother X^Tl Haran con- 
cerning his faith, who anfwered, if Abraham fucceeds, I wiH be of 
his ; but if not, of Nimrod's. Upon which, Nimrod ordered him 
to be immediately thrown into the furnace nkcwifc; where he was 
prefently confumed, but Abraham came out of the furnace without 
veceiving the leaft injury. 

• This agrees with the 28th vcrfe of the i ith chapter of Genefis 2 

Cl**l{f^3 And Haran died in the fre/ence of his father Terab, in the 

land of his nativity, in the^r# of the Chaldees ; for it was by means 
^of the accufation which Terah exhibited againfl Abraham, that Ha- 
ran fufFered death ; fo that he may ju Aly be faid to have died in the 
prefence of his father. Here is an admirable lefFon for mankind: 
and clearly points out the difference between thofe which ferve the 
Lord in truth and fmcerity, and thofe which are lukewarm, and ea- 
fily turn to that which feems mofl profitable in this world. This 
tranfadlion, the author of Shalfheleth Hakkabala fays, happened in 
the feventi^th year of Abraham.' 

In the third Part of the work, or Englifli-Hebrew Diflionary, 
the author promifes us < all the words, both appellative and 
proper, terms of art, and phrafes ufed in the Engltlh tongue^ 
arranged in alphabetical order, and explained in Hebrew.' He 
proniifes us, however, much more than he has performed ; and 
indeed, we apprehend, much more than it is in the power of 
any man to perform. 

After we had ftniflied our examination of the Grammar and 
Didiionary, it was not without the moH feriou^ concern that we 
perufed the Addrefs to the Public, which clofes the third vo-^ 
iume. As Critics, it was our duty impartially to appretiate 
the merits, and point out the defeds of the work. But as men^ 
and as fcholars, we heartily fymj>aihife with the author in his M-^ 

trefles •. Wc forget the imperfeiHons of his book, when we 
confider the circumftances under wlitch it was compofed ; and 
we cannot but admire the induftry and perfcverance which, in 
fpite of diftculties fo (lubborn, and wants fo clamorous, enabled 
him to accompli (h fo much. Indeed, it is but juftice to add, 
that, notwithftanding the obje£iions which we have ftated, his 
work may yet be highly ufeful to perfons of his own religion ; 
and even to thofe of every. religion, who, without a knowlege of 
Latin, are defirous of being acquainted with the original lan- 
guage of the Old Teftamenr. 

♦ * When I firft planned the work, my means were but few, and 
my circuroflances much too narrow to admit of the arrangement nc- 
ceiTary to carry on an undertaking of fach magnitude and importance 
with fuccefs. Confined to a mechanical bunnefs, which occupied 
the principal part of each fucceeding day, to fupply the necefTaries 
of my domeftic" concerns; there confequently remained but few 
hours befide thofe which I could borrow from my natural reft, to 
compile a work, which required at once a degree of ftudy, perfe- 
verance, and patience, known only to fuch as have been employed 
in the arduous tafk of reducing to index order the fubdance of many 

Art. II. Prolufionei Poetica \ or, A Seledlion of Poetical Exercifes, 
in Greek, Latin, and Englifh : Partly original, and partly tranf- 
Jated. 8vo. pp. 188. 3s. Boards. Printed at Chefler; and 
fold by JefFcry and Sael, London. 1788. 

THIS Sele£lion is dedicated to the Bifliop of Chefter^ as the 
firft fruits of thr King's School in that city. The Rev, 
T. Bancroft, who, we learn, has f^me fhare in the management 
of the fchool, fubfcribcs his name to the Dedication. The 
work. neither deprecates criticifm, as the unfin'fhcd attempt of a 
fchool-boy, nor challenges it as the produ«5tion of maturcr 
genius. But the ufe o^ the word EK^rcifeSy in the title-page, 
feems to warrant the former fuppofition : and we are willing to 
adopt it, fince it calls on us to be fparing of cenfure, if not pro- 
digal of praife. We cannot, indeed, in(ert the following fpeci- 
mens, without premifing that, in our opinion, they reflet much 
honour on the feminary which produced them : 

KpiTftjy, ^^ya^iiv i revxHTX aoi coKUf, 

'A juf/xt ua(TXft '^<^*'* ^^v Kiptc^fXivov 
XaXKsy[JiM(r* i yao in XufAavkotoy 

Hn mpv iv vrro x^^^^ Hxrupux^^ 
'OiOv.-o'apKVTtH iff<rtrai rifAoy Sffca;, 

U 3 *«^|IC5 

994 A B^ncroftr^Pr§Iufonis PoetUa^ 

Xcijjps; ol'7rij^(M ^cui^o; iU ti^aiiMva,^^ 

Thefc fentimentsare not unworrhy the exalted charaftcr of 
tht philofopher to whom they are attributed ; and the author hat 
(hewn no contemptible acquaintsmre with the language of tht 
Socratic fcbool. We (hould willingly have tr^nfcribed the whole 
fpeech, could we have done it confiftcntly with our dcfign of 
quoting (bort fpeclmtrns of the La;in and EngUih compofitions. 
From the former, we fcltd the tranflation of Aikin's b^autilpl 
Wiflt^erpicce : 



* Vcfpcr erat : campis et nix hyemofa ruehat, 
Stridebatque Aquilo per ioca mcclla fitu ; 

Hate, incerta via;, peragf»bat fola puella, 

infancemque preQiens> coepit acerba queri. ^ 

^* Hcu ! pater ille ferqs, natas qui te£la negavit, 

Et feray qux vidit taJia, mater erat, 
pt fera vis venti eft, qox fic mea pedora tundit. 

At, nvihi qui nummos prxculit, ille magis. 
P^rvulc mi, taceas, gremio renovefque calorem ; 

Abl nefcit genitor^ nos mala quanta preinuat; 
Si noib'os fcirec, darus licet, Hie dolores, 

Vix byemem miferos Isederp vellet acrem : 
Plandule vac ! frige?, friges j calor ofla rcliquit j 

Sufcicet ex ocutis fervida gutta meis ! 
Fervida gutca Huit, fed coogelat aura flaentem : 

Ah ! npnc infelix, orbaque mater ego." 
Jam nive congefta mifcrc prolabitur exfpcs, 

Infandumque gemit, quod dolor inrus agit; 
Turn lateri natum appooens, atque ofcula tigens 

Sufpicit, ct fl.dlit, morie gravata, caput.' 

The following tranflation from Scrada deferves no commoi| 
ihare of praife : 


* Now Sol, defccnding from his mid-day blaze. 
With mild effulgence (hot his golden rays ; 
When Strephon took his lyre to footh his care. 
And pourM Its mufic through the filent air. 
Where Tiber's ftreamsln plea/ing murmurs How, 
An,d the broad holm-oaks cool tht vale below. 

■ Hb 

Baoeroft— Pnhfi^ms PettUm. 29$ 

His ftnuQs the jealous Philomela move, 

The fwccteft Syren of the neiglib'ring grove» 

Behind the verdant fpray ftie hears onfeen, 

Andy envious, echos each melodioos drain. 

Keen emulation fwells her Ivrde throat. 

To try her pow'rs, and wabble note for note« 

Screphon admir'd the fongfier's Iweet eflay. 

And ilrove again to wake the vocal lay ; 

Now the full mofic of his lyre expk)re». 

Or (hews, with flying hand, a maker's powers; 

In vary'd drains the bird renews her fong, 

In ^any a laboured trill it flows along. 

Thus with refponding zeal her (kill (he pro?es. 

When o'er the firings the Twain his finger movesp 

And carelefs feem'd his touch, the muuc flow; 

lis Ample founds in even tenor flow. 

In flan t the chords his hurrying finger plies. 

The quicken'd tones in rapid movement rife. 

He flops : refponfive to each note (be fings ; 

With equal powers (he imitates his ftrings. 

As one perplexed, what other ftrain to chufe. 

One plain, unvary'd turie the bird purfues; 

No quaver mixes in her artlefs note. 

Free, like the current, ifTuing from her throat. / 

Now quick and light the warbled numbers movet 

In trembling echos, thtough the vocal grove. 

This Strephon heard, in tranfports of amaze. 

That (iich a throat fliould utter flrains like the(e; 

Again new cSfons of his art he tries. 

Through all the fcale of founds his finger flies } 

In concord bids the fhrilland bafs unite; 

So the loud clarion fires the foul to fight. 

Again the Syren fings : and, whilfl her tongue 

In well-tim'd warblings thrills through all her fong* 

To louder harmony (he fwells the note. 

Then rolls the deepening murmur in her throat; 

Now (hrill and clear her fong, now deep and low , 

So clarions urge the foldier to the foe. . 

Strephon now blu(h'd, with glowing ire inflam'd 

«< Or Philomel fliall yield," he quick exclaim'd, 

** Or peri(h this weak lyre:'* he faid no more. 

But tunM to harmony beyon<] her pow'r; 

Now loud, now flirill, now rais'd to loftier notes; 

On Zephyr's wing the trembling mufic floats. 

Again the crowding flrings the artifl plies. 

The vary'd numbers echo through the (kies. 

He flops, expedant of his rival's fong ; 

She, though her voice now roughens on her tongue. 

To own his pdw'r fupcrior flill difdaina ; 

Yet, ah I in vain (ke tunes her fweetefl flrains; 

For whilfl her little, fimple voice efTays 

The labom'd miuies of his artfiU iaiiH 

U 4 Too , 

2^6 PbiUfipbseal TranfaHUm^ Part IL for 1788. 

Too great th' attempt, too great her folrows rife^ 
Upon the victor's lyre (he falls, and dies/ 

Art. III. Pbilo/opbical Tran/aBUns ef tbe Royal Sochty of London. 
Vol. Lxxviii. for the Year 1788. Part II. 

{Concluded from Page 148.] 

Philosophical Papers. 

Defcrtption of a new Elcflrical Inftrument capable of colkHing a 
diffujfed or little condenfed Quantity of EleSlrkity* By Tiberius 
Cavallo, F.R.S. 

THIS inftrument appears to be a very valuable colledor of 
eledricity, free from the imperfe^ions of Mr. Volta's 
condenfer, and Mr. Bennet's doubler * ; as it retains no elec<* 
tricity of its own, and therefore cannot give an equivocal refult. 
It confifts of a tin plate, infulated, and fixed vertically; with 
two wooden frames, one on each fide of it, moveable on hinges 
at the bottom. Tbe plate is made to communicate both with 
the body from which the eledrici(y is to be colkded, and with 
an elodrometer : the frames are turned* up fo as to ftand parallel 
to it, and at the diftance of about a fifth of an inch from it, 
while the electricity is coUeding, and afterward let down hori- 
zontal when the^ eledrometer is to be examined : their inner 
furface, from the middle ^ipward, is covered with a good con^* 
duding fubdance, as gilt paper, or thin tin plates. 

Mr. Cavall^ gives tome experiments refpeding the ufe of this 
inftrument, which clearly fhew, that the tin plate can colled 
and retain a vaft quantity of electricity when the lateral frames 
are contiguous to it, in comparifon to what it can either colled 
or retain when they are removed. The principle on which its 
adion depends, is the fame as tiiat of the eledtrophorus, tbe 
condenfer, and many other eledrical experiments ; tz/z. that a 
body has a much greater capacity for holding cledricity, when 
its furface is contiguous to a body that can eafily acquire the 
contrary eledricity, than when it does not ftand in that filuation. 
The larger the colleding plate, and the nearer it fiands to the 
conducing furfaces, the greater is its power. 

A Defcrtption of an Inflrument^ whichy by turning a wincb^ pro'^ 

duces the two States of EUGricity^ without Fri£iion or Communi-^ 

cation with the Earth. 6y Mr. William Nicholfon. 

This inftrument confifts of two metalline plates, feparately 

infulated, and fixed in the fame plane ; fo that another plate, 

made to revolve in a plane parallel to them, pailes very near, but 

without touching them. The el^iSricity appears to be pro- 

* See Review for Odober laft, p. 320. 


PhilofopblcalTranfa^lons^ PartlL for ijSS. 297 

duced on the principles explained by Mr. Cavallo ; but we can 
give no adequate idea either of the inftrumcnt itfclf or its efftSt^ 
without the plate by which it is illuftrated in the original ; nor, 
with that affiftance, could we do it in much lefs compafs than 
Mr. Nicholfon himfelf has done. 

Jtdditional Experiments and Obfervations relating to the Principle of 
Jcidityy the Decompofition if Water and Phlogijlon, By Dr. , 
Pricftlcy. With Letters to him on the Subje^^ by Dr. Wither- 
ing, and James Keir, Efq. 

The green liquor, which Dr. PrieRley obtained by firing large 
quantities of a mixture qf dephlogifticated and inflammable air, 
4n copper vefllels f , was fubmitted to the examination of Dr. 
Withering and Mr. Keir ; and the letters above qicntioned give 
an account of the particular experiments made on it by thofe 
gentlemen. The firft is the moft formal,, the laft the mod in* 
ff ru£live ; but both of them (hew decifively that the liquor in 
queilion is a folution of copper in the nitroi^s acid. 

It differs remarkably, in fome of its properties, from common 
folurions of copper in that acid ; and Mr. Keir has afcertained, 
very fatisfa£torily, the cau.fes of thofe differences. The green 
colour he attributes to what is called phlogiftication of the acid ;, 
for he finds that by a very flight degree of that quality, fuch as 
is produced by the addition of a little melted nitre, the blue folu- 
tions of copper, both in the nitrous and vitriolic acids, are 
changed to green. 

The liquor did not redden litmus, as the acid' folutions of 
copper do ; nor did it give any cupreous 4 inge to a polifiied iron f : 
evaporated gently to drynefs, by expofure to the air only, it'did 
not cryftalh^e, but left a greeii powder not foluble in water. 
Thcfe properties, he finds, arife from the faturation of the acid 
with the metal ; and in this refpe£l, he diftinguKhes three pe* 
riods or ftages in the combination of copper with nitrous acid. 
The fir ft js, when the acid is fuperabundant, and produces de-« 
]iquefcent cryftals : the fecond, when it is completely faturated, 
or perhaps fuperfatu rated, by repeated evaporations, and rediffo- 
luttons in water ; in which cafe, no cryftals are produced, but a 
green powder is formed : the third, when, by a farther evapora- 
. fion of acid, and increafe of heat, the green powder is changed- 
into a brown or black calx. Dr. Prieftley's green liquor was 
plainly in the fecond ftage, and the brown powder in the third. 

• See Rev. for Oftober laft, p. 327. 

f We have ourfcivcs obfcrvcd, that faturated folutions of copper 
are not predpitatcd by iron, nor faturated folutions of filver by cop- 
per, till a few drops of acid are added ; on which the adion begins 
immediately. Perhaps the fame law may prevail in the other me- 
t^lic folutions. 

A mix- 

OgS Pbilofopbiuil Tran/affions^ P^rt 11. fir 1788. • 

A mixture of marine acid was difcoverrd in tbe Kquort ws- 
^mincd by both thefe gentlemen ; and if this (hould conftantly 
be the cafe, it will only be analogous, as Mr. Keir obferwe^, to 
all the other known prodndlions of nitrous acid ; in which, ei* 
ther in the natural formation of nitre, as in Spain and India, or 
in the nitre beds and walls made by art, a large proportion of 
marine falts is conftantly found to accompany the nitre. 

From the quantity of acid afcertaihed by thefe expi^iaientt. 
Dr. Prieftley computes, that dcphlogifticated air, wheff it has 
been kept in contad^, and has faturated itfelf, with water, con^- 
tains about 19 pans of water to i of the acidifying principle; 
but whtn the air is in its drieft ftate, he thinks the quantity of 
water may be no more than 18 parts in 20. He calls the other 
compnoent parts, the acidifying principle, in compliance only 
with M Lavoificr: Mr. Kcir's opinion, Dr. P. fays, is, that 
there is fomething in both the airs neceiTary for forming the 
acid ; and Mr. Watt's, that the nitrous acid is contained in the 
inflammable air, as the vitriolic is in fulphur, and the phofphortc 
in phofphorus ; the dephligifticaicd air doing no more than tq 
develope the acid. n 

The Dodor had (hewn before, that water is a component 
part of dephlogifticated, mflachmable, and fixed air; and he now 
difcovers it to be an ingredient in nitrous air alfo. Iron, heated 
in this air, abfor'os the water, becoming fimtlar to finery cinder j 
and only phlogifticated air remains. The nitrous air fuffers 
a like dccompolition by being paflcd repeatedly through hot 
porous eaahern tubes : the water is tranfmittcd through the 
fubftance of the tube, and the phlogifticated air is left. 

Dr. Prieftley gives fome additional obfervations in fupport of 
the phlogiftic theory; but as he has now proceeded further ia 
this enquiry, we ftiall foon have an opportunity of givmgacon- 
neAed view of the whole of his reafoning on the fubjed. 

On tbi Convnfiin $fd Mixture of dephlogifticated and pblogiftic4tted 
Jir into Nitrous Acidy by the Ete^ric Spark. By Henry Ca* 
▼endi(b, £fq. F.R.S. 

Mr. Cavendifb's curious experiment of converting thefe airs 
into nitrous acid> by paffing repeated eledric fparks through 
them *, has been tried by fome foreign gentlemen of di(iingiN(hed 
abilities in /uch purfuits, without fucccfs. He has therefore 
thought proper to authenticate the truth of it ; for which pur* 
pofe, the experiment was repeated by Mr. Gilpin, clerk of (be 
Royal Society ; and fome of the gentlemen moft convcrfant with 
thefe fubjeds were prefent, both at the putting of the materials 
together, and at the examination of the produce. A particular 
deuil is given of the whole procefs, which was reptated twice; 

* See Review^ vol. Ixxii. p. 241. 


PbUo/opbical Tranfa^ionSf Part II. far 1788. 199 

tiul the event fully juftifies the former account. The fuluret 
complaiocd of appear to.have arrfen, chiefly, from want of pa« ^ 
tience ; for the abforption of the air goes on exceeding flowly^ * 
requiring feveral weeks for its completion *• In one of the tri^a 
that were rcckmed unfuccefsful, by Dr. Van Marum, there 
Teems to have been a deception : the alcalioe folutioo, which 
had abforbfd'the acid, was judged not to be faturated, merely 
from the imperfed marks of deflagration, which paper dipped 
into it exhibited in burni^ng $ this might proceed, not from a 
deficiency of the nitrous acid, but from fome of the mercur^r 
b:ing diflolved, in conft^quence of a furplus of the acid i as wai 
the cafe in one of the experiments here^cfcribed. 

Experiments on the Formation of Volatile Alcali^ and $n the Affini* 

ties of the phlogijikated and light inflammable Airs* By William 

Auftin, M. D. &c. 

Volatile alcali appears, from experiments of its decomptfi- 
Cion, to confift of phlogifticated air and light inflammable air; 
Chat is, of the bafes or gravitating Aibftances of the two airs, in 
the proportion of about four parts by weight of the former to 
one of the latter. By mixing the two airs together in tbeic 
daftic ftate. Dr. Auftin has never been able (o produce any vo- 
latile alcaii ; on account, as he apprehends, of their bafes having 
a greater aflinity to the principle of heat which gives them the 
aerial form, than to one another ; and of their particles being 
thereby kept at a great diftance afunder, efpecially thofe of the 
inflammable air, which is known to be eleven times more rare 
than the phlogifticated* But when the inflammable air in its 
nafcent ftate, or immediately on its extrication from the bodies 
that produce it, was admitted either into pure phlogifticated air^ 
or into aeriform fluids containing it (fucb as the air of the at* 
mofphere, and more particularly nitrous air), he conltantly found 
volatile alcaii to be formed ; diftinguilbable by its fmell| by 
changing paper blued by radilh juice to a green, and paper 
greened by folution of copper to a blue. 

Many inftances are to be found in chemical writings, of ¥(>• 
latile alcaii being produced in metallic folutions and precipita« 
tions, but not one in which the quantity of alcaii appears fo 

* This circumftance, we think, was, not fafHciently pointed out ia 
the former paper ; the author having probably been more attentive 
to the ultimate elFeft, than to the time that the materials flood to> 
gether. It ^ili be proper to obTerve, that this procefs is eflentially 
different from that io which inflammable air is ufed inilead of t^e 
phlogifticated 9 though eleflricity be the agent in both : there, the 
two airs are inflantaneouOy decern po fed, oy combuftion : here, an 
evolution of the acid principle is fucccffively and flowlv efleded by 
many repeated traofmiffions of the eledric fpark. 

3 conGderable 

300 PhiU/opbUal TranfaUhns^ Part II. for 1788. 

confiderable as in an experiment exhibited fome years ago at Sir 
jofeph Banks'9^ which is now laid before the public, we believe 
for the firft time: a few ounces of powdered tin are moiftened 
with moderately ftrong nitrous acid ; ^nd after they have ftood 
together a minute or two, about half an bunce of fixed alcali or 
quicklime is added to them : a very pungent fm^ll of volatile 
alcali is immediately perceived. 

In this experiment, and in many others of the fame kind> the 
Do^or fuppofes that the water, as well as the nitrous acid, is 
decompofed ; that depblogifticated air from each of them com- 
bines with the metal; and that their other conftituent parts, viz, 
the phlogifticated air of the acid, and the inflammable air of the 
water, being difengaged at the fame inftanr, unite and form the 
volatile alcali.— This paper was read to the Society in May 
1787) when the dodrine of the decompofition of water was in 
vogue I but we fuppofe the author will now permit us to dificr 
from him in that refped, and to afcribe the origin of the in- 
flammable air, if any was really produced, to the pblogiflon of 
the metal. 

Experiments en the EffeSl of various Subjianees in lowering tbi 

Point of Congelation in fVater. By Charles Blagden, Sec. R. S. 


According to thefe experiments, water, by one tenth of fal 
ammoniac dilTolved in it, has its point of congelation deprelTcd 
III degrees below 32, that is, it freezes at %oi of Fahr. With 
the fame proportion of common fait, it freezes at 2 if ; of nitre, 
at 27 ; of Rochelle fair, at 29I ; of fal catharticus amarus, at 
30 J of green vitriol, at 30I ; and of white vitriol, at 31**. All 
the falts were ufed in a cryffallized ftate. 

Dr. B. examines different proportions of each of thefe falts ; 
and finds the depreflion of the freezing point to be, in all of 
them, nearly in the fimplc ratio of the quantity of the fair, or 
the invcrfc ratio of that of the water. Whence, if the freezing 
point of one folution (which, for diftindion's fake, we (hall call 
the ftandard) be known, that of any other folution of the fame 
fait may be found by the following analogy : as the quantity of 
water in the given folution (callirg that of the fah 1} is to the 
quantity of water in the ftandard ; fo is the depre ffion of the 
freezing point in the ftandard, to its depreflion in the given folu- 
tion. The afcertaiping of this law in the fairs above mentioned^ 
and fome apparent deviations from it in others, make the prin- 
cipal objed of this paper. 

The fubftances which feemed to deviate from the general law 
are, acids, alcalies, and fpirit of wine; but the variations are 
inconfiderable, and we cannot enter into the particulars of them. 
We (hall only mention the 'points a: which mixiutcs of the 


PhilofopbUal TranfaSlions^ Pari II. for 1788. 301 

federal fubftances with the above- meat ioned proportion of water, 
were found to freeze; which will ferve to give fome idea of their 
comparative powers in impeding the congelation. 

Oil of vitriol, whofe fpecific gravity was 1.837, mixed with 
10 times its weight of water, froze at 24!"^ ; fmoking fpirit of 
nitre, gravity I.454» at 22*^*; and fpirit of' fait, gravity not 
mentioned, at 25°. It is obfervable that this laft acid, within 
the limits in which it was tried^ vix from about 7 to tV of the 
water, accorded perfefily with the general law, which the au* 
thor is difpofed to attribute to its being a very weak acid, fo that 
the variations were not perceptible ; though it appears to have 
rcfifted congelation almoft as much as the oil of vitriol. Cryfial- 
lized foda, diflblved in ID times its weight of water, froze at 
30^; falc of tart^ir, at 27!; and volatile fait of fal ammoniac, 
at 25. 

As a faturated folution of one fait will, in many inflances, 
diiTolve a confider^ole quantity of another, the Doflor examined 
fome compound foluticns of this kind, and found the deprefBon 
of the freezing point to he nearly the fame as it ought to be by 
calculation from the quantities of the different fairs Separately; 
generally a little lefs, and in one inflance, where three falts 
were diflblved together, about if" greater. From this laft fa£t 
he was led to conclude, that greater cold would be produced 
with fnow by a mixture of falts, than by means of either of them 
taken feparately; which, on trial, he found to be univerfaUy the 
cafe. Common fait, mixed with fnow, funk the » thermometer 
to 5 below zero ; fal ammoniac funk it only to 4 above ; but 
when fome of the latter fait was mixed with the former, the 
compofition produced with fnow, a cold of 12 below. 'On this 
principle, he obferves^ it is, that impure common fait always 
makes a ftronger freezing mixture than the pure ; the former 
being, in fad, a dompoiition of falts. And the curious experi« 
ments of producing a great degree of cold by diflblving a mix- 
ture of falts in water *, depends in part on the fame principle i 
the water being capable of reducing more fait from a folid to a 
fluid ftate, when feveral kinds are employed, than it could of one 
of the kinds only. 

Experiments en the Produiiion of artificial Cold. By Mr. Richard 
Walker, Apothecary to the Radcliffe Infirmary at'Oxford. 
Xhefe are a continuation of the very curious experiments re- 
ferred to at the end of the preceding article, on the production 
of great degrees of cold without the affiftance of ice or fnow* 
The moft powerful frigonfic mixture which Mr. Walker has 
yet difcovered, is the following : Strong, fmoking, fpirit of nitre 

* Sec Review, for March 1788, p. 185 ; and the following ar- 


301 Pbihfiphical Tran/a^Ihns^ Part 11. fir 1788. 

h diluted with half its weight of water : to three parts of this 
liquor, ixfhen cooled to the temperature of the air, four parts of 
Glauber's fait, in fine powder, are added : the mixture is well 
fiirred, and, immediately afterward, three parts and a half of 
nitrous ammoniac are ftirred in. The Titles (hould be procured 
as dry and tranfparent as poffible, and freOily powdered. Thefe 
appear to be the'beft proportions when the temperature of the 
air and ingredients is 50^ ; but at higher or lower temperatures, 
the quantity of diluted acid requires to be proportionably dimi- 
niflied or increafed. This mixture funk the thermometer 52 
degrees, v/z. from 32 above zero to 20 below. Nitrous am- 
moniac alone, during its folution in rain water, produced a cold 
not much inferior, finking the thermometer 48 or 49 degrees ; 
viz. from 56 to 8 when the fait was ufed with its water of 
cryftallization, and to 7 when evaporated gently to drynefs. 

From the obvious application of artificial frigorific mixtures 
to ufeful purpofes, efpecially in hot clilnates, Mrl Walker is 
led to confider the eaficft and moft oeronomical method oJ ufing 
them. He finds a mixture of equal parts of fal ammoniac and 
nitre, in fine powder, to be fufficient for freezing water or 
, creams at Midfummer. In a very hot day, he pourtd a quarter 
of a pint of pump water, wine meafure, on three ounces aver- 
dupois of the mixture previoufly cooled, by immerfing the vcfiel 
containing it in other water, to 50=5, for fjTing waters-are nearly 
of that temperature at all feafons. After fttrring the mixture, 
its temperature was found to be 14^; and the lolution bptog 
evaporated to drynefs, and added to the fame quantity of water, 
under the fame circumftances as before, it funk the thermome- 
ter again to 14^ ; nor was any' diminution obferved in itstffcA, 
after many repeated evaporations. 

Mr. W. mentions a very curious circumftance in the con« 
gelation of Glaubet's fait when liquefied by beat : it did not be- 
come folid till its temperature was reduced to 70% and then the 
thermometer rofe immediately 18 degrees, viz, to 88% the freez- 
ing point of this fair. This great quantity of heat, extricated 
in its congelation, feems to indicate a great capacity for heat in 
liquefadion ; or i|s requiring a great quantity of heat to be 
ccTmbined with it for rendering it fluid ; and this property, h« 
intimate?, may account, in a great meafure, for the intcnfe coKd 
which it produces dtiring its folution in the diluted mineral 
acids. He finds that alum and Rochelle fait, each of which 
contains nearly tf much water of cryftaltization as Glauber's 
fait, produced no confiderable effed during their folution in the 
diluted nitrous acid ; neither did their temperatures increafc ia 
paffing from a liquid to a folid ftate. 

We (hall jufl mention another interefling phenomenon, of 
^ater continuing fluid Uil^ cooled 22 degrees below its freeing 


GiioAmyp^s Conrnmon 9f Life with Refpirathn* - 303 

point. Mr. Walker filled the bulbs of two thermoineters, onf 
with rain, and the oiher with pump water, and boiled the water 
in each till one third only remained. Neither of them tot/Id be 
made to freeze till their temperature was lowered nearly to 5% 
whether the tubes were open or fealed : but unboijed water*, la 
the fame fituation, froze in a higher temperature. 

AhflraCl rfa Rtgifler $f the Barome^r^ Thermometer^ and Pain at 
Lyndon in Rutland ; with the Rain in Hampflnn and Surrey ^ in 
1787. Alfe Jome Account of the annual Growth of Treet. By . 
Thomas Barker, Efq, 

To the common regifter of the weather, Mr. Barker has here 
added tables of the growth of the oak, a(b, and elm, for up* 
ward of forty years paft. There feems to be little diflFcrencc ia 
the growths of the difFerent kinds, or at leaft not more than in ' 
thofe of difFerent individuals of the fame kind. The annual in« 
creafe was about an inch in girth ; fome of the thriving trees 
increafed an inch and a half, or more; and the unthriving, only 
about three quarters of an inch. Great trees, he obferves, grow 
more timber in a year than fmall ones, the additional coat ^ing 
applied over a larger circumference, and the thicknefs of the 
coat being in both cafes the fame. 

The volume concludes with the ufual Lift of Prefents to the 
Society, and an Index* 

* See Dr. 6Iagden*s experiments on this fubjefl^ page 324 of our 
Review for November lad. 

Art. IV. The Connexion of Life with Refpiration ; or, an experts- 
mental Inquiry into the Eft'e^s of Sobmerfion, Strangulation, 
' and feveral Kinds of noxious Airs, on living Animals : with am 
Account of the Nature of the Difeafe they produce; its Diilin^ion 
from Death itfelf; and the moil effedual Means of Cure, hf 
Edmund Goodwys, M.D. 8vo, pp. 126. 39. Boards. Joha- 
fon. 17S81 

THIS treatife was honoured with the gold medal gtven by 
Che Humane Society for the beft treatife on fufpended ani- 

The author commences his inquiry with experiments, which 
fliew that, in drowning, a fmall quantity of water commonly 
paffes into the lungs, but not fuffictent to produce the changes 
that take place on fubmerfion. Hence he concludes, * that the 
water produces all the changes that take place in drowning, in^ 
eNre^ly^ by excluding the atmofpheric air from the lungs.' 

He proceeds with inveftigating the mechanical and chemical 
effeds of the air on the lungs in refpjration. We are here pre-. 
ftSktAi with fomc pxferimcms, wbkh dearly fluW that the d^ 

"^ ^ phlogifticated 

304 Goodwyn^^i Conm^ioH oftift with Rt^tratUn^ 

phlogtfticated air is changed, by vefpiration, into fixed air. An 
hundred parts of atmofpheric air, containing 80 of phlogifticated^ 
j8 of dephlogifticated, and 2 of fixed air, were reduced, by 
paffing through the lungs, to 98 parts, containing 80 of phlo- 
gifticated, 5 of dephlogifticated, and 13 of fixed air. The ex* 
periment was feveral times repeated ; and the above quantities 
are. the mean of all the refulcs: The opinion of Dr. Prieftley, 
that air is phlogifticated by pai&ng through the lungs, is there- 
fore fliewn, by experiment, to be erroneous. Dr. Goodwyn^ 
however, agrees with Dr Prieftley, that the florid colour whtch 
the blood acquires in paffing through the lungs, is produced by 
(he dephlogifticated air ; but the mod material parts of this in« 
yeftigation are the experiments, whence it is concluded, that 
^he chemical change which the blood undergoes in the lungs by 
refpiration, gives it a flimulating quality, by which it is ntted 
to excite the left auricle and ventricle to contraction.' 

In the fifth feflion. Dr. Goodwyn examines the nature of the 
difeafe produced by fubmcrfion. During the time that an ani- 
mal is under water, all fupply of dephlogifticated air is cut oflT; 
and the fmall quantity of it that might be in the lungs at the 
time of fubmcrfion, is gradually confumed ; the blood, there- 
fore, continually becomes lefs and lefs florid, and the contrac- 
tions of the heart become proportionally flower, until they en- 
tirely ceafe, 

^ Having afcertained the caufe of the difeafe, the author pro- 
ceeds to afi^nbe to it a place in a nofological fyflem. Accord- 
ing to Dr. Cullen's definition of Syncopic viz. '' Motus cordis 
imminutus^ vel aliquandiu quiefcens \* drowned perfons would 
certaitily come under this definition, if they were univerfally re- 
coverable : but many drowned perfons do not recover; and, 
therefore, the difeafe which they fuflFer cannot be the Syncope 
.t)f Dr. Cullen, which only admits the aliquandiu. Some phy- 
ficians have called the difeafe produced by fubmerfion, Afpbyxia ; 
and the definition which Gaubius gives of it, feems to accord 
with it in every refpeft, viz. •' Deletis omnibus vit^e indiciisy flf- 
cidinte ettam fuffocatione^ mortis imagintm ita refert^ ut merita du» 
bitetur^ vitamne^ an morUm^ pradicare fas ftt,^* Dt. Goodwyn, 
however, gives no reafon why he would not refer it to this ge- 
nus; and after fome fatisfadory reafons why it (hould not be 
referred to apoplexy, he affigns to it a new genus, which he calls 
Mtlanama^ and defines to be ^ impedita fanguinis venoft in arterio* 
/urn convkrjiof cujus Jigna, fyncope, et iivor cutis.* He adds, * This 
genus would afford an afylum to feveral nofological wanderers 
that have not yet found a permanent refling-place.' This fiH'- 
cafm might hive been fpared ; efpecially as Dr. Goodwyn's de- 
finition is not conformable to the rules univerfally admitted by 
nofologifts. Difcafcs are known only by fympcoms; and the 
\ * impidha 

Kite'/ Effa^ m tht Recovtrf of the apfanntly Dead* 305 

^ impi£t0 €$niferfa^ is the cooi^^arhcc, net a fymptom, or in 
out W4rd vifible mark, 0/ an aaimal having been dro>vned. 

.The fubfequcnt rc£i ions are employed in determining the con- 
dition of the body in this difeafe, the means of diflinguifliihg it 
from death, -and the beft methods of curing it. 

What Dr. Goodwryn advances concerning the cure of the 
difeafe (or, in other words, the recovery of perfons apparently 
drowned) is founded on the opinioo before delivered, viz that 
the florid blood pofilfles the quality of irritating or flimulating 
the heart to adion. As the florid colour of the >blood i5 pro* 
dyced by dephlogifticated air, therefore, the introdu£tion of de- 
phlogi(ticatedair into the lungs is recommended (in conjundion 
with other means ufually employed for refufcication) as the only 
method of changing the colour of the blood, and thereby ren« 
dering it capable of exciting the heart to motion, and of rcr 
fioring life; w^irh, in the more perfed animaU, Dr. Goodwya 
defines to be * The faculty of propelling the fluids through the circu" 
letting fyfiem,* . 

Heat, properly regulated, Teems to be a mod necefl^ary applica- 
t 00 : by keeping the body in a due degree of beat, refpiration 
frequently commences without any previous inflation of the 
Jungs, either with atmofpheric or dephlogifticated air ; and we 
do not recoiled that experience affords any inflance of a reco» 
very without the application of warmth, increafed by flow de- 
grees. We have been induced to make this obfervation, in coo^ 
lequence of tbe judicious diredions which Dr. Goodwyn bath 
given for the application of heat in a gradual manner; as we are 
fu ily perfuaded of the bad efftds ariling from its fudden appli^ 

Art. V. ^n Effay on the Reconjery of the apparently Dead. By 
Charles Kite, Member of the Corporation or Surgeons. Being 
the £flay to which the Humane Society's Medal was adjudged. 
8vo. pp. 274. 58. Bokrds. Dilly. 1788. 

MR. Kite begins his D.flertatiofi with aflaming the hypo* 
thefis that the ahfcnce of irritability is the only mark by 
which we may know a body to be abfoiutely and irrecoverably 
dead. As m^iny eminent phyfiologifls have entertarned contrary 
opinions 00 the unequivoca.1 figns oi death, it would have hern 
fatisfadory to many readers to have fcen that circumflance fully 
demonftrated ; contenting himfclf, however, with taking the 
fuppofition as granted, Mr. Kite proceeds to invefligare * the 
internal immediate caufe of de^th, and the manner in which this 
is effected, in thofe who die by drowning.' On thi^ intere^ng 
fubje^, various have been the opinions ot phyfiologifls ; and ib^ie 
(Jiflrrent opinions are recired by Mr. Kite^ with the a'^gumenta 
. Rev. April, 1789.^ X that 

fhat have been brought to fupport tbem, is well al the olijecA 
tioni that have beea ur^ed againft them. He adopts the opt* 
oton of death being occanoned by apoplexy, and the arguments 
which he ufts in fupport of it are ingeniouis. No fads, wt be- 
lieve, can contradid this hypotbefis; but what is of greater 
confequence, no fatisfadory fa As are appealed to for its coo* 

The next fedion is employed in examining the probable 
caufes of the uncertainty of recovering drowned perfons. Here 
the Author difplays much ingenuity. The dodriae of tempera- 
ments dependent on the fuppofed predominance of particular 
humours, is rejeded ; and a new one given, which is dependent 
on the ftate of the folids. Mr. Kite diftinguifhes the temperx- 
jnenr, or conftitution into, L The Tonic — indicating ftrengtb, 
iirmnefs, and vigour in the mufcular fibres; II. The Atonic'^ 
denoting weaknefs, relaxation, and inaSivity. III. The /nr- 
table — exhibiting quick, lively, and impetuous* motions. Tbefe 
temperaments are particularly defccibed, and reafons are given 
why perfons of an irritahU temperament are (boner drowned, 
and more fpeedily recovered, than others. 

The author next enquires, * Whether there are any pofitive 
figns of the extindion of life ?' He hm more fully explains 
wh^t he advanced in the introdudion. * He diftinguifhes deaA 
Inrto' two kinds or fpecies — apparent or abfolute. By the former, 
he means a fioppage of the circulation, refpiration, and the 
^dion of the brain i the irritability, or that peculiar property of 
the mufbular fibres which enables them to contraA on being 
irritated, flill remaining. Byabiblute death, he means not only 
a ceflation of the vital, natural, and xnimal, functions > but alfo, 
an entire deftrudion of the principle of irritability. He then 
examines the fymptoms by which the prefence of irritability may 
be known. After refuting the opinions of former writers on the 
fubjeA, and relating feveral experiments of his own, Mr. Kite 
concludes his enquiry with tbefe words : 

' From thefe confiderations, it appears that the eleArical fiiock is 
to be admitted as the teft, or difcriminatirig charaftenftic of any re- 
mains of aniosal life ; and fo long as that produces contra£Uon:i^ may 
ihe peribn be faid to be in a recoverable fkate ; but when that eflfe^ 
has ceafed, there can no doubt remain of the party being abfolotely 
9nd pofitively dead/ 

In explaining the method of conducing the procefs of re« 
covery, Mr. Kite recalls the attention of his readers to the ftate 
pf the vital organs, when life is fufpended by the ftoppage crf^re* 
fpiration. The confideration pf the fymptoms clearly point out two 
in<ycations |^ Ws. iff, To remove the compreffion of the brain, and 
(he congcftion about the brain i 2d, To excite the irritability 
^ the mufcular fibres. The firft may be eficded by blood- 

DalrynpleV Mimurt tf Gnat Briuwit &c. 307 

lettink— Iw the imitation «>f niturtl rcfpiration— and by proper 
Mfitioni the fecond by general and local ftimulant.. Mr. K.te 
enters into a particular detail of the feveral operations which he 
iccommends, and which have been found by experwnce to be 
attended with fuccefs ; for thcfe, we muft refer to 'hebook. 

The author adds fome excellent obfervations on the fufpen- 
fion of the vital powers by noxious vapours, hanging, fyncope, 
tad liehtning : he adds alfo fome hints on the propriety of ufing 
the trepan in certain cafes of fufpended animation j and givea 
fomii ufeful direftions for the prefervation of thofc unborn chil- 
dren who furvive the death of their mother. 

A pocket cafe of inftruhnents for the recovery of the appa- 
rently dead, made by Mr. Savigny, is defcribed in the Ap- 

""Mr! Kite's ElTay gained the Jlvtr medal from the Humane 

A ■ T VI Mtaiurt tf GrtMt Briitua tmi IrtUni, from the Battle off 
La HiorlS the Capture of the French and Spanilh Fleet, at 
ViBO. Br Sir John ©alrymple, Bart. Baron of Exchequer m 
ScStland. Volume Second. 4to. 300 P»8"v.]*'*t **!i 
Ffiitea^^t Edinbu^, for Bell and Cieech ; and fold in London, 
by Cadell."-*?*»i ', 

HISTORICAL Memoirs, wheit written with jo«lg«Bt 
and impartiality, are juftly deeaied a valuable daft of 
literary produaiona; for, by allowing a latitude for inveftiga- 
tion which regular biftory ^oes not admit, they give to the 
ftudent who wilbe. to inveftigate (with clofe attentwn) an/ 
tnrticular period of hiftory, that degree of information re- 
££g A^fpeeiaJobiea of bu purfuit, which be wo-ld .a 
<Sn fwch firin any iher compoBtiona. Such Memoua. 
therefore, have ever been received by the people of Great Bnt. n 
JJuh. pecnliar degree of. favour ; when they were not evidently 
^feAive in regard to their principal charaaeriftics. 

Among th?«odern Writer, of hiftorical memoirs, perh.^ 
«o ofte hi. more attradeA the public n«)t.ce than Sir John D.U 
Jrmpte. The period of Wftory which he if^^^^V ">« f««g«^ 
3 huiucnbrations, in the- firft Tolum. of W* I^o'". P-J^ 
liflied many years ago. was a remarkable one 10 the Briti* »o- 
iSTTJeHentslo* which i«fc'r'K'^/'"'~rU SJ 
Swy of the charaaers which ftone forth confpicuoufly « thjt 
rime; w«e v.ew«l by a gre« p^gortw of ^^^^\^^ 
•mnlea worthy to be foHowed. Huottii per(iea«His, howtrtr, 
fa S3l3«, Vtait of agre- dloT. and only «Kcit« thigh do- 
«Jr«f aii^wi* when fcen «t fuch a diftance » P«»««f • 

SSrXwS ApwU-dfi», «K « fty the ^. -'J3^;1 

3o8 Dalrymplt*! Menrnn of Great 'Britain^ 8cc.- 

mankind arc rubjcSed, Whatever, therefore, tends to remore 
the veil that obfcured the motives and principles by which iten 
have been aduated, iccuJs todifcover weaknefles in them that were 
not apparent before, and greatly diminiflies the veneration with 
which we had been accuftomed to view them. In political 
tranfadions, efpecially in thofe of great importance^ we too oftc n 
difcover that the moft fligitious vices have been difguifed urxJer 
the femblance of the faireft virtues. On this principle, when 
Sir John Dalrymple, by an accuracy of inveftigation th^ had * 
not before been beftowcd on this portion of our hiftory, and by 
the help of documents that till then had been carefully con* 
cealed from <he public view, appreciated the tranfa£lions of the 
times, it happened that many blemiflies werp difcovered in ch^- 
raders that had, till then, been cohfidered as immaculate; hence, 
many individuals could not help being angry at the man who 
had dared to impeach* the integrity of their favourite heroes: and 
this drew on him much obloquy and unmerited abufe. 

M the authorities to which Sir John had acccfs were not' 
within the reach of every ' one/ fome zealots did not fcruple co 
accufe him of having forged the papers which were produced in 
fupport of the charges he had brought againft their favoorite<s. 
Time, however, thit beft friend to truth, hath effectually re* 
foted this calumny; and many additional proofs of the fame ge- 
neral corruption have been brought to light fince he laid down 
his pen : * yet he- iogemioufly confefles, that he fufFered fo 
imich utieafmefs at having unintentionally hurt the feelings of 
mtfij pcrfons for whohn he bore the moft cordial efleem,. that he* 
h«d refblved to leave the manufcript of the rematning part of* 
tbefe Memoirs unpubliQied ; and that he was only in^iiced to 
depart from this refohition by fome recent events, which he 
thought, in a particular manner, called fc^r tlie jnforiBttion that 
this work contains. We are told, however, that the voltaoiC' 
here offered to the public, is not tht whole of what is already* 
finiihed, the remainder ot it being fiill locked up in bis own re-' 

It will* be admitted, that few things tend to tbrow the human 
mind inra a more cheerlefs ftate, than to be obliged to alter our 
opinion of the character which we have been accuftotned, to re- 
verence ; and inflead of contefflplatiag it with the warm glow 
of admiration, to be forced to view it with difguft: but in hif- 
tdrical in vefli nations, truth ought always to be the fole object of 
our parftatt, arrd fftty other confideration (hould be difregarded. 
HowetKr uopleaiing) therefore, fqch refearcbes may appear to the 
ypuahfui viiad, which is conftantly in ardent purfuit of ideal per<^ 
feAion ; yet- it is prrhapa impoIBbie to devife a more efitAitakt 
check ra^heslark'^mi facrct workings of iniqiiitf among men in 
exalstd ibtions, than the full convidioo, tbai tbough they (b^uld 

A ., be 

Dalrymplc'/ Memoln of Great Britain^ &c, '369 

be able at the prcfent moment fo cfFcflually to conceal their real 
dcfigns, as that no one can fee through cbem, yet that a time 
muft come w.ien their real charaders will be exhibited to the 
worid in their native and true colours; and that their memorf 
will be tranfmitted to future ages with ihame and infamy, in- 
ftead of refpc£l and admiration* 

This volume begins with a review of the ftate of the war tp^ 
ward the clofcof the year 1692, after the fea- fight off La Hoguc, 
where the former volume ended. In this difquificion, Str John 
endeavours to (hew, that in a war by land, France pofltfTed (uch 
advantages as enabled her to refift, for a very long time, all the 
efforts of the powerful confederacy that had been formed againft 
her; but that if the attacks had been made from the fea» 
the cafe would have been reverfed, aiid (he might have been 
thus eafily and fpeedily redticed to a date of the mod humiliat- 
ing difirefs* The King of England, though a ftran^er in a gieal 
meafure to naval affairs, in fpite of the weak policy or the infi- 
dious advice of his counfellors, was able to perceive the advttn«> 
tage that might be derived from this mode of attack ; and the 
fuccefs of the adion off La Hogue confirmed him in his defign 
againft St. Maloes, and of deftroying the (hips then building 
in that port ; but this de(ign was fruftrated, as we are told, by 
the treachery of Admiral Ruffclj who, under various pretexts, 
ftill delayed the attempt. The bad fuccefs of the war by land— 
the loft of the Smyrna fleet, in 1693*— and other intetrup ions 
of trade, tended ftill more to confirm the Kling in his opinion of 
the ncceffity of reducing the naval power of Fiance. With that 
view, he formed, in bis own mind^ a judicioiis plan for tffe^lng 
hia deitgfi, by pne daring (Iroke; v/z. by attacking Breft itklf, 
which, tn its then iituation, appeared to be an enterprife thac 
afforded a very probable profped of fuccefs. But in this, as in 
fnany other of his beft-coocerted plans, he was baffled by the 
treachery of his fervanls ; for his fcheme was no fooncr comma* 
nicated to the Privy Council, than it was revealed to the 
court at St. Germains, by Lord Godolphin, Firft Lord of the 
Xreafury, and afterward by Lord Marlborough. A fimilar de^ 
fign on Toulon was fruftrated two years afterward by Lord 
Sunderland. Sir John thus ftates the condufi of Fr^ince on n^ 
ceiving the firft information of .the intention to attack Breft, aad 
the unfaithful manner in which our King's fervanis execuud hitf 
orders : 

* The King of France no fooncr beard of the intended f xpiadkton 
to Brefty than he inllantly difpatched Marefchal Vauban to. repair 
the old^ and raife new fortifications, and a large body of troops co 
defend them. 

* King William intended that the attempt (hoold have been made 
}p the fpring. But Admiral RuiTel, by private orders from King 

X 3 * ' James^ 


310 D.9lrjmjAt*s Mimirs if Gnat BrtUm^ &c« 

James, having accepted the command of the fleet* which had bee4 
taken from him the year before^ and KiDg* Jatocs having grven pii-» 
vate indruflions, through the h^nds of the CounteTs pf S h re wfbury, 
to him, the Doke of JL.eed8, the Lords Shrewfbury, Qodolphin, and 
Marlborough, and others, to create delays in the fitting out of th^ 
fleet*; Lord Berkley, who commanded it, was not- rti^dy to fail liH 
the firft week* of June. He; carried with him twenty-nine (hips Of 
war, and a number of fire»(hips and bom b> ketches,- with General 
Talmache, twelve regiments of infantry, and two of marines; WheiL 
^hey approached the (bore, they found it lined with intrenchments 
and batteries, that were vi(ible, with a great body of infantry and 
marines, wich cavalry drawn up in regular order behind th^m. Bu^ 
when the (hips advanced, three batteries opened, which till then had 
been concealed. Struck with the appearance', and not afhanied to 
own it, Talmache faid» ** The die is caft^ we cannot, however, ia 
Jionour retreat." The Marquis of Caermarchen covered the land^i- 
iag with equ4l courage,' bravely fighting for thsit country which his, 
/ather waa betraying, but with a greater degree of danger than Tal-^ 
jnache, becaufe his (hips were expofed not Only to the tame batteriet 
with the troops, but to biKteries from the oppoiite (i^e of Breft riven 
Nine hundred A)ldiers landed in diforder, from the ftars of the fea« 
men, who are never to be truf^ed in (leady fervice, or indeed in any 
fervice^ out of their own (hips ; ahd their clamours mingling them- 
C^es with the regular commands of the troops, even after the Und* 
ing was made good,^ incrcafed the confufion ; fo that it was found ^ 
impoflible either to advance or to (land dill • The ^rench baaeries 
and mufquetry, cea(ing all at one time, gave a momentary re* 
)ief ; but it was.a fatal one: for the French dragoons were'ieen pafiV 
ing through openings in the in trench mentt, previonfly prepared fof 
them, and as U?C as they formed, galloped do«vn to complete xht 
diforder on the beach- Unfortunately it was at that time the ebb of 
the tide, and mapy of the boats being a-ground, it was found diffi* 
cult to gee them a-float ;. by >;vhich accident, almoft all the foldieri, 
and many of the feamen, expofed to a double danger, were killed^ 
or obliged to a(k quarter in the water. Four hundred feamen and 
one (hip of war were loft; the lofs of the, French was only forty-five 
men* Talmache, wounded and dying f, pre(fed that the fire>(hip< 
and bomb- ketches (bould be carried up the river into the harbonr, 
which he thought was probably lefic weak in the hufry to make the 
greater preparation in Cameret Bay. He had been too prudent to 
difclofe any fufpicions of tceacbery during the expedition. But in tho 
Agonies of deaths he, who had Once had private coancflionst with 
the friends of the late King, was reported to have mixed in his ex-* 
prefiions, a £itisfa^on of having died for his country, with com- 
faints that he had fi^len by the treachery of his countrymen.' 
, From this fptcimen, it will be perceived that Sir John DaU 
rymple ftil) writes with the fame degree of freedom that gave lb 
much offence in the former part of thefe Memoirs. It was ne^ 
cefiary to quote authorities in fupport of fuch firong charges % 

^ See a copy of thefe infiru^ons in M'PherfonV State Papers, 
voL i. p. 456. f Burcheu t Sir John Feowick's conleffion. 


Pglrymple^x Mtmiirs $/ On^'BrUaiti, &ۥ $ i f 

which be has taken care to do, though, oo account of theif 
lengthy we muft omit cbem, and refer the ciurioua reader to tho 
irolume for (atisfadion in this refpeA. In one point, however, 
Sir John is not in danger of attack here, as tn the firft part o| 
fais publication, isnte moff of the authorities to which he referf 
haye been already publiihed ; fo that he cannot be fo itngene-* 
voufly accufed of fabricating them. The colledion of pH>^f 
publifhed by Mr. M^Pherfon, . are the fources whefice he cbieflf 
draws hn fa£ls. 

In fpite, however, of this difappointment, and of the muUi-* 
plied checks that every plan of government which he .could de- 
vife, received from the oppofition inr Parliament, and the under^ 
hand workings of the various parties in England, the matchleff 
perfeverance and ftrong natural fenfe of William ftill overcamis 
every diftculty ; and preferved the nation from finking undec 
the load of its iniquities. Though unable to take Breft,, bit 
lleet ranged along the French coaft, bombarded their tow^^ 
proceAed Spain from the annoyance of the French fleet «nder 
De TonrviHe, and compelled him to retire into Toulon, where- 
he was blocked up. This gave fuch efieAoal prote£lion to th# 
Britifli trade, while it equally hurt that of France, as lerved 
greatly to revive the drooping fpirita of the nation. Sir J. Dal^^ 
rymple, who lets flip no opportunity of escakiiig the cbaraAer 
of William, inferts the fdlowing ihort fpeech olf the King tohi» 
Parliament, as an inftance of that manly ^plicity and brevity 
of ftyle, for which the oompofitions of this monarch were fe pe- 
culiarly remarkable ; and of that ftrijcin^ niodefty, which is ge- 
lierally dbfervable in dignified minds ; 
' My Lords and QentleneDy 

^ I am glad to meet you here, when I can fay, our affiurs are in. 
^ better poftore» iH>th by iea and hmd, tl^an when VKe parted laft. 

' The enemy has not been in a condition u> oppofe our fleet ix^ 
the(e feas ; and oqr fending fo great a^ force into the MediterrpneaA 
has difappbinted their defigns^ and leaves us a profped of further 
fuccefs. With refped to the war by land, 1 think I may fty» that 
this yt9\r a flop has been put to the progrt fs of the' French arms.* 

At a time when this flmplicity of ftyle feems to be but little 
in fafli^on, we are glad to give to the opinfoi^ of th^ author of 
cbefe Memoirs, refpeding the beauty of this kind of compofi* 
tion, all the fupport which it can derive from our approba* 
tion.—rlt feems not more ftrange that our language fliou^d be 
improved, in refpedl to purity and force, by a foreigner,' ^aif 
that the purity of its idiom uould be corrupted by the'over- 
firained efforts of fame of our countrymen, whofe names ftand 
high at prefent in the republic of letters. To fimilar exertions 
of men who grafped at a temporary fame, we now trace the cor* 
mptton of the manly language of ancient Rome* We hope that 

X 4 the 

' 3it Diiryniplt'^ Mm^hn^ GrM BtUmn^ hs^i 

the good (^rnfe of ifars nation will be aUe to reCft the power of 
thU too jnfedlious malady. 

With tbe fame freedom of difquifition, this fpirited author 
kys open the other corruptions that fo generally prevailed in the 
nation at this period of hit hiftory— the condud of Parliament ; 
the intrgues with France and the abdicated King ; and the ma* 
nagemrnt of the war, till the peacb of Ryfwic. On each of 
thefe heads many obfervations occur, which our limits will not 
allow us to particularize. We (hall only remark, that, among, 
the political regolaiiona of thofe times, the judicious meafures 
adopted for reforming the current coin, by Mr. Montague, have 
obtained from Sir John the very high degiee of applaufe which 
they juAly merited ; and the fieps that were taken for e&diog 
th 9 purpofe, are here very fully difplayed. 

But among all the tranfadioos of thofe times, no one isdefcribed 
with h much energy as the enterprifes of Paterfon, the Scotch 
adventurer, and the tftabli(hment, and final overthrow, of the 
Seitlemeni at D^rien. Thofe who wi(h for a clear account of 
this bold but ill-fated proje^l, will here receive the information 
which they defire ; though it wilt tend to impreft their mtods 
with a deep fenfe of the mifchievous tendency of tbat principle 
of jetloufy in refped to trade, which fo flrongly charaderifes 
the people of every mercantile nation. Never was any thing 
more cruel, unjuft, and impolitic, than the conduA of England 
on rttatoccafion \ and never was William obliged to ad a part 
left fuited to the charader of a man of candour, and firm con- 
fifttncy of condud, than with refped to the' affair of Darien. 
We (hall tranfcribe the author's reflcAions on that oceafion : 

' Thus ended the colony of Darien.-»«*-MeD look into the works 
of poeta^ for fubjeAs^ of fatire ; but tbey are more often to be found 
in the records of biflory* The application of the Dutch to King 
William aga4oft the Darien Coanpaay, afibrds the fureft of all proofs, 
that it was the intcieft.of the Britifii idands to fupporrit. Eaglaod, 
by the imprudence of raining that fettlement, loft the opportunity of 
gfliniiyg and continuing to herfelf the greatcft commercial eippire 
that probably aver will be upon earth. Had flie treated with Scot* 
\iki\^^ in the hour of the diflrefs of the company^ Cpr a joiat poiTeQion 
o£ the fettlement ; or adopted the union of kingdoms, which the So** 
vereign of both propofed to them» that poile(£on could certainly have 
heen obtained. Had (he treated with Spaiji to relinquifh an ima- 
ginary r)ght> or at lealt to give a pafTage acrofs the illhmus, upon 
i^ceiving Juties fo high' as to overbalance all tfie chance of lofs by a 
contraband trade, Ihe'had probably obtained either the one or the 
pther Had (he broke with Spain, for the fake of gaining by force 
one of thofe favours, it\t would have loft far lefs than (he afterwards 
did, by carf7ing a war into that country fbr many years, to force a. 
King upon the Spaniards agaiqft their will. Even a rapture with 
Spain, foi: Cariea, if it ^ad'proyed fuccefsful, would have knit Che 
two nations wgcther by the moll fojid of tie?, their mutual intcreft : 

Dalryrople'i Mgmoit$ rfGteid Srttain^ kC* 31 j 

fo¥ tkt Englifli mirft then have depended upon Spain for thC'T^etyof 
their caravans by land> and the Spaniards upon England for the fafetf 
of their fleets by Tea. Spain and England wouM have been bdund to- 
gether as Portugal and England have long been ; and the Spaniih 
-trcafures have Siled, upder the wings of Englifh navies, from the 
Spani(h main to Cadiz, in the fame manner as the treafures of Por- 
tugal have failed under the fame protedion, facred» and untouched, 
from the Brazilles to Lifbon.' 

Sir John thinks it is flill poffible for Great Britain to obtain 
the fettlement of Darien, and he deeply regrets, that, confidering 
the prediledtion which eheprefent King of Spain hasforGibraU 
tar, our minifters have negleded to try to obtain this important 
fettlement in exchange for that expc